April 1923



Writing to the O/C of the 4th Western Division of anti-Treaty army, Christy Macken (O/C of 2nd Western Division) says that Major-Gen Dan Hogan (O/C pro-Treaty, Claremorris Command) had been rounding up his No. 2 Brigade for the past fortnight.  He says that the tactics that Hogan has been using (of setting up small posts and scouring the surrounding districts) have been much more effective in capturing his men than Lawlor’s earlier use of forced marches. 


Hopkinson (1988), pg 244


Two anti-Treaty volunteers, Christy Breslin and Joseph Kieran, are arrested separately and killed at Cabra, Dublin. Witnesses say that they were picked up by pro-Treatyites.

Dorney (2017), pg 250


Moss Twomey reports to Lynch that “I am afraid that the chances of operations in Britain are now negligible if not altogether impossible”.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 255


Tom Derrig (Adj-Gen anti-Treaty forces) and Moss Twomey captured on Raglan Road, Dublin.  Derrig is shot in the jaw while in custody and loses an eye. (Dorney says captured on 5th April.) 


O'Donoghue (1986), pg 308; Dorney (2017), pg 255


Two anti-Treaty volunteers (George Nagle and Conway O’Connor) are killed during raids by pro-Treaty forces in Derry na Feena, (near Carrantuohill, Co Kerry).  It is claimed both were prisoners when they were killed.  

Macardle (1998), pgs 45-50


A meeting takes place in Belfast of Nationalist MPs; councillors and businessmen.  The meeting reviewed the plight of the minority in Northern Ireland and criticised the indifference of Free State government.  Decided to seek meeting with Cosgrave. 

Phoenix (1994), pg 283


On the night of the 9th April, Liam Lynch and his party (Frank Aiken, Sean Hyde, Bill Quirke, Sean O'Meara and Sean Hayes) stayed at Croagh (Crohan West – 3 miles south-west of Newcastle, at the foot of the Knockmealdown mountains).  A pro-Treaty search party under Captain Tom Taylor and Lieutenant Laurence Clancy (Hopkinson says Tommy Ryan and Lt Clancy) came close to where Lynch and his party were staying and they tried to escape across the mountains.  When moving across the coverless shoulder of a mountain, Liam Lynch was shot and mortally wounded.  He was brought down off the mountain by the pro-Treaty  troops and brought to a public house in Newcastle and afterwards onto Clonmel. His last message is ‘I am confident if we stand united that victory is certain and that in a short time’.  He died at 8.45pm and buried in Kilcrumper, outside Fermoy.

O'Donoghue (1986), pg 303-306; Hopkinson (1988), pg 238


The Irish Times writes ‘The National Army has now a position of overwhelming superiority in the field.  The militant Republicans have lost their most active leaders.  …  The hour is ripe for peace.  The whole country seeks it.’

Hopkinson (1988), pg 238


Four anti-Treaty prisoners Francis Cunnane (from Headford, Co. Galway); Michael Monaghan (from Clonmehan, Headford, Co. Galway); Martin Moylan or Nolan (from Farmistown, Annadown, Co. Galway); and John Maguire (Galway) are executed in Tuam.  According to O’Farrell, on 11th April 1924, two further executions of the Civil War took place in Tuam – the men executed are James (or John) Newell (from Galway) and James O’Malley (from Oughterard, Co. Galway ). However, according to Macardle, these two men were also shot on the 11th April 1923.   Macardle is almost definitely correct bringing to six the number executed in Tuam on this day.

O'Farrell P (1997), pg 222 & 223 & 224


Three anti-Treaty men (John Linnane, Dick Bunyan and John Mullaney) hiding in a dug-out at Gortaglanna, Co. Kerry are discovered by pro-Treaty forces.  Macardle claims that as they tried to surrender, one of the three (Linnane) is shot in the face and dies from his wounds.

Macardle (1998), pg52-53


Austin Stack arrested near Ballymacarbery and a memo calling on the President to order an immediate halt to hostilities was found on him.  (Published two days later.)   Shortly afterwards, Dan Breen captured in Glen of Aherlow.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 238; Curran J M (1980), pg 273


Anti-Treaty forces suffer a reverse at Glenvar, Co. Kerry and pro-Treaty forces claim that nine anti-Treaty men are killed.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 242


A column of anti-Treatyities under Timothy ‘Aeroplane’ Lyons is surrounded by pro-Treaty troops at Clashmealcon Caves, north of Kerry Head.  After a siege of several days, three anti-Treaty men (including Lyons) are dead and three are captured.  This incident gave rise to accusations of unfair treatment. Macardle says two anti-Treatyites (Tommy McGrath and Patrick O’Shea) are drown trying to get out of the caves (in which they were trapped) at night.  She also says that Lyons surrendered and was being hauled up the cliff face when the rope either snapped or was cut sending Lyons plunging down to his death – this was on the 18th April.  The three men captured are executed on 25th April.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 242; Macardle (1998), pgs 54-63


A civilian is shot dead by pro-Treaty soldiers after he fails to stop at Kilbride, Co. Wicklow.

Dorney (2017), pg 317


C.S. (Todd) Andrews, who was staff officer to Liam Lynch is captured in the Knockmealdown Mountains.

O'Farrell P (1997), pg142


Executive of anti-Treaty IRA meets in Poulacappal (four miles southwest of Callan and three from Mullinahone).  Present were Frank Aiken, Liam Pilkington (replacing Liam Lynch), Sean Hyde, Sean Dowling, Bill Quirke, Tom Barry, Tom Ruane (replacing Michael Kilroy), Tom Sullivan (replacing Sean Lehane), Sean McSwiney, Tom Crofts, P J Ruttledge and Sean O'Meara (substitute for Seamus Robinson).  Frank Aiken is elected Chief-of-Staff and an Army Council of Aiken, Pilkington and Barry is appointed.  (Macardle says that Sean Hyde was included.)  Aiken proposes that peace should be made with the pro-Treaty government on the basis that ‘The sovereignty of the Irish Nation and the integrity of its territory is inalienable’.  This is passed by 9 votes to 2.

O'Donoghue (1986), pg 308; Hopkinson (1988), pg 256; Macardle (1999), pg 846


An anti-Treaty captain, Martin Hogan (originally from Nenagh, Co. Tipperary) is arrested on Dorset St., Dublin – his body is found at Grace Park Road in Drumcondra. 

Dorney (2017), pg 251


At a meeting of the pro-Treaty Defence Council, Mulcahy states that Dan Hogan (O/C of Claremorris command of the pro-Treaty army) needed more men for extensive planned operations.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 242


Anti-Treaty volunteer, Patrick O’Brien, is killed during an exchange of fire on Dorset Street, Dublin.

Dorney (2017), pg 252


Monsignor Luzio, who had come to Ireland from Rome on a peace mission after appeals to the Pope from anti-Treaty leaders, is recalled again to Rome on this day.  The pro-Treaty government sees his mission as implicitly against them and therefore has nothing to do with Monsignor Luzio.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 238


Daniel Murphy (a blacksmith from Knocknagoshel) is arrested at his forge and taken to a field where earlier (see 6th March), five pro-Treaty officers and men had been killed by a trigger mine.  Murphy was shot and his body found in the evening.

Macardle (1998), pg 53


Three anti-Treaty prisoners are executed in Tralee, Co. Kerry.  Macardle says that the three were captured after the siege at Clashmealcon Caves – see 18th April.  They were Edward Greaney (Ardfert, Co. Kerry), Jim McEnery (Slieveadra, Ardfert, Co. Kerry) and Rudge Hathaway (Ardfert, Co. Kerry).

Hopkinson (1988), pg 242; Macardle (1998), pg 63; O’Farrell (1997), pg 223; Macardle (1999), pg 985


Anti-Treatyite Patrick O’Mahoney (from Market St., Ennis, Co. Clare) is executed in Ennis.

O'Farrell P (1997), pg 224; Macardle (1999), pg 985


Anti-Treaty Army Council and Government of Irish Republic (under de Valera) meet and decide to suspend offensive operations.  Aiken (on the 27th) issues a ‘Suspension of Offensives’ command that all offensive operations should be suspended from noon on Monday 30th April.  De Valera as President also issued a proclamation of the basis on which they were prepared to negotiate with the pro-Treaty Government.  Full text of this proclamation is given in Macardle.  These terms are not accepted by pro-Treaty government.

O'Donoghue (1986), pg 308-310;

Macardle (1999), pgs 846-847; Curran J M (1980), pg 274


Anti-Treaty volunteer, James Tierney, is reported by the Irish Times to have been shot by a tobacconist whose shop in Dorset Street, Dublin he was trying to rob.  Anti-Treaty reports say that he was shot by a CID man.

Dorney (2017), pgs 252 and 317


Plans set in motion to reduce the Pro-Treaty army from 52,000 to 28,000 by the end of the year.  This caused considerable tension within the ranks.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 265


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