April 1923


The body of Michael O’Shea is found on the road between Killorglin and Glenbeigh.  He had been shot by the anti-Treaty army.  Not clear whether he was a civilian or military.

Doyle (2008), pg 286


Writing to the O/C of the 4th Western Division of anti-Treaty army, Christy Macken (O/C of 2nd Western Division) says that Major-Gen Dan Hogan (O/C pro-Treaty, Claremorris Command) had been rounding up his No. 2 Brigade for the past fortnight.  He says that the tactics that Hogan has been using (of setting up small posts and scouring the surrounding districts) have been much more effective in capturing his men than Lawlor’s earlier use of forced marches. 


Hopkinson (1988), pg 244


Pro-Treaty government assumes responsibility for the collection of customs and excise duties. Customs duties imposed on a wide range of goods and customs posts set up on the border.

Hall (2019), pg123


Two anti-Treaty volunteers, Christy Breslin and Joseph Kieran, are arrested separately and killed at Cabra, Dublin. Witnesses say that they were picked up by pro-Treatyites.

Dorney (2017), pg 250


In a clash at Ballybinaby on the Louth/Armagh border, a pro-Treaty soldier (Sergeant Martin John Daly) and an anti-Treaty volunteer (Bernard Morris) are killed. 

Hall (2019), pgs 119-120


Pro-Treaty Corporal Martin O’Loughlin dies in Co. Clare.

Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 329


The home of anti-Treaty leader Jack ‘Na Coille’ Walsh is burnt by pro-Treaty soldiers (who are not in uniform) at Portnascully, Mooncoin, Co. Kilkenny.

Walsh (2018), pg 230


Moss Twomey reports to Lynch that “I am afraid that the chances of operations in Britain are now negligible if not altogether impossible”.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 255


Mary MacSwiney, Kate O’Callaghan and other female prisoners start hunger strike in Kilmainham Jail.  Kate O’Callaghan is released on April 25th.  The hunger strike is subsequently called off.  One of the hunger strikers, Annie Horgan from Cratloe, Co. Clare, is released in September but she dies from the effects of her hunger strike four months later.

Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 322


Tom Derrig (Adj-Gen anti-Treaty forces) and Moss Twomey captured on Raglan Road, Dublin.  Derrig is shot in the jaw while in custody and loses an eye. (Dorney says captured on 5th April.) 


O'Donoghue (1986), pg 308; Dorney (2017), pg 255; Price (2012), pg 245


Two anti-Treaty volunteers (George Nagle and Conway O’Connor) are killed during raids by pro-Treaty forces in Derry na Feena, Glencar, (near Carrantuohill) Co. Kerry.  Nagle and O’Connor had held up the pro-Treaty raiding party and allowed most of the anti-Treaty column to escape. It is claimed both were prisoners when they were killed.   The pro-Treaty released a man, Cornelius Hanafin, who had been sentenced to death by the anti-Treaty IRA.  (According to Doyle, this was the last major action between pro- and anti-Treaty forces in Kerry during the Civil War.)

Macardle (1998), pgs 45-50; Doyle (2008), pgs 286-288


The results of the inquest into the death of John Conway in Tralee, Co. Kerry (see 24th February) are made public.  Pro-Treaty Captain Patrick Byrne is found guilty of wilful murder.  However, the court rules that it could not decide on Byrne’s sanity at the time of the killing.

Doyle (2008), pg 289


The Sligo Champion and Sligo Independent report the shooting dead of 77-year old Catherine McGuinness in Culleens after a group of anti-Treaty men entered her home and a row broke out.

Farry (2012), pg 107


Anti-Treaty men, under Timothy ‘Aeroplane’ Lyons, enter a house occupied by Civic Guards in Ballyheige, Co. Kerry.  The Civic Guards are taken to another house and their original house is burnt. 

Doyle (2008), pg 295


A meeting takes place in Belfast of Nationalist MPs; councillors and businessmen.  The meeting reviewed the plight of the minority in Northern Ireland and criticised the indifference of Free State government.  Decided to seek meeting with Cosgrave. 

Phoenix (1994), pg 283


The pro-Treaty barracks in Headford, Co. Galway is attacked by an anti-Treaty Column of 50 men led by Vincent Corcoran.  Two anti-Treaty volunteers, Dan McCormack and John Higgins, are killed during the attack. A number of pro-Treaty soldiers are wounded – two of whom Sergeant Major McCarty and Private Lyons later die in Galway hospital.  For response of pro-Treaty forces, see April 11th.

Price (2012), pg 250


During a raid on the Moloney family home in Cloontismara, Co. Clare, pro-Treaty soldiers arrest two brothers, Martin and Thomas Moloney (who were members of the anti-Treaty army).  When he is being taken away, Martin Moloney is shot by a pro-Treaty soldier called Connolly and dies of his wounds the following day.

Ó Ruairc (2009), pgs 316-317


Liam Lynch Shot.  On the night of the 9th April, Liam Lynch and his party (Frank Aiken, Sean Hyde, Bill Quirke, Sean O'Meara and Sean Hayes) stayed at Croagh (Crohan West – 3 miles south-west of Newcastle, at the foot of the Knockmealdown mountains).  A pro-Treaty search party under Captain Tom Taylor and Lieutenant Laurence Clancy (Hopkinson says Tommy Ryan and Lt Clancy) came close to where Lynch and his party were staying and they tried to escape across the mountains.  When moving across the coverless shoulder of a mountain, Liam Lynch was shot and mortally wounded.  He was brought down off the mountain by the pro-Treaty troops and brought to a public house in Newcastle and afterwards onto Clonmel. His last message is ‘I am confident if we stand united that victory is certain and that in a short time’.  He died at 8.45pm and buried in Kilcrumper, outside Fermoy.

O'Donoghue (1986), pg 303-306; Hopkinson (1988), pg 238


Frank Barrett, member of the anti-Treaty army executive, is arrested in Waterford.

Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 317


The Irish Times writes ‘The National Army has now a position of overwhelming superiority in the field.  The militant Republicans have lost their most active leaders.  …  The hour is ripe for peace.  The whole country seeks it.’

Hopkinson (1988), pg 238


Four anti-Treaty prisoners - Francis (or Frank) Cunnane (from Headford, Co. Galway); Michael Monaghan (from Clonmehan, Headford, Co. Galway); Martin Moylan or Nolan (from Farmistown, Annadown, Co. Galway); and John Maguire (Galway or Cross, Co. Mayo) - are executed in Tuam. 

According to O’Farrell, on 11th April 1924, two further executions of the Civil War took place in Tuam – the men executed are James (or John or Sean) Newell (from Galway) and James O’Malley or Seamus O’Mallie (from Oughterard, Co. Galway). However, according to Macardle, these two men were also shot on the 11th April 1923.   Macardle is correct bringing to six the number executed in Tuam on this day.

O'Farrell P (1997), pg 222 & 223 & 224; Price (2012), pgs 250-251



Thomas Keating, leader of an anti-Treaty ASU in the Comeragh mountains is wounded and captured near Coolnasmear.  He is brought to Dungarvan Hospital, Co. Waterford but dies the following days.

McCarthy (2015), pg 120


Three anti-Treaty men (John Linnane, Dick Bunyan and John Mullaney or Mulcahy) hiding in a dug-out at Gortaglanna, Co. Kerry are discovered by pro-Treaty forces.  Macardle claims that as they tried to surrender, one of the three (Linnane) is shot in the face and dies from his wounds.

Macardle (1998), pg52-53; Doyle (2008), pg 296


Austin Stack arrested near Ballymacarbery and a memo calling on the President to order an immediate halt to hostilities was found on him.  (Published two days later.)   Shortly afterwards, Dan Breen captured in Glen of Aherlow.  Stack was captured “alone and unarmed, lying in a ditch and looking haggard and care-worn … without collar or overcoat”. 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 238; Curran J M (1980), pg 273; McCarthy (2015), pg 120


The Roscommon Herald reports on the shooting dead of loyalist Edwin Williams (son of Essex Williams) of Skreen, Co Sligo.  It is believed that the shooting was the result of a long-running agrarian dispute

Farry (2012), pg 108


Anti-Treaty forces suffer a reverse at Glenvar, Co. Kerry and pro-Treaty forces claim that nine anti-Treaty men are killed.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 242


Two anti-Treaty men, Edward Somers and Theo English, are sheltering in the ruins of Castleblake in Rosgreen, Co. Tipperary when they are surrounded by pro-Treaty forces.  Both men are killed when trying to escape.  (Somers had been in the pro-Treaty army before defecting to the anti-Treaty side – See 14th/15th December 1922.)

Walsh (2018), pg 214


A column of six anti-Treatyites under Timothy ‘Aeroplane’ Lyons is surrounded by pro-Treaty troops at Clashmealcon Caves, north of Kerry Head.  After a siege of several days, three anti-Treaty men (including Lyons) are dead and three are captured.  This incident gave rise to accusations of unfair treatment. Macardle says that two anti-Treatyites (Tommy McGrath and Patrick O’Shea) are drown trying to get out of the caves (in which they were trapped) at night.  She also says that Lyons surrendered and was being hauled up the cliff face when the rope either snapped or was cut sending Lyons plunging down to his death – this was on the 18th April.  Two pro-Treaty soldiers were also killed – Private O’Neill and Lieutenant H. D. E. Pierson. The three other anti-Treaty men are captured are subsequently executed - See 25th April.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 242; Macardle (1998), pgs 54-63; Doyle (2008), pgs 296


An anti-Treaty volunteer, Jim Egan, is killed near his home in Poulacapple, Co. Tipperary in a gun fight with pro-Treaty forces.

Walsh (2018), pg 241


A civilian is shot dead by pro-Treaty soldiers after he fails to stop at Kilbride, Co. Wicklow.

Dorney (2017), pg 317


A member of the International Committee of the Red Cross, R.A. Haccius, visits Tintown internment camp in the Curragh. He also visited Mountjoy, Newbridge, and Gormanstown.  His report is generally favourable on the treatment of prisoners.

Durney (2011), pgs 152-153


C.S. (Todd) Andrews, who was staff officer to Liam Lynch, is captured in the Knockmealdown Mountains.

O'Farrell P (1997), pg142


Executive of anti-Treaty IRA meets in Poulacapple (four miles southwest of Callan and three from Mullinahone).  Present were Frank Aiken, Liam Pilkington (replacing Liam Lynch), Sean Hyde, Sean Dowling, Bill Quirke, Tom Barry, Tom Ruane (replacing Michael Kilroy), Tom Sullivan (replacing Sean Lehane), Sean McSwiney, Tom Crofts, P J Ruttledge and Sean O'Meara (substitute for Seamus Robinson).  Frank Aiken is elected Chief-of-Staff and an Army Council of Aiken, Pilkington and Barry is appointed.  (Macardle says that Sean Hyde was also included in Army Council.) 

Aiken proposes that peace should be made with the pro-Treaty government on the basis that ‘The sovereignty of the Irish Nation and the integrity of its territory is inalienable’.  This is passed by 9 votes to 2.

O'Donoghue (1986), pg 308; Hopkinson (1988), pg 256; Macardle (1999), pg 846


An anti-Treaty captain, Martin Hogan (originally from Nenagh, Co. Tipperary) is arrested on Dorset St., Dublin – his body is found at Grace Park Road in Drumcondra.  (Hogan was implicated in the brutal rape of a woman in Tipperary – see June 16th 1922.)

Dorney (2017), pg 250; Connolly (2019), pg 38


A pro-Treaty patrol is ambushed on Carmody Street in Ennis, Co. Clare.  One member of the patrol, Private Stephen Canty is shot dead by Volunteer Miko Casey.  Two anti-Treaty volunteers are arrested after the ambush and one, Patrick O’Mahoney, is subsequently executed – See April 26th and May 2nd.

Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 316


On the night of the 21st/22nd, John Melvin from Curryane near Swinford, Co Mayo is taken from his home, badly beaten and shot.  His body is found the next morning with a notice saying ‘Spies and informers beware’.  The same night, shots are fired into the home of John McGeehin (a pro-Treaty supporter) of Geesla outside Ballina.  He is shot in the head and fatally wounded.


Price (2012), pg 256


Sean Quinn and his brother Padraig (O/C and Adjutant, anti-Treaty 4th Northern Division respectively) are seriously wounded and captured at Tallonstown, Co. Louth.  Sean Quinn is to die on the 24th May (the same day that Frank Aiken is to issue the Dump Arms command). 

Hall (2019), pg 121


At a meeting of the pro-Treaty Defence Council, Mulcahy states that Dan Hogan (O/C of Claremorris command of the pro-Treaty army) needed more men for extensive planned operations.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 242


Anti-Treaty volunteer, Patrick O’Brien, is killed during an exchange of fire on Dorset Street, Dublin.

Dorney (2017), pg 252


70 anti-Treaty prisoners tunnel their way out of the Curragh internment camp. Six are recaptured quickly and others in the following weeks.

Durney (2011), pg 157


A report from the Kerry Command of the pro-Treaty army states that “the various columns controlled by him [John Joe Rice, O/C of Kerry No. 2 Brigade] have not up to the present suffered any serious depletion.”

Horgan (2018) , pg 111


Monsignor Luzio, who had come to Ireland from Rome on a peace mission after appeals to the Pope from anti-Treaty leaders, is recalled again to Rome on this day.  The pro-Treaty government sees his mission as implicitly against them and therefore will have nothing to do with Monsignor Luzio.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 238


Daniel Murphy (a blacksmith from Knocknagoshel) is arrested at his forge and taken to a field where earlier (see 6th March), five pro-Treaty officers and men had been killed by a trigger mine.  Murphy was shot and his body found in the evening. (Doyle says March 24th.)

Macardle (1998), pg 53; Doyle (2008), pg 284


The three anti-Treaty prisoners are executed in Tralee, Co. Kerry.  The three were captured after the siege at Clashmealcon Caves – see 18th April.  They were Edward Greaney (Ardfert, Co. Kerry), Jim McEnery (Slieveadra, Ardfert, Co. Kerry) and Rudge or Reginald Hathaway (Ardfert, Co. Kerry).

Hopkinson (1988), pg 242; Macardle (1998), pg 63; O’Farrell (1997), pg 223; Macardle (1999), pg 985; Doyle (2008), pgs 300-301

Apr-25or 26

Two pro-Treaty soldiers, Lieutenants Michael Behan and Gaffney, accompany two Civic Guards from Castleisland, Co. Kerry on they go investigate a land dispute at Currow.  As they are returning, they are attacked resulting in Lieutenant Behan’s death.  (Last pro-Treaty soldier to die in the Civil War in Kerry.)

Doyle (2008), pgs 301-302


Anti-Treatyite Patrick O’Mahoney (from Market St., Ennis, Co. Clare) is executed in Ennis – see April 21st.

O'Farrell P (1997), pg 224; Macardle (1999), pg 985; Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 316


Anti-Treaty Army Council (Aiken, Barry and Pilkington) and Government of Irish Republic (de Valera, Ruttledge, Colivet and O’Callaghan) decide that all offensive operations should be suspended from noon on Monday 30th April.  De Valera as President also issued a proclamation of the basis on which they were prepared to negotiate with the pro-Treaty Government.  Full text of this proclamation is given in Macardle.  These terms are not accepted by pro-Treaty government.

O'Donoghue (1986), pg 308-310;

Macardle (1999), pgs 846-847; Curran J M (1980), pg 274; Hall (2019), pgs 120


Anti-Treaty volunteer, James Tierney, is reported by the Irish Times to have been shot by a tobacconist whose shop in Dorset Street, Dublin he was trying to rob.  Anti-Treaty reports say that he was shot by a CID man.

Dorney (2017), pgs 252 and 317


Albina Broderick (aka Gobnaid Ní Bhrúdair), a 60-year anti-Treatyite and member of Kerry County Council is stopped by pro-Treaty troops between Westview and her home in Sneem on the Inveragh Peninsula.  When they try to arrest her, she refuses to co-operate and the troops open fire, wounding her in the legs.  She is taken to Tralee and later to the North Dublin Union prison.

Doyle (2008), pg 302


Pro-Treaty Lieutenant H. A. D. Pierson (who was a Protestant from Limerick) fatally wounded in fighting in Kerry.

O’Callaghan (2018), pg 123


Plans set in motion to reduce the Pro-Treaty army from 52,000 to 28,000 by the end of the year.  This caused considerable tension within the ranks.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 265

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