July 1921

 

Jul

By July, there were 3,414 ‘A’ Specials in the six counties (outnumbering the RIC); 15,902 ‘B’ Specials and 1,310 ‘C’ Specials.

McDermott (2001), pg 86

Jul-01

The IRA ambushed a 7-man RIC cycle patrol south-west of Dromore, Co. Sligo.  Two RIC men (Constable Thomas Higgins and Constable John King) were taken prisoner and, as the IRA were pursued by police and military, the two policemen were shot dead.

 

Abbott (2000), pg 261

Jul-01

The body of RIC Constable Joseph Shelsher was found at Barnlough, outside the village of Bansha, Co. Tipperary.  He had been shot in the head.

Abbott (2000), pg 262

Jul-01

Auxiliaries fire on two men making hay on Murphy's farm near Rathcoole, Co. Cork and kill one of them who is an IRA man (Bernard Moynihan).

Lynch in The Kerryman (1955), pg 238

Jul-02

An RIC patrol investigating the destruction of property on the railway line at Oola, Co. Limerick was attacked resulting in the death of two policemen (Sgt Andrew Johnstone and Constable William Hill) and the wounding of five others.

 

Abbott (2000), pg 262

Jul-02

Ten RIC men were ambushed at Tallow, Co. Waterford resulting in the death of Constable Francis Creedon.

Abbott (2000), pg 262

Jul-02

J. Daly from Tyrrellspass, Co. Westmeath dies

O’Farrell (1997), pg 105

Jul-03

Two off-duty RIC men were shot at just outside Wicklow town resulting in the death of Constable John Fitzgerald.  (According to Abbott, Fitzgerald put his hands up and said that he was unarmed but was still shot.)

 

Abbott (2000), pg 262-263

Jul-03

R. Cusack from Ballycotton, Co. Cork dies.

O’Farrell (1997), pg 105

Jul-04

Earl of Middleton and some southern unionists meet De Valera and latter says he cannot go to London to discuss peace with Craig as he represents a part of the country of which he is President.

Curran J M (1980), pg 60

Jul-05

Smuts meets De Valera in Dublin; De Valera argues for republic on natural right while Smuts argues against it on the basis of political experience.  He relates to De Valera the compromise which ended the Boer War and relationship which had since developed between South Africa and the British Commonwealth.    De Valera opens a Dáil session on the letter from Lloyd George.

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 60; Townshend (1975), pgs 197; Macardle (1999), pg 474

Jul-05

RIC Constable Cyril Brewer was shot in Hospital, Co. Limerick and dies from his wounds two days later.

 

Abbott (2000), pg 263

Jul-06

Two RIC were directing traffic at the corner of Union St and Little Donegall St in Belfast when they were attacked resulting in the death of one (Constable Timothy Galvin) and the wounding of the other (Constable Conway).

 

Abbott (2000), pg 263; McDermott (2001), pg 93

Jul-06

J. McNally from Cranagh, Co. Tyrone dies

O’Farrell (1997), pg 113

July 6+7

Middleton meets Lloyd George in London - Lloyd George agrees to exclusion of Craig and an informal truce.

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 60

Jul-07

The RIC barracks in Ballinhassig, Co. Cork was attacked by the IRA and the attack was repulsed.  Afterwards the body of RIC Constable James Connor, who had left the barracks just before the attack, was found dead at the side of the road.

 

Abbott (2000), pg 263

Jul-07

The body of a retired RIC Sergeant (Sgt Anthony Foody) was found at Carralavin, Co. Mayo (between Ballina and Balliconlon) with a label around his neck reading "Revenge for Dwyer and the Ragg".  (The IRA blamed Sgt Foody for the killing of the Dwyer brothers in the Ragg, (Bouladuff), Co Tipperary on 20th October 1920.)

 

Abbott (2000), pg 264

Jul-07

A group of policemen were bathing near Doolin, Co. Clare when they were attacked resulting in the death of one RIC man (Constable James Hewitt) and the wounding of one other.

 

Abbott (2000), pg 264

Jul-08

After a day of consultation, de Valera telegraphed Llyod George stating that he would meet with him to discuss setting up a conference and discuss “on what basis such a conference as that proposed can reasonably hope to achieve the object desired” (i.e. talks about talks)

 

Macardle (1999), pg 474

Jul-08

Macready and Middleton met Sinn Féin leaders in Dublin and agree truce (with imprecise terms which gives rise to subsequent disagreements.).  Macready is cheered by crowds as he arrives at Mansion House.

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 61; Townshend (1975), pgs 197

Jul-08

RIC searches of the Union and Stanhope St. area of Belfast turns into an hour-long gun battle with the local IRA.  Also, there was a series of post office raids by the IRA.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 152; McDermott (2001), pgs 94-95.

Jul-08

Three RIC men are attacked on the Fair Green, Rathdrum, Co. Wicklow resulting in the death of one policeman (Constable Frederick Cormer).

 

Abbott (2000), pg 264-265

Jul-09

At 3.00p.m., at a meeting in the Mansion House between Macaready, Colonel J. Brind, and Andy Cope (on the British side) and Robert Barton and Eamonn Duggan (on the Irish side) agreement is reached that a truce will start on the 11th.  Text of truce agreement given in Macardle.  Comment

 

Macardle (1999), pgs 475-476

Jul-09

T. Burke and R. Lynch from Dungarvan, Co. Waterford die as does T. Dahill also from Dungarvan and J. & W. Dunford, Kilmafrehan, Dungarvan, Co. Waterford.

 

O’Farrell (1997), pg 103 & 105 & 107 & 111

Jul-10

In the last major conflict of the War of Independence, four British soldiers and five IRA are killed in a gun battle at Castlemaine, Co. Kerry.   (IRA men include T. Fleming from Castleisland, Tralee; J. Flynn from Ballymacelligott.)

 

Hopkinson (2002), pg 126; O'Farrell P (1997), pg 107

Jul-10

An RIC man (Constable Alfred Needham) was shot in O'Connell St, Ennis and later died of his wounds.

 

Abbott (2000), pg 265

Jul-10 to 17

The 10th July is known as Belfast’s ‘Bloody Sunday’.  During a large raid by RIC and Specials on Raglan St in the early hours of the 10th July, an RIC patrol in a Crossley tender is attacked in Ross St., off the Falls Rd in Belfast resulting in the death of one policeman (Constable Thomas Conlon) and the wounding of two other people in the tender.  As the result of this and other incidents, lorry loads of Specials attack Catholic areas, shooting wildly.  The ensuing disturbances result in the death of at least 20 people and injuries to many more in the following week.  More Detail

Abbott (2000), pg 265; Hopkinson (2002), pg 163; Macardle (1999), pg 478; Gallagher (1953), pg 304; Phoenix (1994), pg 140; Parkinson (2004), pgs 143-146 & 152-156; McDermott (2001), pgs 99-103; O’Farrell (1997), pg 111

Jul-11

An RIC man (Sgt James King) is shot in Patrick St., Castlerea, Co. Roscommon and dies of his wounds shortly afterwards.

 

Abbott (2000), pg 266

Jul-11

RIC Constable Alexander Clarke was shot dead in Skibbereen,  Co. Cork.

 

Abbott (2000), pg 266

Jul-11

 At noon Truce Begins - greeted by jubilation in Dublin (Monday)

Curran J M (1980), pg 61

 

 

 

July

About 70,000 in IRA but only 5,000 in active service units and about 3000 in flying columns. A report by Mulcahy says that in June 1921 the IRA had 3295 rifles, 49 Thompson, 12 machine guns, ~15,000 shotguns and 6,000 pistols.

Curran J M (1980), pg 39 and pg 301

July

About 70,000 British troops and police in Ireland with about half of them being infantry effectives.

Curran J M (1980), pg 62

July

Hart considers claims by both sides to have the upper hand in the months before the Truce and concludes that "For either side to impose its will on the other was a very distant prospect."

Hart (1998), pgs 104-108

July

Curran reckons that British got more out of truce than Irish.  Even though British lost some face, a return to fighting after truce would not have public support and IRA was out in open.  Also, by threatening drastic actions (with public support) the British were likely to get most of what they wanted by way of a settlement.

Curran J M (1980), pg 63

July

About 2,000 killed between Easter Monday 1916 and the Truce.  British casualties between Jan 1919 and truce were 405 police killed and 682 wounded and 150 soldiers killed and 345 wounded.  IRA deaths were about 650, which if the ~500 killed in 1916 are subtracted, would leave only ~300 civilian deaths during the War of Independence (which seems low)

Curran J M (1980), pg 62

July

During the War of Independence, the IRA burnt 76 Country Homes (‘Big Houses) – 42 of them in Munster.  

Dooley (2017), pg 449

Jul-12

Irish leaders leave for London- de Valera, Stack, Griffith and Barton.

Gallagher (1953), pg 305

Jul-12

Giving a speech to Orangemen in Belfast, Craig says “How can we ever forget what has been done to our kith and kin in the South of Ireland? … We are going to enforce peace if it does not come naturally.”

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 160

Jul-13

At the trial of IRA man Philip McDade for his part in the attempted robbery of a post office on the Sandy Row in Belfast, after which McDade was caught and badly beaten by a loyalist crowd, he was cross-examined by RIC DI Nixon who said “The crowd that caught you did their duty but did not finish it”,

 

McDermott (2001), pg 108

Jul-14

As part of the on-going Belfast Boycott, notices appear stating that paper money of the northern banks (including the Northern, Ulster and Belfast banks) would cease to be legal tender from the 14th July.  The posters state that “any persons trading with [these] banks will be severely punished and banknotes seized.”

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 76

Jul-14

1st meeting between Lloyd George and De Valera in London - Lloyd George offers Dominion status and threatens terrible coercion if no settlement.  (Art O’Brien joined the Irish delegation.)

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 64; Gallagher (1953), pg 306

Jul-15

2nd meeting. -De Valera pushes for Independent but Associated Republic - Lloyd George refuses to contemplate

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 64

Jul-16

6000 Republicans imprisoned of whom 4,454 were internees

Curran J M (1980), pg 62 & Hopkinson (2002), pg 94; Townshend (1975), pg 195

Jul-16

Eoin O’Duffy, who had been appointed Truce Liaison Officer, sets up in St Mary Hall in Belfast and announces that all IRA activity, except self-defence, would cease.

McDermott (2001), pg 105

Jul-17

P. McCarry from Ballycastle, Co. Antrim dies

O’Farrell (1997), pg 112

Jul-18

3rd meeting. - Lloyd George  says if no partition then civil war - De Valera says that South would rather leave North than have civil war - Lloyd George  asks Why not leave it alone now - De Valera says he will consult with his cabinet.

Curran J M (1980), pg 64

Jul-20

British cabinet agrees proposals (incl. use of word Treaty) - a qualified Dominion status for Southern Ireland whereby South would have full internal control incl. taxation, finance and land defence; no navy; bases for royal navy; restrictions on number of Irish army, rights of recruiting, free trade between two countries; Irish contribution to British War Debt.  In addition, South must recognise "the existing powers and privileges of the Parliament of Northern Ireland, which cannot be abrogated except by their own consent”.  Full text given in Macardle.  Terms sent to Irish delegation at the Grosvenor Hotel.

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 65; Macardle (1999), pgs 482-487; Gallagher (1953), pgs 308-309

Jul-21

4th meeting -  De Valera rejects proposals & demands full Dominion status for all Ireland or complete independence for South.  De Valera gives Lloyd George long speech of English misdeeds in Ireland.  (Lloyd George says that talking to De Valera was like trying to pick up mercury with a fork.)  De Valera agrees to bring British proposals back to Ireland (where they are unanimously rejected by the Irish cabinet).

Curran J M (1980), pg 65

Jul-24

RIC attack civilians in Limerick badly injuring several people.  According to Macardle, this was one of many such attacks at this time.

 

Macardle (1999), pg 538

Jul-27

Denis Spriggs, 1st Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade, IRA is killed.  Also, D. McGrath from Corruna Cross, Co. Cork dies (O’Farrell says that McGrath died on 21st.)

 

O'Kelly in The Kerryman (1955), pg 26; O’Farrell (1997), pg 112

Jul-28

Ruling from the House of Lords that the court martials held in Ireland were illegal.

 

Macardle (1999), pg 465

Jul-29

Cathal Brugha, Minister for Defence, writes to Mrs E Benson (sister of Mrs Lindsay) confirming that the IRA had killed her sister the previous March.

 

Sheehan (1990), pg 185

Jul

As part of the truce, liaison set up between British army/RIC and IRA to sort out details at local level.  This included liaison in the North where the Specials were immobilised and no more recruitment to new police force.  Eoin O’Duffy sent to Belfast as the IRA’s Truce Liaison Officer for Ulster.  No further powers transferred to Northern Ireland government until November.  Parkinson notes that “Unionists felt they were being sacrificed on the high altar of political pragmatism.”

Phoenix (1994), pg 139; Parkinson (2004), pg141

 

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