January 1922




Two young Catholics, Hugh Corr (14) and Samuel Campbell (21 months), are shot by a sniper in Nelson St. in Belfast.  Both die within a few days.


Parkinson (2004), pg 206; McDermott (2001), pg 150


Extensive sniping in the York St./North Queen St area of Belfast – a number of people wounded.  Pte. E. Barnes from the 1st Norfolk Regiment is shot dead in Dale St by a loyalist sniper.  A Protestant, Alexander Turtle (22) shot in the head by a military patrol near Nelson St and later in the day a Catholic butcher, John Murphy, is shot in his shop in York St and dies three weeks later.  Phoenix says that sixteen people are killed during sectarian violence in Belfast in early January.


Parkinson (2004), pg 207; McDermott (2001), pg 150; Phoenix (1994), pg 169


Dáil resumes debate on Treaty.  Over the next few days Piaras Béaslai; J.J. Walsh; Ernst Blythe; Eoin O’Duffy spoke for the motion while Frank Fahy; Liam Mellows; Seamus Fitzgerald; Seamus Robinson; Cathal Brugha and Harry Boland spoke against.  Liam Mellows said “We would rather have this country poor and indigent, we would rather have the people of Ireland eking out a poor existence on the soil as long as they possessed their souls, their minds and their honour.  This fight has been for something more than the fleshpots of Empires.”  Seamus Robinson said that the Volunteers had a right to exercise a veto on the change of their country’s Constitution and demanded a Volunteer convention.

Collins put a proposal to de Valera that he let the Treaty go through and “let the Provisional Government come into existence, subject to Dáil Éireann; and if necessary you can fight the provisional Government on the Republican question afterwards.”  A committee formulated these proposals and put to the leaders on the 5th January but were rejected by the anti-Treaty side.


Macardle (1999), pgs 630-635; Townshend (2014), pg 384


A small journal called The Republic of Ireland has its first publication.  – it is published once or twice a week thereafter.  First edited by Mellows and afterwards by Childers – it strongly argues the anti-Treaty position.


Macardle (1999), pg 657; Curran J M (1980), pg 151


A Catholic, John Gribben (28), is shot in the head on Kildare St. in Belfast.


Parkinson (2004), pg


De Valera intended to submit his Document Number Two to the Dáil as an amendment to the motion before the Dáil in support of the Treaty but this is frustrated on a technicality and he withdraws it.  The document, which is an elaboration of the External Association proposals, is printed in the press the following morning.  It is given as Appendix 22 in Macardle.


Macardle (1999), pg 637


During rioting in the Newtownards Road area of Belfast, a teenage Protestant Albert McCrea is shot dead by the army. RIC DI Nixon is ordered by Commissioner Gelston not to let the USC patrol the Ardoyne or Marrowbone areas of Belfast.


Parkinson (2004), pg 207; McDermott (2001), pg 153


The Belfast Telegraph blames Sinn Féin for the recent violence in Belfast saying they had “prophesised trouble when the responsibility for the maintenance of law and order passed into the control of the Northern Government” and that there was “a plot to keep the city in a state of constant ferment with a view to dismantling the Government”.


Parkinson (2004), pg 207


De Valera offers his resignation but withdraws it when he gets an undertaking from Griffith that the division on the Treaty motion will be taken within 24 hours.


Macardle (1999), pgs 638-639


Writing to Craig, the British Army GOC in Northern Ireland General Cameron says that “no one reading the unionist press would realise … that a large proportion of the outrages are due to [the unionist] side”.   He also said “The Special Constables, drawn entirely from the Protestant section of the community cannot satisfactorily deal with the Roman Catholic hooligan element … tactically the Protestant hooligan element should be the first objective.”   McDermott says that Cameron did not want the British Army taking on the loyalist and republican gunmen at the same time.  


McDermott (2001), pg 150


Writing to Richard Mulcahy, Liam Lynch says “It is with deep regret that I have to acquaint you that … I cannot carry out any order against I.R.A. principles … when such principles stand the danger of being given away by our government”. 

Garvin (1996), pg 47


Hopkinson says a total of 328 statutory public bodies declared themselves in favour of the Treaty's; 5 declared against.  (Curran says a total of 369 elected and other bodies endorsed the Treaty by this date with 14 against.  This included most county councils and borough corporations.)


Hopkinson (1988), pg 35; Curran J M (1980), pg 150


Just back from the States, Harry Boland starts the final day of debate with a strong anti-Treaty speech.  Brugha launched a fierce attack on Collins stating that he was “merely a subordinate in the Department of Defence” who held a very high opinion of himself.  Griffith finished the debate with a long speech stating that the Treaty gave the Irish people the freedom to shape their destiny for the first time in centuries.


Curran J M (1980), pgs 149-150


The Dáil approves the Treaty by 64 votes to 57


O'Farrell P (1997), pg xviii


The Split in the IRA GHQ staff was as follows:  Pro-Treaty were Richard Mulcahy (Chief-of-Staff); Eoin O'Duffy (Deputy Chief-of-Staff – possibly former); J J O'Connell (Assistant Chief-of-Staff); Gearoid O'Sullivan (Adjutant General); Sean McMahon (Quarter-Master General); Michael Collins (Director of Intelligence); Diarmaid Hegarty (Director of Organisation); Emmet Dalton (Director of Training); Piaras Béaslai (Director of Publicity).  Anti- Treaty were Rory O'Connor (Director of Engineering); Liam Mellows (Director of Purchases); Sean Russell (Director of Munitions) and Seamus O'Donovan (Director of Chemicals).  Curran gives the same breakdown.  Macardle adds the following to the anti-Treaty side:  Cathal Brugha as Minister of Defence; Austen Stack as (former?) Deputy Chief of Staff; and Oscar Traynor as O/C of the Dublin Brigade.  However, with the possible exception Austen Stack (whose position on the GHQ staff was ambiguous after Brugha tried to install him as Deputy Chief-of-Staff – a move which was resisted by GHQ), the other two cannot be taken as members of GHQ.  Macardle also leaves out O’Sullivan, McMahon and Dalton from the pro-Treaty side.

Split in IRA around the Country


O’Donoghue (1986), pg 208; Curran J M (1980), pg 49; Macardle (1999), pg 634; Price (2012), pg 196; Townshend pg xi


Commencement of disbandment of RIC


Abbott (2000), pg 295


The body of John McDonough, an ex-soldier, found in the Duncairn Gardens area of Belfast.


Parkinson (2004), pg 208


In the Divis St area of Belfast, a Catholic teenager, William Alwell, is shot dead and later Bridget Devlin (50) is shot on her way to Mass and dies later. 


Parkinson (2004), pg 208


The Dáil reconvenes and de Valera offers to resigns as President of Dáil Eireann.  Collins suggests that de Valera stays as President with a joint committee for the preservation of the peace – while the pro-Treaty side see to the setting up of the Provisional Government “on our side we form a committee to arrange details and do all the dirty work”.  De Valera refuses saying that the Republic must exist until the people had disestablished it.  A motion is put before the Dáil “that Mr. de Valera be re-elected President of the Irish Republic” – it is defeated by 60 votes to 58. The Dáil then discussed Collins motion that Griffith be elected President of the Dáil.  Griffith gives assurances that the Dáil government would remain in existence until the setting up of the Free State, despite the setting up of the Provisional Government.  However, anti-treaty deputies protested that Griffith could not use the Dáil to form a government that would subvert the Republic.


O'Farrell P (1997), pg xviii; Macardle (1999), pgs 642-643; Curran J M (1980), pg 157


A Protestant couple, Andrew Anderson and his wife, are shot dead by a sniper in Hooker St., Belfast.  (McDermott gives the date as the 11th and says that these killings could have been retaliation for the Herbert St bomb thrown at Catholic children but contradicts himself as he gives the date of the Herbert St bomb as the 12th.)


Parkinson (2004), pg 208; McDermott (2001), pg 154


The Dáil debates Collins’s motion that Griffith be elected president of Dáil Eireann.  When de Valera asked Griffith if he would uphold his oath as president not to subvert the Republic, Griffith says that he would maintain the republic until the people decided its fate.  De Valera objects saying that electing Griffith would place him in an impossible position – pledges to subvert the Republic on one hand and maintain it on the other.  De Valera and all anti-Treaty deputies abstain themselves temporarily.  As they walk out, Collins shouts out: "Deserters all to the Irish nation in her hour of trial."   Markievicz replies "Oath-breakers and cowards."  Collins says “Foreigners – Americans – English” to which Markievicz says “Lloyd Georgeities.” 

The remaining members unanimously elect Griffith as President and agree his new cabinet as follows: Arthur Griffith - President; Michael Collins - Minister of Finance; William Cosgrave - Local Government; Charles Gavin Duffy - Foreign Affairs; Kevin O'Higgins - Economic Affairs; Richard Mulcahy - Defence and E J Duggan - Home Affairs.  (Five other non-cabinet members are appointed later.)

In the afternoon, the anti-Treaty deputies resume their seats and the Dáil receives a Labour delegation headed by Thomas Johnson.  Later, when Childers seeks clarification on his policy, Griffith retorts “I will not reply to any damned Englishman in this Assembly.”  Mulcahy affirms that “If any assurance is required, the army will remain the army of the Irish Republic.”  Dáil adjourns until February 14th.


O'Farrell P (1997), pg xviii; Hopkinson (1998), pgs 39-40; Curran J M (1980), pg 158-159; O’Donoghue (1986), pg 200; Macardle (1999), pgs 646-647; Doyle (2008), pg 66


Three anti-Treaty members of IRA GHQ; six divisional commanders and the O/Cs of the two Dublin brigades meet to formulate their anti-Treaty strategy.  They say that the IRA's allegiance to the Dáil was based on the Republic be upheld and they argue that the decision of the Dáil to accept the Treaty means that since they are no longer upholding the Republic, the IRA no longer owes it allegiance.  They call for the IRA to return to rule by its own executive and send a letter the next day to Mulcahy to demand that an Army convention meet on the 5th February.  The letter is signed by Rory O’Connor, Liam Mellows, Sean Russell, James Donovan, Oscar Traynor, Liam Lynch and other IRA commandants. 

(Townshend makes the interesting point that the subordination of the IRA to the Dáil had been led by Brugha who was now a leading anti-Treatyite – See November 16th 1921 - and the IRA Executive had been wound up – See September 15th 1921. Townshend also notes that there had been no IV/IRA Convention since 1917.)

Hopkinson (1988), pg 59; Macardle (1999), pgs 649-650; Curran (1980), pg 163; Townshend (2014), pg 390


Northern Ireland cabinet discuss the Boundary Commission.  Issue is whether to ignore the Commission or co-operate with it.  Craig said that Bonar Law had obtained a promise that Lord Clyde or Lord Dunedin would be appointed Commissioners and that Carson had agreed to act as Ulster’s Commissioner.  As a favourable outcome was more or less assured, they decided on co-operation.

McDermott (2001), pg 156


Peter Switzer is fatally wounded while attending his sister’s funeral at Castletown, Co. Limerick.  See 18th April 1920 and 19th September 1920. 



A meeting takes place of senior IRA officers with Mulcahy and de Valera present.  De Valera asks the officers to give the same co-operation to the new Minister of Defence that they had to the old one.  Mulcahy gives same assurances that he had given to Dáil that the army will remain the army of the Irish Republic.

Macardle (1999), pg 649


The Cumann na mBan Executive votes by 24 to 2 to reject the Treaty.  (The two votes to accept were Jennie Wyse Power and Miss Mullan from Monaghan)

Dorney (2017), pg 31


Griffith writes to all TDs elected in the 26 counties asking them to attend a meeting on the 14th January aimed at “constituting of a Provisional Government”.  He signs it Chairman of the Irish Delegation of Plenipotentiaries.  (Curran says 12th)

Macardle (1999), pg  ; Curran J M (1980), pg 160


A morning tram is attacked with a bomb in the Ardoyne area of Belfast – a number of injuries but no fatalities.  About 11.00pm, loyalist gunmen called to the house of Mary Hogg (40) on Fifth St in Belfast and shot her dead. (She was Catholic and her husband Protestant.)

Parkinson (2004), pg 209; McDermott (2001), pg 154


Supreme Council of IRB meet (on 10th) and issue statement on 12th reaffirming statement of the 12th December and goes onto say that "some such situation as that presented on the agreement to the Treaty was obvious from the date of the termination of hostilities, and the agreement to the Truce".  Further, they say that the situation will not become clear until the draft Irish Constitution can be considered and that, in the meantime, the Dáil shall be continue to be recognised as the Government of the Irish Republic and that IRB members in the IRA should continue to obey orders.

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 194; Hopkinson (1988), pg 44; Curran J M (1980), pg 164


Three men (Patrick Johnston, Thomas McShea and Patrick Leonard) are sentenced to death in Crumlin Road Courthouse in Belfast for the part in the killing of two policemen during a botched jail escape attempt on the 2nd December 1920 in Derry City. Executions scheduled for the 9th February.  See 14th January.

Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 58-60


Eoin O'Duffy replaces Richard Mulcahy as IRA chief-of-staff (as latter had been made Minister of Defence)

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 210


Four bombs thrown almost simultaneously by loyalists at Catholics in the Clonard area of Belfast.  Later a bomb is thrown at children in Herbert St injuring six.

McDermott (2001), pg 153


Mulcahy replies to IRA officers saying that he has no authority to call a convention of the IRA as Dáil Eireann was “the elected government of the Irish Republic” and that the control of the army could not be transferred to another body as “supreme control of the Army” lay with the Dáil. 

On same day, Rory O’Connor writes to Eoin O’Duffy saying that officers who demanded a convention intended to call one themselves, adding that they would only obey orders from O’Duffy when it had been countersigned by himself.

See January 18th.

Curran J M (1980), pg 162; Townshend (2014), pg 391


The Belfast Telegraph quotes a joint statement from three leaders of the Protestant churches calling on Protestants not to engage in criminal acts and while saying that Protestants had “not been the original aggressors”, they admitted that “members of the community belonging nominally to our churches have been involved in these outbreaks of violence”.

Parkinson (2004), pg 209


Amnesty and release of 1,000 pre-Truce prisoners convicted of political crimes. (Macardle says nearly 400.)  As in December, when the internees were released, there were jubilant scenes around the country when the prisoners arrived home.

Abbott (2000), pg 274; Macardle (1999), pg 656; McDermott (2001), pg 155


Griffith - in his capacity as chair of the plenipotentiaries – calls the House of Commons of Southern Ireland to approve the Treaty and elect a provisional government to implement it.  Sixty pro-Treaty TDs and four Unionist MPs (from Trinity) meet as the “Southern Parliament”. 

Michael Collins elected Chairman and the other members of his cabinet are:  William Cosgrave (Local Govt), Eammon Duggan (Home Affairs), Kevin O'Higgins (Economic Affairs), Patrick J Hogan (Agriculture), Joseph McGrath (Labour), Finian Lynch, Michael Hayes (Education), Desmond Fitzgerald (Publicity), Ernst Blythe (Trade and Commerce) and Eoin McNeill. 

Under the Treaty, Provisional Government would hold power in the South until the 6th December 1922. This was first and only meeting of 'Southern Ireland Parliament' if the meeting on the 26th June 1921 is ignored.  (Neither Griffith or Mulcahy are formally members of Provisional Government.)  Collins sets up office in City Hall. Comment

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 201; Litton (1995), pg 34; Macardle (1999), pg 652; Curran J M (1980), pg 160; Townshend (2014), pg 385


Members of the ‘Monaghan Gaelic football team’ are arrested outside the village of Dromore in Co. Tyrone by a party of Ulster Special Constabulary on their way to play Derry in the Ulster Final.  Ten men were arrested. Among them are Major-General Dan Hogan, O/C 5th Northern Division IRA.  Paper found on them relate to plans to spring three prisoners due to be executed in Derry jail (for their part in a botched jail break attempt on the 2nd December 1920 who were sentenced on January 12th). Outrage on all sides – leading to Churchill asking Collins and Craig to London.  Subsequent discussions led to the First Collins-Craig Pact – see 21st January. 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 79; Gallagher (2003), pg 38; McDermott (2001), pg 157; Dooley (2017a), pg 103; Grant (2018), pgs 130-131


Official start of Provisional Government.  The Lord-Lieutenant, Edward Talbot Fitzalan, formally hands over power to Michael Collins and keys to Dublin Castle. 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xix; Litton (1995), pg 41; Macardle (1999), pg 653; Curran J M (1980), pg 160


2nd Southern Division of the IRA votes not to recognise GHQ.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 60


IRA men from the East Mayo brigade raid the RIC barracks in Charlestown, Co. Mayo in breach of the Truce.  Four RIC men are wounded or severely beaten.  The raiders make away with 23 Lee-Enfield rifles and 25 revolvers.  Raid investigated by Sean Walsh, local IRA Liaison Officer. 

Price (2012), pgs 201-202


A meeting takes place, under chair of Richard Mulcahy, of GHQ Staff and divisional commandants (with some brigade commandants who were not part of divisions).  Agree to hold Army Convention within two months and that, in a meantime, a 'watchdog' committee would be set up with members from both sides.  This committee did not meet often. 

Liam Pilkington, O/C 3rd Western Division (who was anti-Treaty) said “All you want [is] to build up a Free State army so that you can march in step into the British Army”

(Curran says that this meeting was acrimonious and that Mulcahy only agreed to holding of convention to prevent an open break.)

See February 24th

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 211; Farry (2012), pgs 89-91; Townshend (2014), pg 391


IRA Lieutenant Michael Moran dies of a heart attack at his home in Dooagh, Achill Island, Co. Mayo.  Death due to ill-treatment in prison.

Price (2012), pg 283


At the urging of Churchill, Collins and Craig meet in London (in Churchill’s office) and make a pact agreeing that (1) Craig would do all he could to ensure that Catholics workers expelled from the shipyards would be re-instated and Collins would seek the end of the Belfast Boycott;  (2) They also had discussions on how to settle the boundary issue and agree that the boundary commission would have one representative each from the North and South reporting to Craig and Collins respectively and (3) They agree to try to find “a more suitable system than the Council of Ireland for dealing with the problems affecting all-Ireland”.  This is known as the First Craig-Collins PactComment

Litton (1995), pg 49; Hopkinson (1988), pg 82; Curran J M (1980), pg 165; Phoenix (1994), pgs 170-174; Parkinson (2004), pg 199; McDermott (2001), pg 159

Jan 21-28

Convention of the Irish Race held in Paris.  A new association is formed called Fine Ghaedheal. De Valera is elected President and Robert Brennan (anti-Treaty) is appointed Secretary.

Macardle (1999), pg 665; Brennan (1950), pgs 334-336


District Centres of the IRB in Cork meet and pass a resolution condemning the Supreme Council’s statements of the 12th Dec and 12th Jan and call on them to resign.  A number of other circles do likewise and cease to function.

Curran J M (1980), pg 164; O’Donoghue (1986), pg 194


An unauthorised attack on RIC men in Tralee, Co. Kerry results in the death of Volunteer Percy Hannafin and the wounding of an RIC man.  [Doyle says that this happened on the 20th when the IRA men tried to seize an RIC lorry which was in a garage for  repair and it led on the 21st to a gun battle on the streets of Tralee between the RIC and the IRA.]

Horgan (2018), pg 302; Doyle (2008), pg 75


After considerable discussion as to its nature, the Provisional Government decides to set up an unarmed national police force called the Civic Guard with Michael Staines (but see February 21st) as its first commissioner.  Staines and Mulcahy set up a number of committees to decide on structure, size, operational issues, etc.  See February 9th.

Townshend (2014), pg 288


British Army evacuate barracks in Swinford and Claremorris, Co. Mayo

Price (2012), pg 198


The Belfast Newsletter, despite its earlier opposition to the Treaty (see Dec 17), says that if the Provisional Government is prepared to take an attitude of goodwill to the NI Government then the Treaty “is likely to turn out a blessing to the whole of Ireland”.  Comment  

Parkinson (2004), pg 199


Collins, O’Higgins and Duggan agree with the British Cabinet’s Provisional Government of Ireland committee in London on the working arrangements for the transfer of power (transfer of departments, role of viceroy, demobilisation of RIC, etc.).  Auxiliaries to leave Ireland by end of January, RIC to cease to function as the police force by end of February and all British troops were quickly concentrated in Dublin, Cork and the Curragh (except for Treaty ports). 

Curran J M (1980), pgs 160-161

Jan -24

Ronald McNeill M.P. states in the Morning Post that the agreement between Craig and Collins is “the definite and formal recognition by Mr. Collins of the status of Ulster as a separate Government in Ireland”

Macardle (1999), pg 658


Belfast Boycott formally ended.

Phoenix (1994), pg 176


In Belfast, Craig says that “I will never give in to any re-arrangement of the boundary that leaves our Ulster area less than it is under the Government of Ireland Act”. Phoenix says 27th

Macardle (1999), pg 658; Phoenix (1994), pg 175


Killarney handed over.

Abbott (2000), pg 275


Collins tells his cabinet that he wanted a definite policy decided upon re Northern Ireland.  In the evening, cabinet meets with RC Bishop MacRory of Down and Conor to discuss the north.  (Eoin O’Duffy also in attendance.)  They discuss a non-recognition policy towards the NI government including the paying of teachers’ salaries (which were due to be taken over by NI Ministry of Education on 1st February) and local government.  Collins says that he will speak to Devlin about pan-nationalist non-recognition pact.

Phoenix (1994), pgs 178-179


IRA GHQ officially takes over Beggars Bush Barracks, Dublin as its HQ.  As Dublin Guard march past City Hall (where the Provisional Government are housed), Collins takes the salute. Cheering crowds line the streets. More Detail

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xix; Litton (1995), pg 42; Macardle (1999), pg 655; Curran J M (1980), pg 163; Dorney (2017), pg 35


Collins meets with Devlin in Gresham Hotel, Dublin.  They agree that they will not enter the NI parliament.  Devlin says he is anxious to have a policy which will unite northern nationalists.    

McDermott (2001), pg 162


De Valera forms Cumann na Poblachta (the Republican Party) of the TDs who had voted against the Treaty.  (Curran says this happened in early March.)

Macardle (1999), pg 657; Curran J M (1980), pg 173


IRA sets up an Ulster Council made up of senior officers from the various divisions with brigades in Ulster. It includes officers who had declared for and against the Treaty and some neutrals.  It is chaired by Frank Aiken who had taken a neutral stance.  See 7th/8th February.

Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 61


Craig cannot or will not get the expelled Belfast workers re-instated.  By end of January, only 20 of the estimated 7,000 expelled workers are re-instated.

Phoenix (1994), pg 177

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