March 1923

 

Mar-02

Tom Crofts, who had taken over from Deasy as O/C 1st Southern Division of anti-Treaty forces, says that “We are completely on the rocks”

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 239

Mar-02

Key anti-Treaty IRA men in North Tipperary such as Paddy Ryan Lacken and Sean Gaynor are captured around this time and later in the month the anti-Treaty columns in the Silvermines area are broken up.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 245

Mar-05

In a fight on the Garrane Mountains, Co. Kerry between a 36-man strong anti-Treaty column and pro-Treaty troops, one anti-Treaty engineer (Dan Clifford) was killed and 5 or 6 Pro-Treaty men.  Six anti-Treaty men were captured and badly treated.

 

Macardle (1998), pgs 28-29

Mar-05

An attack by anti-Treaty forces on Cahirciveen is repelled.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 241

Mar-06

At Knocknagashel, Castleisland, Co Kerry six members of National Army are killed when inspecting an arms dump.  (Hopkinson says five killed and one badly injured.  Macardle says five including Lieutenant O’Connor, two captains and two privates).  Dorney says that Dublin Guard officers Edward Stapleton and Michael Dunne are among those killed.

 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxiv; Hopkinson (1988), pg 240; Macardle (1998), pg 16; Dorney (2017), pg 245

Mar-06

The Deputy Chief of Staff of the anti-Treaty forces writes to his Chief of Staff (Lynch) complaining about the dumping of arms “It is outrageous that about 1,200 rifles are in the 1st Southern area of which close on 500 are dumped, yet this Area will not assist other areas where opportunities afford for using Arms”.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 239

Mar-06

An anti-Treaty volunteer (John T O’Sullivan) is shot dead by pro-Treaty men at Gleesk, near Glenbeigh, Co. Kerry.

 

Macardle (1998), pg 29

Mar-07

Con Moloney, Adjutant General, anti-Treaty army captured in his hideout in Moore’s Wood, Rossadrehid in the Glen of Aherlow, Co Tipperary along with two other officers.  Tom Derrig takes over as Adjutant General.

 

O'Donoghue (1986), pg 297 Hopkinson (1988), pg 236 & 244

Mar-07

At Ballyseedy, outside Tralee, Co Kerry, eight anti-Treaty prisoners are blown up.  Nine prisoners had been taken from Ballymullen barracks in Tralee (including an ex-RIC man called Paddy Buckley) to Ballyseedy Cross in order to, according to the pro-Treaty side, clear a mine.  However, according to the anti-Treaty side, the prisoners were tied to the mine and the mine was detonated.  One prisoner (Stephen Fuller) escaped.  Macardle names the eight prisoners as follows:  John Daly, George Shea, Timothy Twomey, Patrick Harnett, James Connell, John O’Connor, Patrick Buckley and James Walsh. 

 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxiv; Hopkinson (1988), pg 241; Macardle (1998), pgs 16-19

Mar-07

Another attempt to get prisoners to clear a mine at Castlemaine is foiled when some of the prisoners escape.  At Countess Bridge, Killarney four anti-Treaty prisoners are blown up and killed but, as at Ballyseedy, one prisoner (Tadgh Coffey) escapes.  The names of the four prisoners are Jer Donoghue, Stephen Buckley, Daniel Donoghue and Tim Murphy.

 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxiv; Hopkinson (1988), pg 241; Macardle (1998), pgs 20-25

Mar-07

In a reply to Lynch’s letter of the 28th Feb, de Valera says that the army should either ‘leave all political matters to the Government’ or ‘If they want to deal with the political situation … they will have to think intelligently along political lines’.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 234

Mar-07

A CID officer fires at a wanted man at the corner of Grafton St and Nassau St in Dublin.  He misses but mortally wounds 67-year old George Fitzhenry from Fairview.

Dorney (2017), pg 243

Mar-08

Seamus Taylor, an anti-Treaty prisoner in Killorglin Barracks, is taken to Ballyseedy Wood where he is shot dead.

 

Macardle (1998), pg 33

May-09

Kevin O’Higgins reiterates that the Free State government will take no steps towards setting up the Boundary Commission until such time as ‘stable conditions’ are in place. However, the Irish News continues its campaign against the delays and the North-Eastern Boundary Commission in Dublin send former Belfast journalist Hugh A McCartan to Derry, Belfast and Down to gauge nationalist feeling.

 

Phoenix (1994), pg 278

Mar

O/C of the anti-Treaty Dublin Brigade, Frank Henderson, is captured.

Dorney (2017), pg 244

Mar-11

A captured anti-Treaty army man (Frank Grady) is shot dead by Captain ‘Tiny’ Lyons at Mountain Stage (between Behaghs and Killorglin) before, it is claimed, numerous witnesses.

 

Macardle (1998), pgs 33-35

Mar-11

Hugh Haughton is shot dead on Donore Avenue, Dublin.  It is suspected that he is shot by pro-Treaty Intelligence officers for carrying anti-Treaty literature.

Dorney (2017), pg 237

Mar-12

Five Anti-Treaty prisoners (Dan Shea, Mike Courtney, John Sugrue, Willie Riordain and Eugene Dwyer) who were being held in Behaghs Workhouse (near Cahirciveen) are taken out supposedly to clear mines but the mine explodes and they are all killed.  A report from the O/C of the anti-Treaty Kerry  No. 3 Brigade states that they laid no mines in the area and none of their troops were in the area.  A military inquiry is set up by the pro-Treaty army under Paddy Daly, O/C Kerry Command, Col J McGuinness (Deputy O/C) and Michael Price but they deny that the killings were reprisals.

 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxiv; Hopkinson (1988), pg 241; Macardle (1998), pgs 39-44

Mar-13

Anti-Treatyites John Creane (from Taughmon, Co. Wexford); James Parle (Clover Valley, Taughmon, Co. Wexford) and Patrick Hogan (William’s St., Wexford) are executed in Wexford.  Also William Healy (from Donaghmore, Co. Cork) is executed in Cork and James O’Rourke (1 Upper Gloucester St., Dublin) is executed in Dublin for his part in an attack on pro-Treaty soldiers in Dame St on 21st February.

O'Farrell P (1997), pgs 222 & 223 & 224; Macardle (1999), pg 985; Dorney (2017), pg 246

Mar-14

Anti-Treatyites Luke Burke (from Keady, Co. Armagh) and Michael Greery (Athenry, Co. Galway) are executed in Mullingar, Co. Westmeath.  (These are not listed by Macardle and so are not numbered among her 77.  O’Farrell does say that Burke and Greery were executed for a bank robbery in Oldcastle so the question arises as to whether this robbery was sanctioned.)

O'Farrell P (1997), pg 222 & 146 & 161

Mar-14

Four anti-Treaty prisoners are executed at Drumboe, near Ballybofey, Co. Donegal.  They are Charles Daly (from Knockane, Co Kerry); Daniel Enright (from Listowel, Co. Kerry); Timothy O’Sullivan (from William’s St., Listowel, Co. Kerry) and John Larkin (from Magherafelt, Co. Derry)

O'Farrell P (1997), pg 222 & 223; Macardle (1999), pg 985

Mar-14

In response to the renewal of executions, Liam Lynch issues an ‘Amusement Order’ stating “that a time of national mourning be proclaimed, all sport and amusement be suspended, all picture houses and theatres and other places of public amusement be closed  … Anyone refusing this order will be treated as an enemy of the Republic.”

Dorney (2017), pg 247

Mar-14

An anti-Treaty intelligence report says that Oriel House (HQ of the CID) is “receiving dozens of anonymous letters giving information on out troops, meetings, dumps, etc., most is unfortunately correct”

Dorney (2017), pgs 240-241

Mar-14

Pro-Treaty soldier, Private Donal McGuiness is shot dead while on sentry duty outside Mountjoy Prison and Private Henry Kavanagh is killed outside Portobello Barracks.

Dorney (2017), pg 246

Mar-15

An anti-Treaty captain (John Kevins) is killed while in captivity in controversial circumstances near Beaufort, Co. Kerry.

Macardle (1998), pg 35-39

Mid-Mar

Extensive round-up in Newport area in Co. Mayo by pro-Treaty army.  Joe Baker’s anti-Treaty column is captured

 

Mar-15

Pro-Treaty Private Nolan of the Railway Maintenance Corps is shot dead while off-duty outside Wellington (Griffith) Barracks in Dublin

Dorney (2017), pg 246

Mar-16

A CID man (22-year old Patrick Kelly) is killed and another is wounded when anti-Treaty volunteers detonate a bomb outside the Customs and Excise Office on Beresford Place in Dublin.

Dorney (2017), pg 246

Mar-17

Austen Chamberlain says that “No citizens of Britain would grudge the use of British credit to assist the Irish Government to discharge its obligations”

Macardle (1999), pg 837

Mar-17

Despite Lynch’s ‘Amusement Order’ (see March 14th), a world heavyweight boxing match between Mike McTigue and Louis Mbarick Fall goes ahead in La Scala Theatre, Princes St, Dublin.  Anti-Treaty volunteers try to disrupt the fight but a heavy security presence prevents them.  A pro-Treaty soldier, Private John Little is accidently shot in Collins (Royal) Barracks and Colonel McDonnell, O/C of the pro-Treaty Dublin Brigade is seriously wounded by his own troops at Kingsbridge.  Frank Bolster, pro-Treaty army Intelligence Officer is wounded at the Theatre Royal at Hawkins St, Dublin

Dorney (2017), pgs 247-248

Mar-20

An anti-Treaty man (Jerimiah Casey) is killed while in custody in Beaufort, Co.Kerry.

Macardle (1998), pg 39

Mar-22

Most of the anti-Treaty Dalkey column is arrested after being cornered in a safe house in Albert Road, Glenageary.  One volunteer, Michael Neary is killed and two other volunteers and one member of Cumman na mBan are wounded.  One pro-Treaty soldier, Corporal Michael Baker, is also killed and two wounded.

Dorney (2017), pg 253

Mar-23

Following what happened the previous day, the leader of the Dalkey Column, Paddy Darcy and two of his men surrender in an attempt to save the lives of two of the captured men.

Dorney (2017), pg 253

Mar 23-26

Executive of anti-Treaty army meets in James Cullinane's, Bliantas, 3 miles east of Ballinamult, at the foot of the Monavullagh Mountains. (Macardle says it was Pierce Wall’s, Knocknaree, Ballymacarbery, Co. Waterford.) In attendance were Liam Lynch, Frank Aiken, Tom Derrig, Sean Dowling, Austin Stack, Tom Barry, Tom Crofts, Sean MacSwiney, Humphrey Murphy, Bill Quirke and Sean Hyde.  (Macardle gives the same list but says that neither Sean Hyde or PJ Ruttlegde had made it from the West in time for the meeting.)  De Valera was also asked to attend but without voting rights. (They had to move to Glenanore on the 26th due to National Army activity in the area.)  Executive debated continuing struggle vs dumping arms but could not agree.  Immediate peace proposal defeated by six votes to five.  Decided to postpone until 10th April.

O'Donoghue (1986), pg 299; Hopkinson (1988), pg 237

Mar-22

A firefight took place at the newly established pro-Treaty army post near Blessington in which it is claimed a pro-Treaty soldier is killed. 

Dorney (2017), pg 317

Mar-23

The body of anti-Treaty Volunteer, Thomas O’Leary, is found outside Tranquilla Convent, Upper Rathmines, Dublin with at least 14 bullet wounds.  He had been seen by witnesses being arrested by soldiers in uniform but the pro-Treaty army denied having any record of his arrest.

Dorney (2017), pgs 249-250

Mar-24

An anti-Treaty IRA man (Bob McCarthy from Monaree) is captured and brought to Dingle Workhouse.  Shortly afterwards he is brought to Tralee and shot dead on the way.

Macardle (1998), pgs49-50

Mar-24

Anti-Treaty volunteer, Patrick O’Brien, is shot dead while trying to lay a bomb at the Carlton Cinema on O’Connell St., Dublin.  An anti-Treaty volunteer, William Walsh from the Coombe, is badly wounded during an ambush at Whitehall, Dublin of a pro-Treaty troop lorry.  He presents himself to the Mater Hospital but dies that night.

Dorney (2017), pgs 249 & 252

Mar-25

Ned Bolfin and many of his anti-Treaty column (including his brother Paul) are captured in the Arigna mountains.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 244; O'Farrell P (1997), pg 144

Mar-27

In a memo to cabinet, O’Higgins argues that it was wrong for Mulcahy to be both Minister of Defence and Commander-in-Chief.  (Part of O’Higgins’s ongoing criticism of the performance of the pro-Treaty army.)  Hugh Kennedy, the Attorney General, argued for the Minister of Defence and Commander-in-Chief being the same person at this point.

Hopkinson (1988), pgs 223-224

Mar-27

The Executive Council of the Free State Government decide to set up a Council of Defence.  This Council had a civilian majority and was ‘to exercise a general supervision and direction over strategy’.  It also had the power to enquire into the administration of any military department, and had a veto over all military appointments.  Members of Council were Cosgrave; O’Higgins (Minister of Home Affairs); Joe McGrath (Minister for Industry and Commerce) and Richard Mulcahy (Minister of Defence).  In the debate over its setting-up, O’Higgins says ‘I believe that the present Head Quarters staff has not given to the people the result which they are entitled to’. Mulcahy and the other members of the Army Council tender their resignations but they are not accepted – see March 28th. Dorney indicates that it is part of O’Higgins’ on-going efforts to rein in Mulcahy’s power.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 226; Valiulis (1985), pg 30; Dorney (2017), pg 238-239

Mar-27

An anti-Treaty prisoner (James Walsh from Currow) is shot dead while being moved from Castleisland, Co.Kerry.

Macardle (1998), pg 51

Mar-28

Mulcahy writes to Cosgrave resigning from the Army Council because of the implications of the setting up of the Council of Defence.  Rest of Army Council (Chief-of-Staff Sean MacMahon; Adj-Gen Gearoid O’Sullivan and QM-Gen Sean O’Murthuile) also submits resignation. Cosgrave persuades Mulcahy to withdraw his resignation and on 9th April orders the Army Council to carry on with its duties.  However, the Council of Defence goes ahead.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 227; Valiulis (1985), pg 29

Mar-28

Five anti-Treaty prisoners (who were captured during the attack on Cahirciveen) are executed.  (Not mentioned by Macardle or O’Farrell.)

Hopkinson (1988), pg 242

Mar-28

An anti-Treaty army man (Jack Fleming from Tralee) is captured and brought to Ballymullen Barracks.  During the night, he is brought to the prison a short distance away and killed.

Macardle (1998), pgs 51-52

Mar-28

Anti-Treaty volunteers (Neil ‘Plunkett’ Boyle’s column?) ambush pro-Treaty troops at Valleymount, Co. Wicklow in which pro-Treaty soldier, Private John Pender, is killed. 

Dorney (2017), pg 317

Mar-29

Acting O/C of the 4th Battalion, Bobby Bonfield, of the anti-Treaty Dublin Brigade is arrested on St Stephens Green, Dublin by members of the Protective Corps, including Joe O’Reilly.  He is taken to Clondalkin and shot dead. 

Dorney (2017), pg 250

Mar-31

A pro-Treaty army report from Claremorris, Co. Mayo states “Despite their very considerable numbers, and ample equipment in Mayo, the Irregulars have not been inclined to indulge in military action.  Extensive destruction of roads, raiding, looting, and the burning of the houses of supporters of the Government is the form their warfare continues to take.”

Hopkinson (1988), pg 242

Mar-31

Education Bill in Northern Ireland rejected by Ulster RC bishops.

Phoenix (1994), pg 282

Mar-31

The two northern divisions of the pro-Treaty IRA are formally disbanded.  (Up until this date, GHQ of the pro-Treaty army had continued to pay the divisional staff.)  Most of the approximately 300 northern IRA men in the Curragh had joined the pro-Treaty army.

Phoenix (1994), pg 259

Mar

Ex-Squad member, Frank Teeling (veteran of Bloody Sunday and break out of Kilmainham Goal) shoots dead CDF officer, Richard Johnson at the Theatre Royal in Dublin in a drunken brawl.  Teeling serves 18 months for the killing.

Dorney (2017), pgs 262-262

 

 

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