April 1923


The body of Michael O’Shea is found on the road between Killorglin and Glenbeigh.  He had been shot by the anti-Treaty army.  Not clear whether he was a civilian or military.


Doyle (2008), pg 286


Writing to the O/C of the 4th Western Division of anti-Treaty army, Christy Macken (O/C of 2nd Western Division) says that Major-Gen Dan Hogan (O/C pro-Treaty, Claremorris Command) had been rounding up his No. 2 Brigade for the past fortnight. 

He says that the tactics that Hogan has been using (of setting up small posts and scouring the surrounding districts) have been much more effective in capturing his men than Lawlor’s earlier use of forced marches.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 244


The Free State government assumes responsibility for the collection of customs and excise duties. Customs duties imposed on a wide range of goods and customs posts set up on the border. See Feb-23-23/4.


Hall (2019), pg123


Two anti-Treaty volunteers, Christy Breslin and Joseph Kieran, are arrested separately and killed at Cabra, Dublin. Witnesses say that they were picked up by pro-Treatyites.


Dorney (2017), pg 250


In a clash at Ballybinaby on the Louth/Armagh border, a Free State soldier (Sergeant Martin John Daly) and an anti-Treaty volunteer (Bernard Morris) are killed.


Hall (2019), pgs 119-120


Free State Corporal Martin O’Loughlin dies in Co. Clare.

Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 329; Power (2020), pg 123


The home of anti-Treaty leader Jack ‘Na Coille’ Walsh is burnt by Free State soldiers (who are not in uniform) at Portnascully, Mooncoin, Co. Kilkenny.


Walsh (2018), pg 230


Moss Twomey reports to Lynch that “I am afraid that the chances of operations in Britain are now negligible if not altogether impossible”.  See Apr-12-22/1.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 255; McMahon (2008), pg 108


Mary MacSwiney, Kate O’Callaghan and other female prisoners start a hunger strike in Kilmainham Jail.  Kate O’Callaghan is released on April 25th.  The hunger strike is subsequently called off. 

One of the hunger strikers, Annie Horgan from Cratloe, Co. Clare, is released in September but she dies from the effects of her hunger strike four months later.  Another female prisoner, Ellen Walsh (who was briefly on hunger strike) was pulled down the stairs by her legs hitting her head on the stone stairs.  She was to die within four years.


Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 322; Ferriter (2021), pg 113


Tom Derrig (Adj-Gen anti-Treaty forces) and Moss Twomey are captured on Raglan Road, Dublin.  Derrig is shot in the jaw by the CID while in custody in Oriel House and loses an eye. 

O'Donoghue (1986), pg 308; Dorney (2017), pg 255; Price (2012), pg 245; Ferriter (2021), pg 103


Two anti-Treaty volunteers (George Nagle and Conway O’Connor) are killed during raids by Free State forces in Derry na Feena, Glencar, (near Carrantuohill) Co. Kerry.  Nagle and O’Connor had held up the pro-Treaty raiding party and allowed most of the anti-Treaty column to escape. It is claimed both were prisoners when they were killed.  

The Free State soldiers release a man, Cornelius Hanafin, who had been sentenced to death by the anti-Treaty IRA.

(According to Doyle, this was the last major action between pro- and anti-Treaty forces in Kerry during the Civil War.)


Macardle (1998), pgs 45-50; Doyle (2008), pgs 286-288


The results of the inquest into the death of John Conway in Tralee, Co. Kerry (see Feb-24-23/1) are made public.  Free State Captain Patrick Byrne is found guilty of wilful murder.  However, the court rules that it could not decide on Byrne’s sanity at the time of the killing.


Doyle (2008), pg 289


The Sligo Champion and Sligo Independent report the shooting dead of 77-year old Catherine McGuinness in Culleens after a group of anti-Treaty men entered her home and a row broke out.


Farry (2012), pg 107


Anti-Treaty men, under Timothy ‘Aeroplane’ Lyons, enter a house occupied by Civic Guards in Ballyheige, Co. Kerry.  The Civic Guards are taken to another house and their original house is burnt.


Doyle (2008), pg 295


A meeting takes place in Belfast of Nationalist MPs; councillors and businessmen.  The meeting reviewed the plight of the minority in Northern Ireland and criticised the indifference of Free State government.  They decided to seek a meeting with Cosgrave. 


Phoenix (1994), pg 283


The Free State army barracks in Headford, Co. Galway is attacked by an anti-Treaty Column of 50 men led by Vincent Corcoran.  Two anti-Treaty volunteers, Dan McCormack and John Higgins, are killed during the attack. A number of pro-Treaty soldiers are wounded – two of whom Sergeant Major McCarty and Private Lyons - later die in Galway hospital.  For the response of the Free State forces, see Apr-11-23/2.

Price (2012), pg 250


During a raid on the Moloney family home in Cloontismara, Inagh, Co. Clare, Free State soldiers arrest two brothers, Martin and Thomas Moloney (who were members of the anti-Treaty army).  When he is being taken away, Martin Moloney is shot by a Free State soldier called Connolly or Collins and dies of his wounds the following day.

Ó Ruairc (2009), pgs 316-317; Power (2020), pgs 107-108


Liam Lynch Shot. 

On the night of April 9th, Liam Lynch and his party (Frank Aiken, Sean Hyde, Bill Quirke, Sean O'Meara and Sean Hayes) stayed at Croagh (Crohan West – three miles south-west of Newcastle, at the foot of the Knockmealdown mountains). 

A Free State search party under Captain Tom Taylor and Lieutenant Laurence Clancy (Hopkinson says Tommy Ryan and Lt Clancy) came close to where Lynch and his party were staying so they tried to escape across the mountains.  When moving across the coverless shoulder of a mountain, Liam Lynch was shot and wounded. 

He was brought down off the mountain by the Free State troops and brought to a public house in Newcastle and afterwards onto Clonmel. His last message is ‘I am confident if we stand united that victory is certain and that in a short time’.  He died at 8.45pm. He was buried in Kilcrumper, outside Fermoy, Co. Cork.


O'Donoghue (1986), pg 303-306; Hopkinson (1988), pg 238; Ferriter (2021), pg 118


According to Ó Ruairc, Frank Barrett, member of the anti-Treaty army executive, is arrested in Waterford – but see Apr-20-23/2.

Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 317


The Irish Times writes ‘The National Army has now a position of overwhelming superiority in the field.  The militant Republicans have lost their most active leaders.  …  The hour is ripe for peace.  The whole country seeks it.’


Hopkinson (1988), pg 238


Four anti-Treaty prisoners - Francis (or Frank) Cunnane (from Headford, Co. Galway); Michael Monaghan (from Clonmehan, Headford, Co. Galway); Martin Moylan or Nolan (from Farmistown, Annadown, Co. Galway); and John Maguire (Galway or Cross, Co. Mayo) - are executed in Tuam

According to O’Farrell, on 11th April 1924, two further executions of the Civil War took place in Tuam – the men executed are James (or John or Sean) Newell (from Galway) and James O’Malley or Seamus O’Mallie (from Oughterard, Co. Galway). However, according to Macardle, these two men were also shot on the 11th April 1923.   Macardle is correct bringing to six the number executed in Tuam on this day.


O'Farrell P (1997), pg 222 & 223 & 224; Price (2012), pgs 250-251



Thomas Keating, leader of an anti-Treaty ASU in the Comeragh mountains, is wounded and captured near Coolnasmear.  He is brought to Dungarvan Hospital, Co. Waterford but dies the following days.


McCarthy (2015), pg 120; Prendergast (2023), pgs 38-41


The Special Branch of the London Metropolitan Police in one of its regular reports on revolutionary organisations says that “the recent deportations [see Mar-11-23/3] entirely disorganised the Irish Republican Army in this country, and completely upset their plans”. [This report could have been written on March 29th.]


McMahon (2008), pg 108


Three anti-Treaty men (John Linnane, Dick Bunyan and John Mullaney or Mulcahy) were hiding in a dug-out at Gortaglanna, Co. Kerry when they are discovered by Free State forces.  Macardle claims that, as they tried to surrender, one of the three (Linnane) is shot in the face and later dies from his wounds.


Macardle (1998), pg52-53; Doyle (2008), pg 296


Austin Stack is arrested near Ballymacarbery and a draft memo calling on the President to order an immediate halt to hostilities was found on him.  (Published by the Free State side two days later.)  

Stack was captured “alone and unarmed, lying in a ditch and looking haggard and care-worn … without collar or overcoat”.  Andrews says that Stack was with Barrett, Gaynor and himself in a dugout but “Stack could not take the discomfort and left to go to a house and was arrested”.  See Apr-20-23/2.

Shortly afterwards, Dan Breen is captured in the Glen of Aherlow.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 238; Curran J M (1980), pg 273; McCarthy (2015), pg 120; Power (2020), pg 130; Kissane (2005), pg 116


The Roscommon Herald reports on the shooting dead of loyalist Edwin Williams (son of Essex Williams) of Skreen, Co Sligo.  It is believed that the shooting was the result of a long-running agrarian dispute.


Farry (2012), pg 108


Two anti-Treaty men, Edward Somers and Theo English, are sheltering in the ruins of Castleblake in Rosgreen, Co. Tipperary when they are surrounded by Free State soldiers.  Both men are killed when trying to escape.  (Somers had been in the pro-Treaty army before defecting to the anti-Treaty side – See Dec-14 to 15-22/1.)


Walsh (2018), pg 214


Pro-Treaty TD, Pat McCartan writes to Cosgrave pleading with him not to allow anti-Treaty prisoners to die saying that “we are now practically at the end of this hideous struggle and magnanimity will do more to heal the sores opened than any show of strength”. 

Cosgrave replies rejecting his arguments and directed particular anger towards the women prisoners saying that they were “the mainstay of the trouble we have had … I fear that it is not possible to consider these women as ordinary females”.


Ferriter (2021), pg 112


A column of six anti-Treatyites under Timothy ‘Aeroplane’ Lyons is surrounded by Free State troops at Clashmealcon Caves, north of Kerry Head, Co. Kerry.  After a siege of several days, three anti-Treaty men (including Lyons) are dead and the other three are captured. 

This incident gave rise to accusations of unfair treatment. Macardle says that two anti-Treatyites (Tommy McGrath and Patrick O’Shea) are drown trying to get out of the caves (in which they were trapped) at night.  She also says that Lyons surrendered and was being hauled up the cliff face when the rope either snapped or was cut sending Lyons plunging down to his death – this was on April 18th

Two Free State soldiers were also killed – Private O’Neill and Lieutenant H. D. E. (or H. A. D.) Pierson. (Pierson who was a Protestant from Limerick.)  The three other anti-Treaty men captured are subsequently executed - See Apr-25-23/2.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 242; Macardle (1998), pgs 54-63; Doyle (2008), pgs 296; Ferriter (2021), pg 109; O’Callaghan (2018), pg 123


An anti-Treaty volunteer, Jim Egan, is killed near his home in Poulacapple, Co. Tipperary in a gun fight with Free State forces.


Walsh (2018), pg 241


A civilian is shot dead by Free State soldiers after he fails to stop at Kilbride, Co. Wicklow.


Dorney (2017), pg 317


Most discussion of Northern Irish Affairs is ruled out of order by the Speaker in the British House of Commons.


Matthews (2204), pg 4


Writing to P J Ruttledge, de Valera says that the phase begun in 1916 has run its course and that those who would continue to work for Irish independence must prepare themselves for a long patient effort at reorganisation and education.


Kissane (2005), pg 98


A member of the International Committee of the Red Cross, R.A. Haccius, visits Tintown internment camp in the Curragh. He also visited Mountjoy, Newbridge, and Gormanstown.  His report is generally favourable on the treatment of prisoners.


Durney (2011), pgs 152-153; Ferriter (2021), pg 111


C.S. (Todd) Andrews, who was staff officer to Liam Lynch, is captured in the Knockmealdown Mountains along with Sean Gaynor and Frank Barrett.


O'Farrell P (1997), pg142; Power (2020), pg 130


Executive of anti-Treaty IRA meets in Poulacapple in Co. Tipperary (four miles southwest of Callan and three from Mullinahone). 

Present were Frank Aiken, Liam Pilkington (replacing Liam Lynch), Sean Hyde, Sean Dowling, Bill Quirke, Tom Barry, Tom Ruane (replacing Michael Kilroy), Tom Sullivan (replacing Sean Lehane), Sean McSwiney, Tom Crofts, P J Ruttledge and Sean O'Meara (substitute for Seamus Robinson). 

Frank Aiken is elected Chief-of-Staff and an Army Council of Aiken, Pilkington and Barry is appointed.  (Macardle says that Sean Hyde was also included in Army Council.) 

Aiken proposes that peace should be made with the Free State government on the basis that ‘The sovereignty of the Irish Nation and the integrity of its territory is inalienable’.  This is passed by 9 votes to 2.

See Apr-27-23/1.


O'Donoghue (1986), pg 308; Hopkinson (1988), pg 256; Macardle (1999), pg 846; Kissane (2005), pg 117


An anti-Treaty captain, Martin Hogan (originally from Nenagh, Tipperary) is arrested on Dorset St., Dublin – his body is later found at Grace Park Road in Drumcondra. 

Hogan was implicated in the brutal rape of Eileen Biggs in Tipperary in June 1922– see Jun-16-22/4.


Dorney (2017), pg 250; Connolly (2019), pg 38


A Free State patrol is ambushed on Carmody Street in Ennis, Co. Clare.  One member of the patrol, Private Stephen Canty is shot dead by anti-Treaty Volunteer Miko Casey. 

Two anti-Treaty volunteers are arrested after the ambush and one, Patrick [O’]Mahoney, is subsequently executed – See Apr-26-23/1.  Two other anti-Treaty volunteers were arrested and are also executed - See May-02-23/1.


Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 316; Power (2020), pgs 110 & 123-125


On the night of the 21st/22nd, John Melvin from Curryane near Swinford, Co. Mayo is taken from his home, badly beaten and shot.  His body is found the next morning with a notice saying ‘Spies and informers beware’. 

The same night, shots are fired into the home of John McGeehin (a pro-Treaty supporter) of Geesla outside Ballina.  He is shot in the head and fatally wounded.


Price (2012), pg 256


Sean Quinn and his brother Padraig (O/C and Adjutant, anti-Treaty 4th Northern Division respectively) are seriously wounded and captured at Tallonstown, Co. Louth.  Sean Quinn is to die on May 24th (the same day that Frank Aiken is to issue the Dump Arms command). 


Hall (2019), pg 121


At a meeting of the pro-Treaty Defence Council, Mulcahy states that Dan Hogan (O/C of Claremorris command of the pro-Treaty army) needed more men for extensive planned operations.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 242


Anti-Treaty volunteer, Patrick O’Brien, is killed during an exchange of fire on Dorset Street, Dublin.

Dorney (2017), pg 252


70 anti-Treaty prisoners tunnel their way out of the Curragh internment camp. Six are recaptured quickly and others in the following weeks.

Durney (2011), pg 157


A report from the Kerry Command of the Free State army states that “the various columns controlled by him [John Joe Rice, O/C of anti-Treaty Kerry No. 2 Brigade] have not up to the present suffered any serious depletion”.


Horgan (2018) , pg 111


A British government memo by Devonshire (Secretary of State for the Colonies) states “The various sources of information at our disposal not only in this office but also in the War Office, have yielded no single indication of bad faith on the part of the Free State government.  The members of the government have risked their lives and suffered loss in their property and families in order to make good their obligations under the Treaty to establish a constitutional government in Ireland. The most conclusive proof of all this is that they have not hesitated to execute some of their former comrades.”


Kissane (2005), pg 124; McMahon (2008), pg 82


Daniel Murphy (a blacksmith from Knocknagoshel, Co. Kerry) is arrested at his forge and taken to a field where earlier (see Mar-06-23/1), five pro-Treaty soldiers had been killed by a trigger mine.  Murphy was shot and his body found in the evening. (Doyle says March 24th.)


Macardle (1998), pg 53; Doyle (2008), pg 284


Monsignor Salvatore Luzio, who had come to Ireland in March from the Vatican in Rome on a peace mission after appeals to the Pope from anti-Treaty leaders, is recalled again to Rome on this day. 

Most Irish bishops were very hostile to this visit and the Free State government sees his mission as implicitly against them and therefore will have nothing to do with Monsignor Luzio. 

Desmond Fitzgerald had been dispatched to Rome where he spoke to Monsignor Pazzardo who was secretary to the cardinal who was Vatican Secretary of State.  This resulted in Luzio’s recall.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 238; Ferriter (2021), pgs 85-86


Three anti-Treaty prisoners are executed in Tralee, Co. Kerry.  The three were captured after the siege at Clashmealcon Caves – see Apr-18-23/1. 

They were Edward Greaney (Ardfert, Co. Kerry), Jim McEnery (Slieveadra, Ardfert, Co. Kerry) and Rudge or Reginald Hathaway (Ardfert, Co. Kerry).

Hopkinson (1988), pg 242; Macardle (1998), pg 63; O’Farrell (1997), pg 223; Macardle (1999), pg 985; Doyle (2008), pgs 300-301

Apr-25 or 26-23/1

Two Free State officers, Lieutenants Michael Behan and Gaffney, accompany two Civic Guards from Castleisland, Co. Kerry on they go investigate a land dispute at Currow.  As they are returning, they are attacked resulting in Lieutenant Behan’s death.  (Last pro-Treaty soldier to die in the Civil War in Kerry.)


Doyle (2008), pgs 301-302


Anti-Treatyite Patrick O’Mahoney or Mahony (from Market St., Ennis, Co. Clare) is executed in Ennis – see Apr-21-23/2 and May-02-23/1. 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg 224; Macardle (1999), pg 985; Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 316; Power (2020), pgs 123-126


Anti-Treaty Army Council (Aiken, Barry and Pilkington) and Government of Irish Republic (de Valera, Ruttledge, Colivet and O’Callaghan) decide that all offensive operations should be suspended from noon on Monday 30th April (only defensive operations to protect munitions were to be permitted).  

De Valera, as President of the anti-Treaty government, also issued a proclamation of the terms on which they were prepared to negotiate with the Free State Government including that the sovereign rights of this nation are indefeasible and inalienable and that all legitimate government authority in Ireland is derived exclusively from the people of Ireland.  There is also a term whereby anyone who subscribes to these principles “can justly be excluded by any political oath, test or other device … from the Councils and Parliaments of the nation.”  Full text of this proclamation is given in Macardle

See May-03-23/1.


O'Donoghue (1986), pg 308-310;

Macardle (1999), pgs 846-847; Curran J M (1980), pg 274; Hall (2019), pgs 120; Kissane (2005), pg 117


Anti-Treaty volunteer, James Tierney, is reported by the Irish Times to have been shot by a tobacconist whose shop in Dorset Street, Dublin he was trying to rob.  Anti-Treaty reports say that he was shot by a CID man.


Dorney (2017), pgs 252 and 317


Albina Broderick (aka Gobnaid Bhrúdair), a 60-year anti-Treatyite and member of Kerry County Council, is stopped by Free State troops between Westview and her home in Sneem on the Inveragh Peninsula.  When they try to arrest her, she refuses to co-operate and the troops open fire, wounding her in the legs.  She is taken to Tralee and later to the North Dublin Union prison.


Doyle (2008), pg 302


72-year old Michael Reynolds of Johnstonbridge, Co. Leitrim is shot dead by anti-Treaty troops.  His son was a former member of the RIC.


McGarty (2020), pg 130


W. B. Yeats writes to Cosgrave thanking him for his “act of clemency” in releasing Maud Goone from prison.


Ferriter (2021), pg 112


Anne White, who was a priest’s housekeeper in Crookstown, Co. Cork is seized by a group of armed men, dragged out into the yard and assaulted.  She is driven a number of miles away where she is detained and has her hair cut off.


Ferriter (2021), pg 105


The Free State government set up a Compensation (Personal Injuries) Committee to assess injuries sustained by non-combatants.  It ultimately assessed 6,616 applications and paid out £269,000 (About £15m in 2021 terms).  A separate committee assessed claims of damage to property.


Ferriter (2021), pg 129


Plans set in motion to reduce the Free State army from 52,000 to 28,000 by the end of the year.  This caused considerable tension within the ranks.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 265

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