March 1921


Decision made by IRA GHQ to form the five northern divisions. 

1st Northern Division takes in the four Donegal brigades and the Derry City Battalion and Frank Carney is made (temporary) Divisional O/C. 

2nd Northern Division comprises the rest of the County Derry and the three Tyrone brigades.  Eoin O’Duffy (from Monaghan) is made O/C assisted by Charlie Daly (from Kerry) who had earlier been sent by GHQ, as an organiser, to south Derry and Tyrone.

See Mar-14-21/4.


Grant (2018), pg 112


There is an attack on an RIC patrol by the IRA in Charville, Co. Cork led by Paddy O’Brien.

Later that night, two Black and Tans kill Sean O'Brien (Chairman, Rural District Council) in reprisal.  The IRA name two Black and Tans (Constables Spain and Spellman as his killers.

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 138; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 320; Cork Fatality Register


A pensioner and ex-RIC man, Patrick Roche, is taken from his house and shot dead at Causeway, Listowel, Co. Kerry.  A card was pinned to his body saying 'Convicted spy.  All informers beware IRA.' 

He was killed by John Lucid and other volunteers from the 2nd Battalion, Kerry No. 1 Brigade, IRA

Abbott (2000), pg 186; Abbott (2019), pg 236; Horgan (2018), pgs 208-212; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 320


IRA Volunteer Thomas Lobby from the Tipperary No. 3 Brigade is killed after Crown Forces engage about 15 IRA men near Knockjordan. 

Another Volunteer, John Hayes from Knockarden, Co. Tipperary, is wounded and dies on March 4th.

O’Farrell (1997), pgs  109 & 111; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 319 & 322


Three disguised men enter the goods office in Cork train station. They drag IRA Volunteer, Charlie J. Daly into the Blackpool Tunnel where they beat and then kill him.

Borgonovo (2007) pg 110; O’Farrell (1997), pgs 105 & 112; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 319


Thomas Devaney who was a Lieutenant with the 2nd Battalion, Tipperary No. 1 Brigade is shot dead as he tries to flee a Crown Forces search party. 

See also Jan-26-21/7.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 319


James Kennedy is killed by a shot from a lorry carrying BA soldiers near the Palace Cinema on Brunswick St in Dublin.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 319


Daniel Casey is shot when a British Army party manning a check point outside the GPO in Cork City fire on a group of fleeing civilians.  He dies later in hospital.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 319


The IRA shoot dead, as a spy, Thomas Cotter, outside his home at Curraclogh, Bandon (or Macroom), Co. Cork.  Various sources give different accounts of this killing.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 319; Cork Fatality Register


70 year old Denis O’Brien is shot dead by a member of a British Army curfew patrol in Cork City for failing to stop.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 321


Five IRA men from Sections 1 and 2 of ASU of the Dublin Brigade, led by Tom Flood, throw five bombs at a three vehicle British Army military convoy in Dublin. 

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin say that this attack happened at the junction of Capel St and Parnell St while Molyneux and Kelly say it happened along Ormond Quay.

A 72-year civilian, Michael Roche, is wounded in this engagement and dies in hospital on March 20th.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 349; Molyneux and Kelly (2021), pgs 195-196


Fermoy Battalion ASU of the Cork No. 2 Brigade attack an RIC patrol.  One RIC man (Constable Joseph Duddy) is shot dead and another wounded.  The patrol surrenders.

According to O’Donoghue, this ambush takes place at Macollop, 5 miles east of Fermoy, Co Cork.  According to Abbott, McCarthy and O’Halpin & Ó Corráin it took place at Scartacrooks or Scartnacrooha, Co. Waterford.  (These locations would be close.)


O’Donoghue (1986), pg 138; Abbott (2000), pg 205; Abbott (2019), pg 260; McCarthy (2015), pg 81; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 321


Thomas Mullen (29) from Clonberne or Killavoher, Co. Galway is arrested by the RIC. He is beaten and shot dead.  Official RIC story is that he was shot ‘trying to escape’. 

Even Macready doesn’t seem to believe the RIC’s story – he says “To say the least this is another example of the necessity of handcuffing at once persons arrested in order to prevent them escaping”.

McNamara says that this killing was another revenge killing (along with the four young men already killed) for the Kilroe ambush – see Jan-18 to 22-21/1. However, Lesson indicates that it may have been revenge by the RIC for a failed IRA ambush on February 26th (when the IRA’s position was given away by local residents). 

Houses were set on fire by Crown Forces in Dunmore the following day.


McNamara (2018), pg 148; Leeson (2012), pg 58; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 320-321


IRA man Richard Keane from Hymenstown, New Inn, Co. Tipperary is killed in action.

O’Farrell (1997), pg 110; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 321


Francis Elliott is shot dead near his home in Ballymurray, Knockcroghery, Co. Roscommon.  He was probably killed by the South Roscommon Brigade of the IRA as a suspected informer.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 321; Burke (2021), pg 107


The East Waterford IRA ASU attempts to lure Crown Forces out of Dungarvan by holding up the train to Waterford and ambush the forces sent out to investigate near the viaduct at Ballyvoile. 

However, the British send more troops than expected.  A firefight develops which lasts most of the day with a small number of wounded on the British side.  Even though the ASU did not suffer any casualties, it had used up a lot of its ammunition.


McCarthy (2015), pgs 79-80


A memo from the IRA’s 3rd Cork Brigade to Mulcahy says “It is impossible to do anything on the trains since the Milstreet Ambush [See Feb-11-21/1], as they travel with passengers”.


Sheehan (2017), pg 136


The South Leitrim ASU of the IRA carry out an ambush on a joint RIC/BA convoy at Sheemore (Ballinwing) on the Carrick-on-Shannon to Ballinamore road. 

The convoy was returning to Carrick-on-Shannon from a raid on Gowel church.  It results in the death of 2nd Lieutenant Eric Chiver Wilson of the 1st Battalion Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment and the wounding of a number of others.

The ASU was led by Sean Mitchell and it included Charles McGoohan, Michael Geoghegan, Joe Nangle, Matthew Boylan, Thomas O’Reilly, Michael Martin and Harry McKeon.

In retaliation, Crown Forces go on the rampage. They burn the Temperance Hall in Gowel and they destroy the machinery in the creamery at Kiltoghert before burning down the creamery.  In Carrick-on-Shannon they burn a number of houses before attacking, again, the offices of the Leitrim Observer.

Lawlor says March 1st, O’Halpin and Ó Corráin say March 3rd and McGarty says March 4th as does Sheehan.


Lawlor (2011), pgs 127-128; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 323; McGarty (2020), pgs 93-94; Sheehan (2009), pgs 94-95


Curfew in Dublin (see Nov-22-20/1) is extended by the British to 9pm to 5am. 

See Mar-31-21/7.


Sheehan (2007), pg 46 & 67


An RIC man (Constable James Beasant) is shot dead by two IRA men in a public house on Main St, Cashel, Co. Tipperary who also seriously injure a woman in the bar, Julia Cantwell.  The two IRA men were Paddy Hogan and Thomas Nagle.

Constable Beasant was from Wiltshire in England and had four months’ service with the RIC. 


Abbott (2000), pg 205; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 322


The IRA abduct Bridget Noble between Ardgroom and Castletownbere in the west of Co. Cork.  She is executed as an informer on March 15th. The CFR gives a lot of detail which suggests that she was an informer.

Her execution give rise to a lot of controversy as the execution of women was forbidden under IRA General Orders – see Nov-09-20/6.

Noble was one of three women executed by the IRA as informers during the War of Independence. (The other two were Mary Lindsay – see cMar-21-21/4 and Kate Carroll – see Apr-17-21/1.)


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 341-342; Cork Fatality Register


The IRA, under Sean Moylan, carry out a major ambush at Clonbanin, Co Cork.  This ambush results in the deaths of four members of the BA.

More Detail 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 139; Lynch in The Kerryman (1955), pgs 169-178 & Hopkinson (2002), pg 112; Townshend (1975), pg 152; Townshend (2014), pgs 242-244; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 322-323; Sheehan (2017), pg 133


Speaking at the Clare Spring Assizes, Thomas Francis Moloney, Lord Chief Justice of Ireland, berates the people of Clare for having “allowed themselves to be cowed, intimidated and downtrodden by a comparatively small number of reckless and wicked men”. 

With greater perspicaciousness, he also said the he accepted that the people of Clare “dislike the crime but they dislike more assisting the police”.


Mac Conmara (2021), pg 57


Jeremiah O’Mahoney, who was captain of the Copeen Company, 3rd (Dunmanway) Battalion, Cork No. 3 Brigade, is accidently shot dead by a comrade near Ballyvelone Cross, Enniskeane, Co. Cork.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 323


Similar to the attack on March 2nd (see Mar-02-21/2) a three vehicle convoy carrying Crown Forces is attacked on Ormond, Inns and Arran quays in Dublin by eleven IRA men from Sections 1 & 2 of the ASU of the Dublin Brigade. 

Several members of the RIC’s Igoe gang and one IRA man (Sean Quinn) are wounded.


Molyneux and Kelly (2021), pgs 196


IRA man Thomas Lee is shot dead by the RIC as he flees across a field near Fethard, Co. Tipperary.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 323; O’Farrell (1997), pg 111


BA soldier, Walter Wiggins (aka Walter Jones), commits suicide in Limerick.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 555


An RIC man (Sgt James Maguire) is shot dead by five men in Kilmallock, Co. Limerick - as a result there are reprisals in the town.

Maguire was the RIC Liaison Officer for British Army Intelligence officer, Lieutenant Harold Browne.  The East Limerick Brigade of the IRA believed that Maguire had given the information that led to the deaths of David Tobin and Thomas F. Murphy – see Jan-01-21/6.


Abbott (2000), pg 205; O’Callaghan (2018), pg 90; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 325


Bridget Walpole goes missing from her family home in Ballylea, Tralee, Co. Kerry. Her body is found the following morning.  She had been shot in the head.  Her killing is believed to have resulted from a family dispute about land.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 325


Thomas Larkin from Rosegreen, Co. Tipperary is killed by Crown Forces in the vicinity of Drangan.

O’Farrell (1997), pg 111; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 325


Three IRA officers are killed when attending a battalion council meeting of Tipperary No. 3 Brigade at Knockroe, Co. Tipperary. They are Martin Clancy from Ballyluskey, Co. Tipperary; Patrick Hackett from Rathkenny, Drangan, Co. Tipperary and Richard (Dick) Fleming from Coolmore, Drangan, Co. Tipperary.

Ineffective sentries meant that a BA patrol from the Lincolnshire Regiment under Lieutenant M. M. Ormond could surprise the 12 IRA officers attending the meeting.  At least, one IRA man is captured. 

It is reported that Clancy was wounded and then ‘finished off’ when under arrest.  Martin Clancy’s brother (Patrick Clancy) had been killed by the BA on November 19th 1920 – see Nov-19-20/2. 


O’Farrell (1997), pg 104; Walsh (2018), pg 80; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 324-327


In a report by Tom Barry (O/C Flying Column, Cork No. 3 Brigade, IRA), he noted that the BA “never travel the same route more than once a week. Also, they travel always in convoy of more than seven lorries generally accompanied by an armoured car.”

This was the BA reacting to IRA ambushes – see the BA’s 5th Division Standing Orders for Armed Parties moving by Lorry - available as Appendix X in Sheehan (2009).   These standing orders were issued on June 20th 1921 but elements obviously implemented beforehand.


Sheehan (2017), pg 132; Sheehan (2009), pgs 190 – 198


Cornelius Foley, who was QM of the Toames Company, 7th Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade, IRA is shot by Auxiliaries who had come across about 20 men near Toames.  He is brought to Macroom Castle and dies there later in the day. 

Before he dies, Foley is recorded as saying “Up de Valera, we’ll kill all you bastard English before long”.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 325; O’Farrell (1997), pg 108


Patrick Hogan, who was O/C 2nd Battalion, Tipperary No. 3 Brigade, IRA, is shot dead after Crown Forces raid the house in which he was staying at Derrycloney, New Inn, Co. Tipperary.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 323; O’Farrell (1997), pg 109


Arson attacks carried out by IRA in Newcastle, South Shields and Hyde in England

Macardle (1999), pg 443


John O’Neill was working as a chauffeur and was driving two passengers to Portmarnock in north Co. Dublin when he is stopped in Donnycarney on the Malahide Rd by the IRA.  As he pulls up, he is shot dead. 

It is a bad mistake by the IRA – the intended target was a car taking British Army officers to Portmarnock golf course.  (Perhaps the IRA mistook O’Neill’s chauffeur uniform for a BA military uniform.)


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 324


James Hayden is one of a group of men outside Rathanna Chapel in Co. Carlow.  They disobey an order to halt from a BA patrol and one of the BA soldiers opens fire killing Hayden.  Only one round was fired. There was a strong wind so Hayden may not have heard order.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 324


Henry Guy is one of a number of men playing pitch and toss near Saxe Lane, Sutton Cross in Dublin.  A group of Auxiliaries arrive and open fire.  Guy is killed and two other civilians wounded.  The GOC of the BA in the Dublin District considered that the Auxiliaries “opened fire somewhat hastily: as it turned out that they were confronted by unarmed civilians”.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 324


East Waterford Brigade IRA attempts a three-prong attack on Crown Forces in Waterford City but only one prong happens. 

In the wake of this failure, the O/C of the East Waterford Brigade (Paddy Paul) relieves the Brigade’s Vice O/C (William Keane) of his position.

See May-22-21/4.


McCarthy (2015), pg 79


During the night of 6th to 7th March, George Clancy, Lord Mayor of Limerick and Michael O'Callaghan, ex-Lord Mayor of Limerick are shot dead in their homes.

Also, during the night of 6th to 7th March, Joseph (James) O’Donoghue is arrested by the RIC in Limerick.  Next day, his dead body found in Jonesborough Av.

More Detail


Macardle (1999), pgs 430-431; Hopkinson (2002), pg xv; O’Farrell (1997), pgs 78; 36; 16 & 76; O’Callaghan (2018), pg 84; Lesson (2012), pgs 189-190; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 325-326; Mac Conmara (2021), pgs 202 & 222


Sean MacEoin, O/C Longford Flying Column, is arrested at Mullingar railway station on his way back from Dublin, where he had been summoned by Cathal Brugha (who wanted him to participate in a plan he had to assassinate the British cabinet).

MacEoin is badly wounded. He is charged with the murder of DI McGrath – see Jan-07-21/2.

(O’Farrell says this occurred on March 21st but this is unlikely.) 

See May-14-21/1.


O'Farrell P (1997), pg 61; Coleman (2003), pgs 128-129; Molyneux and Kelly (2021), pg 194


A British Army patrol from the Border Regiment is attacked at Kilfall or Kilfaul (between Castlebar and Ballinrobe) by the South Mayo Brigade of the IRA who are under the command of Tom Maguire. The British surrender and are disarmed. 

A number of British soldiers are wounded and one – Corporal Charles Bell – dies of his wounds five days later.  This is the first ambush by the South Mayo Brigade.

Following this ambush, the Crown Forces engage in reprisals including killing Thomas Horan from Srah. (It is possible that Horan was killed because he had lodged a claim against the British military for looting six weeks earlier.)


Hopkinson (2002), pg 135; Price (2012), pgs 120-123; Leeson (2012), pg 187 & 218; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 326-327; Sheehan (2009), pgs 95-96


George Lysaght, who had a large farm at Cloneen near Clonmel in Co. Tipperary, is shot at his farm by a man with a rifle fired from distance.  He dies on June 20th. 

This may have been an agrarian killing rather than a political killing.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 488


RIC Constable Harold Stiff commits suicide in Maynooth RIC Barracks in Co. Kildare.


Abbott (2019), pg 413; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 327


Patrick Keane, aged 9, is standing with another boy outside a sweet shop on Emmet Road in Inchicore, Dublin when a motor car belonging to the British military came around the corner and made ‘a kind of dive’ and struck the two boys.  Young Keane dies later in the day.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 327


Kanturk Battalion, Cork No. 2 Brigade ambushes a four man RIC patrol at Father Murphy's Bridge, Shronedaha, Banteer, Co Cork. 

This ambush results in the death of one RIC man (Constable Nicholas Somers) and the three others wounded. 


These three RIC men were disarmed and let go. (It would seem that they survived because a local priest, Fr Kavanagh, came along and intervened).

O’Donoghue says that “This action took place within a mile of the Banteer [RIC] Barracks, and it curbed the very aggressive system of patrols then being operated from this post”.  


O’Donoghue (1986), pg 141; Abbott (2000), pg 206; Abbott (2019), pg 261O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 327


Two ex-British Army soldiers, James Maher and Patrick Meara, are abducted by the IRA and shot at Ballytarsna between Cashel and Thurles in Co. Tipperary.  Their killing as informers was sanctioned by James Leahy, O/C Tipperary No. 2 Brigade.

The RIC state that “these two men were absolutely useless to us” and “had never given any information about Sinn Fein”.

Nevertheless, as part of the reprisals for these killings, in the early morning of March 10th, armed and masked men enter the home of IRA man Laurence Hickey on the Main St of Thurles and kill him.  At the same time, another party of armed and masked men enter the home of another IRA man William Loughnane in Quarry St, Thurles and kill him.   The armed and masked men were from the RIC.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 327 -329; O’Farrell (1997), pgs 109 & 111


Special Constable William Graham is shot in the head by a fellow Special near Grogey Cross in Co. Fermanagh. He dies on April 3rd.

Abbott (2019), pg 406; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 371


Dromagh Castle, near Millstreet, Co Cork is destroyed by Kanturk and Millstreet Battalion Columns of the IRA. They were concerned that it could be used to house Crown Forces.


O’Donoghue (1986), pg 143


The bodies of two young men – Patrick Larmer (or Larmour) (23) and Francis McPhillips (21) are found near Aghabog, Co. Monaghan.  Both had been shot as informers by the IRA.  (Both were Catholic.)  Both their court martials were presided over by Eoin O’Duffy, O/C Monaghan Brigade, IRA.

A number of years later, the local parish priest claimed that McPhillips should not have been executed by he was “not up to the normal mental standard”.  The IRA had, a few months previously, tied him to the rails of a local Catholic Church during mass on a Sunday morning. Some believe that he was killed because he was “a staunch Hibernian”.  

Larmer had been a member of the IRA and, it would seem, had given information on the local IRA to the Crown Forces under duress after been arrested.


Dooley (2017a), pgs 87-90; Phoenix (1994), pg 118; Lawlor (2011); pgs 142-145; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 328


James Kennelly is shot dead by an RIC patrol as he was tending his cattle at Moybella, Lisselton, Co. Kerry.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 328; O’Farrell (1997), pg 111


The court-martial of Denis Murphy, one of the IRA men captured after the failed Dripsey ambush, starts in Victoria Barracks, Cork.  He is sentenced to death but, on March 17th, he is informed that the sentence has been commuted to 25 years’ penal servitude. 

(The other men captured as Dripsey had already been court martialled – See Feb-04-21/4.)


Sheehan (1990), pg 138


As part of the ongoing Belfast Boycott, a group of IRA men board a train as it is travelling slowly up a hill near Drogheda, Co. Louth. 

They order the driver to stop the train and order the guard to hand over the invoices and, according to the Irish News, they “went systematically through the 50-odd wagons on the train and removed oil, cart wheels, drapery and tea”.


Parkinson (2020), pg 125


Brigade HQ of Cork No. 2 Brigade of the IRA along with two of its Battalion ASUs (Kanturk and Mallow) are almost surrounded by a substantial British Army force carrying out a large scale sweep near Nadd (in the Boggeragh Mountains).   The HQ staff and most of the two columns escape. 

IRA Volunteer Edward Twomey is shot dead by a BA unit which was part of the sweep as he was on his way to milk his cows.

A house is surrounded with five members of the Mallow column asleep inside.  They are arrested and told that to ‘make a run for it’. Two make their escape (Joe Morgan and John Moloney) but the other three Volunteers are shot dead (David Herlihy, Edward Waters and Timothy Kiely). 

O’Donoghue and Lynch indicate that the Crown Force got their information on the location of the IRA units from a Kanturk Column member called William Shields who was an ex-British Army soldier.  O’Halpin and Ó Corráin say that “It is claimed that the informer Shields was present in police uniform during the round up.”

See Jul-07-21/3 and cJul-11-21/1.


O’Donoghue (1986), pg 142; Lynch in The Kerryman (1955), pg 230; O’Malley (1990), pg 300; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 329-330; Sheehan (2017), pg 76


The British government, having postponed the election for the Dublin parliament, is asked by Devlin in the House of Commons to also postpone the election for the Belfast parliament.  However, Llyod George replies that the majority in the NI area were ‘undoubtedly in favour of the experiment being made at the earliest possible moment’.


Phoenix (1994), pg 117


John Good, a Protestant farmer from Barryshall or Barry’s Hall, Timoleague, Co. Cork is shot dead by the Timoleague Company of the Cork No. 3 Brigade of the IRA.

John Good’s son, William, is also killed by the IRA on March 26th - See Mar-26-21/9.  

The Cork Fatality Register says that “Local historians have suggested that the executions of the father and one of his sons by the IRA were in part reprisals for the killings of Volunteers Patrick Donovan and Denis Hegarty” – see Jan-15-21/2 and Jan-19-21/2. 

Another of John Good’s sons made a claim to the Irish Grants Committee.  The Cork Fatality Register says that “Although Good was described by his surviving and inheriting son in his claim to the Irish Grants Committee as ‘a sturdy supporter of the government’, there is no indication in this claim that he was an informer”.  


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 330; Cork Fatality Register


RIC Constable James Bergin is accidently shot dead by a fellow RIC man in the RIC Barracks in Ennis, Co. Clare.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 330


IRA volunteers from the ASU of the South Leitrim Brigade, staying at the Flynn and McCullagh homes at Selton Hill, Glasdrumman between Ballinamore and Mohill in Co Leitrim, are surrounded by 27 men from the BA’s Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment and RIC. 

Six IRA men are killed.  They were Seamus Wrynne V/C (from Tarmon, Ballinamore); Joseph O’Beirne or Beirne (from Rooskynamona, Mohill); John Joseph O’Reilly (from Miskawn or Miskuan, Ballinamore); John Joseph O’Reilly (from Derrinkeher, Ballinamore) and Michael E. Baxter (from Bawnboy, Cavan).

Their leader, Sean Connolly (from Ballinalee, Longford) is captured dies that night or the next day in or on his way to the Carrick-on-Shannon BA military barracks. 

More Detail

Hopkinson (2002), pg 144; O'Malley (2001), pgs 97-98 & 101; Leavy in The Kerryman (1955), pg 194; O’Farrell (1997), pg 74 & 89 & 102; Coleman (2003), pg 129; Lawlor (2011), pgs 128-135; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 331-332; McGarty (2020), pgs 95-96; Sheehan (2009), pg 96


Three RIC men are attacked near the corner of Victoria Sq and Church St in Belfast resulting in the death of all three (Constable Walter Cooper, Constable Robert Crook(s) and Constable John McIntosh). 

Two civilians are also injured in the attack and one of them, Alexander Allan (or Allen) (a Protestant) died later in hospital. Allan was struck by a stray bullet.

IRA party probably led by Rodger McCorley.  Heavy raiding of homes by Crown Forces ensued but no reprisal killings.

Constable Cooper was from Surrey in England; Constable Crooks was from Cornwall in England and Constable McIntosh was from Inverness in Scotland.  The had five, five and three months’ service with the RIC respectively.


Abbott (2000), pg 206; Parkinson (2004), pgs 113-114; McDermott (2001), pg 72; Abbott (2019), pg 262; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 332-336; Parksinson (2020), pgs 89-90


The Thirteenth Session of the First Dáil

Dáil Éireann meets in Alderman Cole’s house at 3 Mountjoy Sq in Dublin.  Twenty-four TDs were in attendance.

A range of reports from ministries are tabled and debated.

A key motion debated was one put forward by de Valera to recognise the IRA and its actions with de Valera saying that the Dáil was “hardly acting fairly by the army in not publicly taking full responsibility for all its acts”. 

After some debate, a motion was passed which empowered de Valera to draw up a statement on the lines indicated verbally by him.   See Mar-30-21/2.

The proceedings of this session of the Dáil are available here:

See May-10-21/7 for 14th Session of the First Dáil.


Molyneux and Kelly (2021), pgs 197-200; Mitchell (1995), pg 229


Margaret Grehan of Main St, Granard, Co. Longford is hit on the ankle by a ricochet bullet and dies on March 24th.  Two RIC constables are wounded during this engagement.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 358


BA soldier, Walter Howard, commits suicide in Dublin Castle.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 555


An RIC man (Constable Daniel Murphy) left Broadford RIC Barracks, Co. Clare to go to Sixmilebridge but his body is found later in the day with a number of bullet wounds. 

Ó Ruairc says that he was an intelligence officer and shot by Martin McNamara and John Curley of the East Clare Brigade, IRA.


Abbott (2000), pg 207; Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 231; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 335


The Tuam Herald reports RC Archbishop of Tuam, Thomas Gilmartin, as saying “if the full tale of flogging, burning, terrorism and looting [by Crown Forces] could be told the whole picture would make even savages ashamed”.


McNamara (2018), pg 142


The flying column of the 7th Battalion of the West Kilkenny Brigade is surrounded by a joint British Army/RIC patrol at Garryricken House (off the main Kilkenny-Clonmel Road). 

Hopkinson says that some manage to fight their way out killing one RIC man.  Abbott says that three IRA men managed to escape and that five were captured.  He also says that Constable Ernst Riley was killed (and RIC DI Hubert Baynham was wounded). 

Walsh says that four IRA men managed to escape and two others were captured, along with three civilians. (He names them all.) O’Halpin and Ó Corráin say that there were only three IRA men in the house and all three managed to escape, killing Riley as they escaped.

Constable Riley was from Surrey in England and had just sixteen days service with the RIC.


Hopkinson (2002), pg 124; Abbott (2000), pg 207; Walsh (2018), pgs 80-83; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 335


A train containing a number of Auxiliaries was travelling towards Listowel, Co. Kerry when it was attacked at Ardfert (Tubrid) Railway Station by men from the Kerry No. 1 brigade of the IRA. 

This attack results in the death of one Auxiliary (Cadet Walter Falkiner).


Abbott (2000), pg 207; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 334


IRA volunteer Charles Reilly or O’Reilly is one of two men in a pony and trap stopped by a BA patrol at Collagh Bridge, outside Newmarket, Co. Cork. 

They jump out of the trap and they are fired on.  O’Reilly is found wounded the following morning.  He dies at his home at Church St, Newmarket, Co. Cork on March 15th.  He was a member of the ASU of the Cork No. 2 Brigade, IRA.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 340; Lynch in The Kerryman (1955), pg 231


The IRA burn Leemount House, the home of Mary Lindsay who they were holding prisoner. 

See cMar-21-21/4.


Sheehan (1990), pgs 165-167


Margaret Guinan dies after the cart in which she is travelling overturns and throws her into the path of a BA lorry at Creggan, Athlone, Co. Meath.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 334


John McMahon, from Newtown, Kilmainhaimwood, Co. Meath was returning home from a fair in Kells when he fell into a river crossing a bridge which had been damaged by the IRA.  He died later in Richmond Hospital, Dublin.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 334-335


Timothy Herlihy is driving a horse and cart, at Inniscarra, Carrigrohane, Co. Cork, when a BA lorry causes the horse to panic.  Herlihy suffers serious injuries from which he later dies.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 335


The Leinster Leader reports that “Another internment camp, conducted on the same lines as Ballykinlar Camp, has been opened at the Rath, Curragh, Co. Kildare”.  (The camp had opened on March 2nd.)

A large number of prisoners have been transferred from the Hare Park Camp to the Rath, where no visits are allowed.  It was named after the nearby ancient Gibbet Rath. It could hold 1,500 prisoners.


Durney (2013), pg 163; Sheehan (2009), pg 78


According to Ó Ruairc (2009), Thomas Shannon is shot dead by “a group of Black and Tans from Kilkee” at his home in Moyasta, Co. Clare.  Ó Ruairc (2009) says that this killing happened in the wake of the Glenwood ambush and the subsequent reprisals at Kilkishen (see Jan-20-21/1) and that Shannon was a “magistrate in the republican courts”. Also, according to Ó Ruairc (2009), a Thomas Shanahan was shot dead by British forces or British army on March 13th at Moyasta, Co. Clare.

According to O’Halpin and Ó Corráin, Thomas Shannon of Moyasta, Kilrush, Co. Clare was “shot in the neck by two men who had knocked on his farmhouse door”.  They quote the Cork Examiner as saying that Shannon “was not identified as with any political organisation”.  The also quote ‘The Good Old IRA’ as saying that “shortly beforehand Shannon had refused to pay a Sinn Féin levy”.

According to Ó Ruairc (2021) in his review of O’Halpin and Ó Corráin’s book in History Ireland, he says that Shannon was a judge in the Dáil Courts and that his widow testified that she did not recognise her husband’s killers and that they spoke with strange accents.  He goes on to say that “Shannon has long been commemorated as a republican martyr” and that “The claim that Shannon was in conflict with local republicans originated in Dublin Castle”.


Ó Ruairc (2009), pgs 223, 231 & 328 O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 336; Ó Ruairc (2021), pg 61


Timothy Hourihan is held up by Auxiliaries at Paddock, Cappeen East, Enniskeane, Co. Cork.  According to an IRA source, he is allowed to proceed and then shot dead.  According to the RIC, two warning shots were fired before he was hit.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 335; Cork Fatality Register


Ex-RIC man, Thomas Nagle, is killed by the IRA as an alleged spy at ‘Kilbawn’, Aherla, Co. Cork after being arrested by them the previous day.  He was killed by men from the D (Aherla) Company, Cork No. 1 Brigade.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 336-337; Cork Fatality Register


Richard Newman from Allihies, Co. Cork is shot by members of the King’s Own Scottish Borders regiment. 

According to the BA, he was shot for ‘failing to halt when ordered’.  His brother and uncle say that “he was subject to periodic fits, and not always responsible for his actions”. O’Halpin and Ó Corráin say that he was not a member of the IRA but the CFR, say that he was. 


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 337; Cork Fatality Register


Thomas Hennessy asks a joint BA/RIC patrol, who were dressed in civilian clothes and are disembarking from a boat at his place of work (The Point, Crosshaven, Co. Cork) “Who the hell are you?”. A BA soldier fires at him. Hennessy starts to run but he is hit.  He dies soon afterwards. 

Subsequently, the BA issues instructions on the use of plain-clothes patrols.  O’Halpin and Ó Corráin say that these instructions implicitly acknowledge that “deaths such as Hennessy’s were avoidable”.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 335-336; Cork Fatality Register


Six IRA men are hung in Mountjoy Jail.

Paddy Moran (see Feb-15-21/1) and Thomas Whelan (see Feb-01-21/3) are hung for taking part in the killings on Bloody Sunday morning (see Nov-21-20/8).   Whelan did not take part in these killings.  Moran did take part – he led the attack on the Gresham hotel in which two men were killed.  However, he was sentenced to death on the basis of false identification evidence for taking part in the attack on 38 Upper Mount St. 

The four other men are hung for taking part in an ambush in Drumcrondra (see Jan-21-21/4).  They were court martialled and sentenced to death on February 23rd and 24th    - see Feb-23-21/2.  Their names were Thomas Bryan, Patrick Doyle, Frank Flood and Bernard Ryan. 

Trade unions call a half day strike and over 40,000 gather in protest outside Mountjoy.

More Detail 


Breen (1989), pg 157; Carey (2001), pgs 55-133; O’Daly, BMH WS 387, pg 41; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 337-339; Molyneux and Kelly (2021), pgs 201-206


The Brunswick Street Gun Battle

After the executions in the Military Detention Barracks in Cork City (see Feb-28-21/1), the Cork No.1 Brigade authorised the killing of BA soldiers in Cork City (see Feb-28-21/2). 

Similarly, after the hanging of the six men in Mountjoy Prison (see Mar-14-21/1), the IRA in Dublin authorised the city and county battalions – and the ASUs – to shoot Crown Forces in the city irrespective if they were armed or not. 

However, not wanting a repeat of Cork, the BA confined most of its soldiers to barracks.  Nevertheless, a major gun battle took place in Brunswick St on the evening of March 14th between the Auxiliaries and the IRA.  This shoot-out results in the deaths of eight people (two IRA, two Auxiliaries and four civilians).

More Detail


Abbott (2000), pgs 208-209; Carey (2001), pg 136; O’Farrell (1997), pg 58; Leeson (2012), pgs 145-146; Molyneux and Kelly (2021), pgs 207-210


The 5th Division of the BA carries out a ‘drive’ on this day and the following day in the areas north and south of Ballinrobe, Co Mayo.  250 men are ‘collected’ – of whom 12 are detained.

A civilian named Gallon, who had volunteered to pilot a boat used in this ‘drive’, died of exhaustion when the boat is wrecked and they have to row ashore.


Sheehan (2009), pgs 96-97


Meeting in Dungloe, Co. Donegal to form the 1st Northern Division of the IRA.  Representatives of all four Donegal brigades were present.  Frank Carney from Fermanagh was made temporary O/C of the Division and gets a brief from Mulcahy to re-organise three of the four brigades and recommend appointments for divisional staff. 

(There are three IRA GHQ organisers in Donegal at this time.)


See May-16-21/10.


Ó Duibhir (2009), pgs 227-229; Ozseker (2019), pg 129


The Cork Examiner reports the shooting dead of Michael J. Murray, an ex-BA soldier, in the centre of Cork City. 

Greenwood claims, in the British House of Commons, that he was shot by a British Army sentry. The military court in inquiry held into his death return a verdict of justifiable homicide.  It would appear that Murray was attempting to rape a young woman when a British Army soldier (who lived nearby) came out of his house and shot Murray when he refused to put up his hands.


Borgonovo (2007), pg 67; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 336


A dispatch rider with the BA’s Royal Engineers, Frederick de Orfe, is ambushed by ASU No. 4, Dublin Brigade at Rialto Bridge. He dies later in King George V Hospital.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 340


Start of court martial of Edmond Foley, Michael Murphy and Paddy Maher in City Hall, Dublin for taking part in the rescue of Sean Hogan at Knocklong, Co Limerick on 13th May 1919 – see May-13-19/1.  Two RIC men were killed in this rescue.

They had been arrested in September 1919 and tried twice in Limerick but the juries could not agree on a verdict.  Their trial was then moved to Armagh but had to be postponed after a key witness (Sergeant Reilly) was kidnapped.  After the introduction of the Restoration of Order Ireland Act, their case was handed over to the military. 

The court martial was to last five days and, unlike previous court martials, the accused gave lengthy statements to the court.  The men were prosecuted by William Wylie. At the end of trial, Foley and Maher are sentenced to death. Foley had taken part in the rescue but Maher had not.

According to Molyneux and Kelly, Murphy was acquitted but, according to Abbott, he was also found guilty but released after the Truce.

See Jun-07-21/1.


Carey (2001), pgs 162-160; Molyneux and Kelly (2021), pgs 210, 231 & 300; Abbott (2000), pg 39


IRA GHQ sends a letter to Tom Maguire, O/C South Mayo Brigade, which had come into its possession. 

It was written by three men from south Mayo to Llyod George naming six “leading Sinn Féiners in this locality” and saying “it would be a charity to place those blackguards under restraint and have them deported from this part of the country”.  

However, it would seem that Maguire was reluctant to move against the three men who wrote the letter.


Price (2012), pgs 131-135


A pharmacist and general merchant (William Kennedy) and his solicitor (TJ O’Dempsey) are killed in Kennedy’s shop on the Main St of Borris, Co. Carlow by members of the 4th Battalion, Carlow Brigade of the IRA. 

John Hynes, V/C of the 4th Battalion, who was in charge, said in his BMH statement says that Kennedy had consorted with the Black and Tans and fired on volunteers. Contrary to IRA GHQ orders, sanction for these killings was not sought from the Brigade O/C.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin say that these killings sound “more like a public lynching than a covert assassination”. 


McGreevy (2019), pgs 8-9; Townshend (2014), pg 262; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 341-343


Thomas Leacock of Kenagh is killed by the Longford Brigade of the IRA.  He has a sign on his which reads: ‘Executed by the IRA for espionage’.  Traitors beware, death is always near’.

The Longford Leader reports on this killing on April 7th.


Coleman (2003), pg 153; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 341


An eight strong RIC patrol is ambushed at Newtown Corner near Ballymote, Co. Sligo by two IRA men.  This results in the death of one RIC man (Constable James O'Brien). 

One of the IRA men, Jim Molloy, was captured at the scene and badly beaten before being imprisoned – see May-21-21/3.

Constable O’Brien is from Lancashire in England and had almost four months’ service with the RIC.


Abbott (2000), pg 209; Farry (2012), pg 67; Lawlor (2011), pg 138; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 343


Volunteer Patrick Hassett, of the West Clare Brigade, is accidently shot by a comrade at Kilmore House.  He dies on March 21st.

Ó Ruairc (2009), pgs 231-232; O’Farrell (1997), pg 109; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 352


The newly formed flying column of the West Galway (Connemara) Brigade led by Peter (Petie) Joe McDonnell ambush a four-man RIC patrol in Clifden, Co. Galway resulting in the death of two RIC men (Constable Charles Reynolds and Constable Thomas Sweeney). 

Thomas Whelan, hung in Mountjoy Jail on March 14th (See Mar-14-21/1), was originally from Clifden and this attack was aimed to avenge his killing.  

In the aftermath of the attack, the RIC went on a rampage burning down at least 16 buildings in Clifden.  One of the houses targeted is the home of Thomas Whelan. 

The RIC also kill a civilian (John J. MacDonnell). There are differing accounts of how he was killed. Crown forces say that he was killed for failing to halt.  Another account say that he was killed when he called to the RIC station to ask for help putting out the fire which was engulfing his father’s hotel.    His father claimed that his son was ordered out of bed by the RIC and taken outside and shot dead.  MacDonnell was a retired member of the British Army.

Hopkinson (2002), pg 138; Abbott (2000), pg 209; McDonnell in The Kerryman (1995), pg 204; McNamara (2018), pgs 126-127 & 148; Henry (2012), pgs 194-201; Leeson (2012), pgs 58-59; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 342-344


An RIC man, Constable John Grant, is attacked and shot when riding his bicycle at Tullacremin, 1.5 miles from Abbeydorney, Co. Kerry.  He dies later from his wounds. 

It is possible that a local woman, Mrs Kelleher, died of fright when she sees Grant’s corpse.

Abbott (2000), pg 209-210; Abbott (2019), pg 266; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 340-341


Bonar Law leaves the British Cabinet due to medical advice.  

Law is replaced as leader of the Conservative and Unionist Party by Austen Chamberlain.  Lesson says that that Chamberlain “apparently had not inherited his father Joseph Chamberlain’s passion for the Union”.  (Harold Macmillan much later wrote of Chamberlain that “He was respected but never feared”.)

More Detail and Comment on the Weakening of the ‘Die-Hard’ Position within the British Cabinet


Townshend (1975), pgs 164 &174; Leeson (2012), pg 65; Fanning (2013), pgs 248- 250; Matthews (2004), pgs 28-29


The IRA destroy Richill train station three miles outside Portadown, Co. Armagh including 12 goods wagons.


Lawlor (2011), pgs 136-137


Men from Donegal No. 4 Brigade, under Acting O/C Henry McGowan, commander two cars to go from Ballybofey to Dungloe to collect some weapons which had been lent to the Donegal No. 1 Brigade. 

(One of the cars belonged to a Dr Johnson and this episode became the subject of the song called ‘Johnson’s Motor Car’ which became well known in the area.)


A subsequent attack on Castlederg RIC barracks (on March 21st) barracks had to be abandoned after a Volunteer fires his rifle prematurely.


Ó Duibhir (2009), pgs 232-233


At a follow up meeting to their meeting in February (see cFeb-05-21/7) and subsequent meetings of both sides, de Valera and Joe Devlin agree a voting pact between Sinn Féin and the nationalists for the forthcoming election for the Northern Ireland parliament based on abstention from the Belfast parliament. (Some nationalists are unhappy with the abstentionist line.) 

This pact is agreed by an 800-strong conference of nationalists in Belfast on April 4th and on April 6th is signed by the Joe Devlin ‘on behalf of U.I.L. and associated organisations’ and by de Valera on behalf of Sinn Féin. 

The pact allowed each party to field a maximum of 21 candidates and there would be an ‘anti-partition’ pact in each constituency. 


Phoenix (1994), pg 119; Parkinson (2020), pg 104; Macardle (1999), pg 453


John O’Grady, an ex-member of the BA, is executed as a spy by the IRA at Plassey Mill, Plassey, Co. Limerick.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 343; O’Callaghan (2018), pgs 92-92


A seven-man RIC patrol is ambushed near the village of Castletownroche, Co. Cork resulting in the death of one RIC man (Constable Walter Elton). 

Constable Elton was from Middlesex in England and had three months’ service with the RIC.

Abbott (2000), pg 210; Abbott (2019), pg 267; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 344


Michael Duffy is shot dead Carrownalecka, Ballinrobe, Co. Mayo.  It would appear that this killing was the result of a robbery and/or a land dispute.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 343-344


Thomas Martin was a prisoner in a BA armoured car in Dublin.  He had been arrested for breaking curfew.  As the armoured car swung around from Ormond Quay onto Chancery Place, Martin and another man fell out.  Martin dies later from cardiac failure.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 344


18-year-old Nellie Carey is shot and wounded when walking with two British Army soldiers on Mill St. Fermoy, Co. Cork. She dies the following day. The two soldiers were wounded.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 347; Sheehan (2017), pg 33


A British Army rations lorry is attacked at the corner of North Frederick St and Dorset St in Dublin by men from D Company, 2nd Battalion, Dublin Brigade, IRA under Capt James Foley.  The ration party fire back.

Molyneux and Kelly say that there were no fatalities on either side but five IRA men were wounded. However, O’Halpin and Ó Corráin say that one of the wounded (Dermot O’Dwyer) later dies in hospital. 

O’Dwyer was an engineering student in UCD and a member of No. 1 Company, 5th Battalion, Dublin Brigade IRA.


Molyneux and Kelly (2021), pg 213; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 348



The West Cork IRA flying column, led by Tom Barry, are located near Crossbarry, Co Cork.  They are nearly surrounded by Crown Forces but manage to escape the encircling troops. 

The British had sent units from Cork, Kinsale, Ballincollig and Bandon.  The BA units do not arrive in a co-ordinated way which allows the column to break its way out of encirclement. Barry had broke his men into seven sections - six sections ambush the British and then withdraw in formation.  Ten members of the Crown Forces are killed in this operation and four IRA men.

This is the largest military encounter of the War of Independence. 

More Detail


O'Farrell P (1997), pg xvii; Abbott (2000), pgs 210-211; Crowley in The Kerryman (1955), pgs 179-185; Hopkinson (2002), pg 111-112; Deasy (1973), pgs 234-254; Townshend (2014), pg 245; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 344-347;

Kautt (2014), pgs 138-139; Sheehan (2017), pgs 55 & 146 -151 & 183-184


IRA Volunteers throw bombs into a British Army lorry on Aungier St in Dublin. 

Two BA soldiers (Lance Corporal Henry Jarvis and Private George Thomas) are killed. A third (Benjamin Whiting) dies on March 21st.  All three belong to the Prince of Wales’s Volunteers (South Lancashire Regiment).


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 347-348 & 352


Cornelius Sheehan is shot dead by the IRA at his home on Blarney St in Cork City as an informer. 

The Cork Fatality Register has a reasonably lengthy article on Sheehan’s killing.  They conclude that it is likely that Sheehan was “one of the suspects who was entirely innocent”. 

Borgonovo (2007), pg  41 & 66;  O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 348; Cork Fatality Register


The Burgery Ambush

A joint RIC/British Army patrol, consisting of a car and a lorry, is ambushed at Burgery two miles outside Dungarvan, Co. Waterford by the ASU of the West Waterford Brigade of the IRA. The ASU is led by George Lennon and Pax Whelan (George Plunkett – brother of Joseph – is also present at the ambush). 

The men in the lorry scatter and the ASU collects some rifles and also capture three from the British side.  One is later killed by his captors (RIC Sgt Michael Hickey) while the other two (Captain Donald Thomas and Private E.W. Colyer of the BA’s Buffs Regiment) are released.  (McCarthy and O’Halpin & Ó Corráin say that Captain Thomas is released by the IRA but Kautt and Abbott say that he was rescued by the arrival of a British party.)

The ASU wants to retreat to the sanctuary of the Comeragh Mountains but is persuaded by Plunkett to return to the ambush site to collect any discarded rifles or ammunition.  This proves a disaster for the ASU as they run into a large Crown Forces search party.  An unplanned encounter ensues which leads to the death of two IRA men, Pat Keating (Comeragh, Kilmacthomas) and Sean MacGearailt (J. Fitzgerald from Gotivicary). Another RIC man (Constable Sydney Redman) also dies from the wounds he received in the ambush. 

Constable Redman was from Kent in England and had two months’ service with the RIC.  Sgt Hickey was from Limerick and had fifteen years of service with the RIC.


Abbott (2000), pg 211; Abbott (2019), pgs 268-269; O’Farrell (1997), pg 50; McCarthy (2015), pgs 80-81; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 344-347; Kautt (2014), pgs 158 & 205


De Valera writes to Art O’Brien, president of the Irish Self-Determination League of Great Britain, suggesting that he set up a “relief committee of the English who are opposed to their Government’s policy in Ireland”. 

He continues “the attacks of their own people are what affect the politicians most, and we shouldn’t neglect using that weapon against them”.


Boyce (1972), pg 83


During disturbances in the Great George’s St area of Belfast, two men are shot.  One of these, John Graham (33 or 35), a Catholic, later dies of his wounds in hospital.

Parkinson (2004), pg 114; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 350


An attack by the West Donegal Brigade of the IRA on the RIC barracks in Falcarragh fails when the mine they had placed against the gable end of the barracks does not explode.  They still decide to fire at the barracks but nearly all the bullets ping off the steel shutters or are absorbed by the sandbags.

An RIC man, James McKenna, is killed during this engagement. Both Lawlor and Ó Duibhir say that McKenna was in an outhouse near the barracks and was shot when he put out his head when the shooting started to see what was happening.  However, Abbott say that he was shot from an empty house fifty yards from his barracks and O’Halpin & Ó Corráin say that he was shot when he opened the door of a disused house in which members of the West Donegal Brigade were hiding. Ozseker says that he was shot as he returned to his barracks. 

As usual, reprisals by the RIC followed.

Both Lawlor and Ó Duibhir also say that on this night another RIC man was shot dead when he went to investigate a noise in a disused house in the village of Doochary in Co. Donegal.  The house contained men from the Doochary company of the West Donegal Brigade who were planning to attack an RIC patrol in the village.  This shooting is not mentioned by Abbott or O’Halpin & Ó Corráin.  Also, Lawlor notes that this fatality is not mentioned in the RIC Roll of Honour.


Lawlor (2011), pgs 138-140; Ó Duibhir (2009), pgs 231-235; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 349; Abbott (2019), pg 269 Abbott (2000), pg 212; Ozseker (2019), pg 128;


A group of up to 30 IRA men from 6th Battalion, Kerry No. 2 Brigade, IRA take over a number of houses in Killorglin, Co. Kerry and use them to attack an RIC patrol returning to their barracks on the Square.  There are no casualties on either side.


O’Shea (2021), pgs 68-69


Martin Daly is shot dead by the Kerry Brigade of the IRA at Ranaleen, Currow, Co. Kerry.  A notice attached to his body says “Informers Beware.  Convicted Informer”.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 349


James Mullane is shot dead on North Main St, Cork.

Borgonovo says that he was shot by a Crown Forces curfew patrol but O’Halpin and Ó Corráin say that he was shot by three men in civilian clothing. The Cork Fatality Register says that “An ex-soldier [of the BA], James Mullane was ‘proceeding home [on Sunday night, 20 March 1921] shortly after curfew hour (nine o’clock) when he was overtaken by a curfew patrol. He was, of course, challenged but did not respond and was fired on and fell.”  His father said that his son was slightly ‘mentally deficient’ due to wartime wounds sustained in France.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 348; Borgonovo (2007), pg 99; Cork Fatality Register


An RIC man (Constable William Campbell), who was on sick leave, is shot dead when he goes into the backyard of his lodgings in Mullinahone, Co. Tipperary. 

According to Walsh and O’Halpin & Ó Corráin, Campbell was shot by members of the ASU of the 7th (Callan) Battalion, Kilkenny Brigade who were attempting to assassinate a BA intelligence officer in the Lincolnshire Regiment, Lieutenant Edward Litchford (sometimes spelt Litchfield) who they believed responsible for the killing of the three IRA men at Knockroe on March 6th – See Mar-06-21/4. 

See also Jul-10-21/1.


Abbott (2000), pg 212;  Walsh (2018), pg 84; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 348


A major IRA attack on Collooney RIC barracks in Co. Sligo ends in confusion with no fatalities on either side.


Farry (2012), pg 67


There is an attack by the Kerry No. 2 Brigade ASU (under Dan Allman and Tom McEllistrim) on British troops at Headford Railway Junction near Killarney.  This attack results in the death of eight BA soldiers, three civilians and two IRA men. 

 More Detail 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 165; Gallagher in The Kerryman (1955), pgs 186-193 & Hopkinson (2002), pg 126; O'Farrell P (1997), pg 61; Horgan (2018), pgs 299-300 & 315; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 350-352 & 355 & 358; Kautt (2014), pgs 204-205


16-year-old Martin Burke is shot dead by Auxiliary section leader, Lieut H. J. Splatt with a Lewis machine gun for ‘failing to stop’ at Borrisoleigh, Co. Tipperary.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 350


2,569 internees at this point

Hopkinson (2002), pg 94


Mary Lindsay and James Clarke, who had been held a hostage for about five weeks, are killed by the IRA.  Different dates are given for the date of their executions. 

More Detail


Sheehan (1990), pg 173-177; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 333-334


Ambush set by No. 1 Kerry Brigade IRA flying column at Lispole on the Dingle peninsula in Co. Kerry led by Paddy Cahill (Brigade O/C). 

The intended target was a British Army convoy but the column stayed in place for three days. Before the ambush, one IRA man, Maurice Fitzgerald, is accidently shot by a fellow IRA man and later dies of his wounds. 

The Crown Forces (BA and RIC) find out about the ambush and outflank the ambushers.  Two IRA men were killed – Thomas M Ashe and Tommy Hawley. (Ashe dies on March 23rd and Hawley on May 2nd.) 

Cahill is dismissed from his command some weeks later and replaced by Andy Cooney – See Apr-1921/7. 

Lispole Memorial


O’Farrell (1997), pg 12 & 102; Horgan (2018), pgs 82-83 & 86 & 200-202; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 354 & 358 & 404


At a meeting with Mulcahy and Collins in Dublin, Ernie O’Malley made O/C of the 2nd Southern Division IRA which comprises Mid and East Limerick Brigades; South and Mid Tipperary Brigades and Kilkenny Brigade.

Macardle (1999), pg 439; O’Donoghue (1986), pg 198; O’Malley (1990), pg 288


Speaking to a private non-party delegation (including the Church of England’s Archbishop of Canterbury), British cabinet member Birkenhead (F. E. Smith) says that Sinn Féin has been “so successful in their methods of carrying out this propaganda that they have not only induced persons all over the world … to receive and credit the charges which they made, but they actually induced large numbers of English people to take the view”.


Boyce (1972), pg 84


John Brosnan is walking along Bridge St in Tralee, Co. Kerry when he runs into an IRA bomb attack on a car carrying four RIC men. 

Brosnan is hit in the head by a splinter from the IRA’s bomb and dies eight days later.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 363


The Irish Times reports the RC Archbishop of Tuam, Thomas Gilmartin, as saying “what is called the IRA may contain the flower of Irish youth, but they have no authority from the Irish people or from any moral principle to wage war against unequal forces with the consequence of terror, arson and death to innocent people”.  (He also agreed with the people of Galway “in their feelings of horror and indignation at the actions of the Crown forces”.)


McNamara (2018), pg 136


Two brothers, James and Thomas Skelton, are executed as suspected informers at Boladurragh, Rossard, Enniscorty, Co. Wexford by the ASU of the South Wexford Brigade of the IRA.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 349


After having lunch with Llyod George and Hamar Greenwood, Mark Sturgis noted in his diaries that Llyod George preferred “to make no changes until the North had its Parliament and then see what changes ought to be made in the South”.


Fanning (2013), pg 250


Mulcahy's papers discovered in raid by British forces.

The BA’s The Record of the Rebellion says that “a great many valuable documents were seized”.

Hopkinson (2002), pg 57 & 225; Kautt (2014), pg 143


A five-man RIC cycle patrol is ambushed at Blackwood, Co. Roscommon (between Keadue and Ballyfarnon) - two RIC men are killed (Constable William Devereux and Constable Michael Dowling) and another wounded (Sgt Reilly).  The attack is led by Michael Dockery, O/C North Roscommon Brigade.  Sgt Reilly recognises Dockery.

Afterwards, the RIC and Auxiliaries terrorise the neighbourhood.  A number of arrests are made and prisoners given severe beatings.  A 15-year-old, Joe Molloy of Knockvicar, is shot dead by the BA in a field near his home for ‘failing to halt’ when a BA sergeant fired without orders.


Abbott (2000), pgs 212-213; O’Farrell (1997), pg 28; O’Callaghan (2012), pgs 135-137; Leeson (2012), pg 140; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 354 & 360


The Flying Column of the West Mayo Brigade under Michael Kilroy were checking for ambush positions near Drummin or Derrakillew, Carrowkennedy Co. Mayo (between Westport and Leenaun) when a four man RIC cycle patrol appeared round a bend.  In the ensuing fight, one RIC man was killed (Sgt John Coughlan) and the three others were injured.  Kilroy was aided by Brodie Malone and Joe Ring. 

(The rest of the column was nearby but not engaged in the fire fight.)

Abbott (2000), pg 213;  Price (2012), pgs 124-125; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 354-355


The Roslea Attacks

On the night of March 22nd, the IRA launched attacks on 14 (or 21) homes in the Roslea area of Co. Fermanagh - mostly the homes of B members of the newly formed Ulster Special Constabulary (USC).  These attacks lead to the deaths of two Special Constables and one young Catholic.

More Detail



Abbott (2000), pg 213-214; Parkinson (2004), pg 114; Dooley (2017a), pg 93; Lawlor (2011), pgs; Abbott (2019), pgs 271-272; Lynch (2006), pgs 52-53 Lynch (2010), pgs 192-193; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 352-353 & 358; Parksinson (2020), pg 91


IRA Volunteer, Timothy Whooley from Derrymeleen, Ballineen, Co. Cork is accidently killed by a comrade.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 355


Daniel Lyons, an ex-BA soldier, is shot by British soldiers from the South Staffordshire Regiment on Park Bridge in Bandon, Co. Cork.  He dies a number of hours later. His two companions, with whom he is going fishing, said no warning had been given by the BA soldiers.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 353-354; Cork Fatality Register


According to Townshend, a farmer called O’Gorman was executed as a spy by the 2nd Battalion of the East Limerick Brigade of the IRA and, on this date, the Brigade Adjutant writes to the O/C of the East Limerick Brigade giving a substantial extract from O’Gorman’s court martial. 

However, it would seem that O’Gorman was not killed – see Mar-25-21/2.


Townshend (2014), pg 266


IRA Volunteer, Arthur Mulcahy from Currebeha, Conna, Co. Cork is taken from his home by soldiers from the BA’s RFA and shot dead when allegedly trying escape.

According to the Cork Fatality Register, his body was taken to Fermoy, where it was found that it “had bayonet as well as bullet wounds. At a subsequent military inquest, [BA] soldiers who had been at Currebeha on the night of 22 March claimed that Mulcahy had been shot while trying to escape, but they failed to explain why the body had numerous bayonet and boot marks”. 


O’Farrell (1997), pg 107; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 353; Cork Fatality Register


BA soldier, Herbert Atkinson, accidently shoots himself and dies in George V Hospital in Dublin.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 555


The Scramogue Ambush

The flying columns of the North and South Roscommon Brigades under Patrick Madden (O/C South Roscommon Brigade) ambush a nine-man Crown Forces patrol (Ninth Lancers and RIC) in a Crossley tender at Scramogue (on the Strokestown-Longford road).  This ambush results in the death of six members of the Crown  forces and, in a follow up by Crown Forces, an IRA man is killed.


More Detail

Hopkinson (2002), pg 144; Abbott (2000), pgs 214-215; O'Malley (2001), pgs 100-115; Leavy in The Kerryman (1955), pgs 193-199; O’Farrell (1997), pg 97 & 114; O’Callaghan (2012), pgs 138-148; Lesson (2012), pgs 150-151


Six IRA men (Daniel Crowley, William Deasy, Thomas Dennehy, Jeremiah Mullane or Mullaine, Daniel Murphy, Michael O'Sullivan) from the 1st Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade are killed when they are surrounded in a barn in Clogheen, just outside Cork City, by the RIC.  Known by republicans as The Kerry Pike Murders.

According to the volume of the official BA Record of the Rebellion dealing with intelligence, the men killed were one of three IRA murder gangs operating in the city. The RIC claim that they were killed during a fire fight but the IRA claim that the men were beaten after surrendering and then killed on the spot.  According to Hart, they were given a 'sporting chance' and shot as they ran. O’Halpin and Ó Corráin say that “they were massacred after capture”. 

It appears that the IRA’s hiding place was given away to Crown Forces by Patrick ‘Croxy’ Connors [or Connor or O’Connor] who was an IRA member turned informer – See Apr-13-22/4.


O'Kelly in The Kerryman (1955), pg 26; Hart (1998), pg 99; Borgonovo (2007), pgs 89 & 112; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 355 & 356; Hart (2002), pg 40


An official Black and Tan warning is posted in Dundalk. Co. Louth that 20 members of the IRA would be executed for every policeman or soldier ‘shot, injured or interfered with’.


Hall (2019), pg 79


Patrick McDonnell, who was I/O with the 5th (Stonefield) Battalion, Meath Brigade, IRA, is surprised at his home by an RIC raid.  He is shot dead as he tries to flee.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 358


British army discover IRA arms dump in Mountjoy Sq, Dublin consisting of 6 rifles and 35 revolvers.

Townshend (1975), pg 175; Molyneux and Kelly (2021), pg 220


Mary Maher, who lived at 35 Usher’s Quay, Dublin, is hit by a Crown Forces Crossley car.  She dies in Dr Steevens’ Hospital on April 1st.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 369


Louis Darcy, O/C Headford Battalion, Galway No. 1 Brigade, IRA is arrested by the Auxiliaries at Oranmore train station in Co. Galway on March 23rd.  His body is found in Galway on the following day and, it is alleged, that he was dragged behind a military vehicle from Oranmore to the scene of the Red Bridge (or Merlin Park) ambush (see Aug-21-20/3) and shot dead.  He was officially listed by the RIC as ‘shot while trying to escape’. 

After reading the proceedings of the Military Court of Inquiry, Macready wrote; “DAG. This would not have occurred if the prisoner had been handcuffed or properly secured”.

The official A Report of the Intelligence Branch of the Chief of Police, Dublin Castle from May 1920 to July 1921 (written by Ormonde Winter) states the following about the killing of Darcy “He was arrested, and while being transported back to Galway in a lorry, attempted to escape and, by one of the extraordinary decrees of fate, met his death on the same spot where, a few weeks previously, he had brutally murdered a Police Sergeant”.

Winter does not comment on how extraordinary this particular ‘extraordinary decree of fate’ was and he was seemingly oblivious to the fact that his readers might find it a bit too extraordinary given the number of times that Crown Forces had been accused of carrying out the summary executions of IRA men.


O'Farrell P (1997), pg 25; McNamara (2018), pgs 152&153; Henry (2012), pg 202; Leeson (2012), pgs 59 & 183; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 358-359; Hart (2002), pg 77


The Barraduff company of the IRA in Co. Kerry, arrest an ex-BA soldier, George ‘Sardy’ Nagle, on suspicion of spying.  After interrogation, he is subsequently executed by Tom McEllistrim, O/C of Kerry No. 2 Brigade.

An IRA man, Jack Keogh, later maintained that “Nagle should never have been shot; he was a harmless auld devil”.  His mother described him as “a sort of useless type of fellow”.


Townshend (2014), pg 264; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 359-360


Pack Self, a soldier with the Gloucestershire Regiment of the BA is accidently shot and killed in Kilworth Military Barracks in Co. Cork.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 359


Denis Lenihan is shot in the legs in an attack on him by the No. 4 ASU of the Dublin Brigade of the IRA on Cork St., Dublin.  The IRA accused him of being a spy. 

A 12-year old girl, Hannah Keegan, is shot in the head during this incident and dies later in hospital.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 359


Following the Burgery ambush (see Mar-19-21/4), there are official and unofficial reprisals in Dungarvan, Co. Waterford and the area surrounding the ambush, including the burning or blowing up at least five houses (including the Strand Hotel in Abbeyside) and shooting up many more.


McCarthy (2015), pg 82


IRA Volunteer, Edmond James Crawford of the East Limerick Brigade, was a member of IRA party escorting a prisoner (Paddy O’Gorman) when they run into a BA cycle patrol at Glanbrohane.  The IRA party scatter but Crawford is shot and dies later. 

O’Gorman was blamed by the IRA for the capture of William Slattery – see Dec-30-20/1. O’Gorman is later recaptured by the IRA but they bungle his execution and he escapes.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 265 & 360


Henry (or Harry) Carr (or Kerr or Corr) is abducted from his house in Corvoy in the Tullycorbett area of Co. Monaghan (near Ballybay). He is killed as an informer by the IRA on March 28th. 

The IRA claim that they found out about his informing through intercepting post. They say that he was warned a number of times but that he persisted.  He was then court-martialled and shot. 



Dooley (2017a), pg 90; Lawlor (2011), pg 125; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 361-362


A party of armed men attack the house of Fr O’Hara, parish priest of Kiltimagh, Co Mayo.  He had complained to the British military about the treatment of a number of young men in Kiltimagh some days earlier. 

After being kicked and punched, the young men had been forced by the British military to repeatedly jump into the freezing water of a river. 


Price (2012), pg 126


Augustine ‘Gus’ Murphy, who was O/C No. 4 Section, ASU, Dublin Brigade, IRA, was walking with two comrades (Alec or Joseph  O’Toole and Patrick Rigney) along Lr Clanbrassil St in Dublin when they are accosted by three drunken BA soldiers. In what could have been an attempt to rob Murphy, one of the soldiers puts his hand into Murphy’s pocket. Murphy’s resists and the soldier shoots him.  Murphy dies shortly afterwards in the Meath Hospital.

Murphy lived in 12 Watkins Buildings, The Coombe, Dublin.  

It would seem that the soldiers did not know that the three men were members of the IRA. Private T Williams of the Prince of Wales’s Volunteers (South Lancashire Regiment) was convicted of manslaughter at a court martial.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 360; O'Farrell P (1997), pg 114; Molyneux and Kelly (2021), pg 217


John Cathcart is shot dead at his home on Devonshire Square in Youghal, Co. Cork. He was shot by a man from the 5th Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade, IRA (possibly Paddy O’Reilly).  The CFR talks about the subsequent actions of the Crown Forces and say that they add to the “suspicion that he [Cathcart] was in fact a civilian spy”.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 359; Borgonovo (2007), pg 173; Cork Fatality Register


In retaliation for the killing of Sergeant Coughlan (see Mar-22-21/2), a large number of homes and businesses in Westport, Co. Mayo and the surrounding areas are burnt or bombed or wrecked by the RIC with the focus on the homes and businesses of Sinn Féin supporters (including the home and business of Charles Hughes, Chairman of the UDC).    The reprisals were planned and organised by the RIC’s DI Peter Donnellan.


Price (2012), pg 125


15-year-old Anne Seville is standing at her window on 17 Findlater Place in the centre of Dublin when the IRA attack an RAF vehicle.  Seville is hit in the head and dies two days later.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 362


IRA men from B Company, 1st Battalion, Dublin Brigade, IRA attack a Crossley tender on Parnell St in Dublin.   One RAF man, Alfred Browning, is wounded and dies later in hospital. 

Patrick Sex, who was working in a local butcher shop, is also wounded and dies on April 6th.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 360-361


The Cork Weekly News reports that Crown Forces captured a large IRA arms and equipment dump in a farm near Cork City.


Sheehan (2017), pg 88


William McCarthy (Adj and I/O, 3rd (Lixnaw) Battalion, No. 1 Kerry Brigade, IRA) is arrested in Tralee, Co. Kerry and taken to the RIC barracks where he is tortured.  He is then taken to the Green in Tralee and killed ‘while trying to escape’. 

After reading the proceedings of the Military Court of Inquiry, Macready wrote on the file the it was “quite inexcusable” that McCarthy had not been handcuffed.


O'Farrell P (1997), pg 59; Leeson (2012), pg 183; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 361


The offices in Molesworth St in Dublin of the Dáil Department of Publicity are raided by Auxiliaries and the equipment used for the production of the Irish Bulletin were removed to Dublin Castle.  The Bulletin’s circulation list was also seized.

Four days later, forged editions of the Irish Bulletin began to appear with not-too-subtle anti-IRA propaganda. The editor of the bogus editions of the Irish Bulletin was William Dorling (or Darling), a member of Tudor’s staff.  (Dorling was editor of the Weekly Summary – the RIC’s in-house publication.)

Because it was so badly written, a number of observers (e.g. the Manchester Guardian on April 4th) cast doubt on the authenticity of the bogus editions of the Irish Bulletin and they were ridiculed in the London Times and in the British House of Commons.

The Dáil Department of Publicity secured new offices in Exchequer St and was soon producing the Irish Bulletin again.

See also Apr-30-21/3.


Macardle (1999), pg 444; Gallagher (1953), pgs 95-102; Regan (2007), pg 153; Boyce (1972), pgs 87 & 91; Molyneux and Kelly (2021), pgs 221-222; Sheehan (2007), pg 46


William Good (son of John Good killed by the IRA on March 10th – see Mar-10-21/3) is killed by the IRA at Ballycatten, Timoleague, Co. Cork.  His body has a notice saying “Tried Convicted and Executed. Spies and Informers Beware”.

Following this killing, the IRA seize all the livestock from the farm of Elizabeth Good (widow of John Good).  In May, Dublin Castle issue a statement saying that: ‘This outrage reveals the conditions under which Protestants live in the South of Ireland—particularly in Cork, where the rebel is ever ready to slay a loyalist, and where during the past few weeks several Protestant farmers have fallen victims to the I.R.A.’ 


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 361; Cork Fatality Register


Robert Guy is knocked down on Winetavern St in Dublin by a BA staff car driven by Sgt F. R. Lean of the RASC.  He sustains a fractured skull and dies on April 4th.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 372


Sean O’Leary is one of six unarmed IRA men who encounter three lorries of Auxiliaries at Moneygall on the Tipperary/Offaly border. They make a run for it but O’Leary is shot dead. (O’Halpin and Ó Corráin say March 28th but Dooley says April 4th.)

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 361; Dooley (2015), pgs 59-60


In retaliation for the killing of Patrick McKenna (see Aug-31 to Sep-01-20/1), a party of 40 IRA return to the Fleming’s house at Drumgara outside Castleblayney, Co Monaghan and lay siege to the house. 

After receiving a guarantee that his house would be spared, William Fleming surrenders.  He and his son, Robert, are shot dead in front of his daughter and another son.  The Flemings were Protestants.  They are given a military style funeral so may have been B Specials.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin say that “In 1965 an IRA veteran commented that after these killings the Castleblayney IRA ‘collapsed’”.


Dooley (2017a), pgs 93-94; Lawlor (2011), pg 125; Dooley (2000), pg 44; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 171 & 362-363



BA officer, Capt Cecil Lees, is killed by members of the IRA’s Squad in Exchequer St in Dublin. The shooters were Bernard Byrne and Frank Bolster. Tom Keogh, Mick O’Reilly, Joe Dolan and other members of the Squad/Intelligence Dept also involved.

Lees worked for Colonel (or Major) S. S. Hill Dillon who was District GSO Intelligence Branch of the BA’s Dublin District.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 363; Molyneux and Kelly (2021), pgs 217-219; McMahon (2008), pg 44


RIC Constable William Stephens is shot on Knox St., Ballyhaunis, Co. Mayo and later dies of his wounds.

See Apr-01-21/6.

Abbott (2000), pg 216; Price (2012), pg 126; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 363-364


The Cork Weekly News reports the killing of a jarvey, John Healy, in the centre of Cork. 

In an argument over the fare, one of his passengers pulled out a gun and shot him.  It is quite likely that the shooter was a member of the Crown Forces in civilian clothes.


Borgonovo (2007), pg 67


After memos from Macready since October 1920 seeking permission to be able to use aeroplanes for offensive operations in Ireland, Llyod George gives his approval for British aeroplanes to be able to drop bombs and shoot at people on the ground. 

See Appendix Three in Sheehan for the official BA “The Operational Procedures for Air Offensive Actions in Ireland, 1921”.

See May-1920/5.


Sheehan (2017), pgs 140-146 & 181-182


Denis Donovan is shot dead at his home on Watergate St, Bandon, Co. Cork as a suspected informer by IRA.

The CFR says that “evidence given at the military inquest suggests that O’Donovan had not been a spy”.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 363; Cork Fatality Register


13-year old Thomas Fitzhugh dies after the IRA set fire to the telephone exchange over which his family lived in Killiney, Co. Dublin.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 363


Kate Burke was greeting her sister outside Amiens St Post Office in Dublin when she is hit by a grenade splinter.  She died the following morning. The grenade was most likely thrown by the IRA at a passing lorry.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 364


A four-man RIC cycle patrol is ambushed at Ballyfermot, Co. Dublin by five men from the No. 4 Section ASU, Dublin Brigade.  This ambush results in the death of two RIC men (H/Constable Edward Mulrooney and Sgt Michael Hallisey) and the serious wounding of one other (Constable Neill).

Hallisey was shot by Padraig O’Connor.

Abbott (2000), pg 216; Abbott (2019), pg 274; O’Connor and Connolly (2011), pg 41; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 364 & 372; Molyneux and Kelly (2021), pgs 220-221


De Valera, with Dáil authorisation (See Mar-11-21/3), states in an interview with an American news agency that the IRA is the national defence force. 

He said “one of our first governmental acts was to take control of the voluntary armed forces of the nation.  From the Irish Volunteers we fashioned the Irish Republican Army to be the military arm of the government.  This army is, therefore, a regular State force, under the civil control of the elected representatives … and under officers who hold their commissions under warrant from these representatives.  The Government is, therefore, responsible for the actions of this army.”

De Valera then went on to defend the tactic of ambushing Crown Forces. 

Curran J M (1980), pg 47; Macardle (1999), pgs 436-437; Gallagher (1953), pg 273; Townshend (2014), pgs 231-232; Molyneux and Kelly (2021), pg 222; Mitchell (1995), pg 229


Sean Finn, O/C West Limerick Brigade is killed in action in the Ballyhahill/Athea area of Co. Limerick.

He was in a house resting with other IRA men.  They heard shots outside and went to join other men in the ASU. A running gun fight ensued between the IRA and Crown Forces.  During this gun fight, Finn was shot dead.

Harnett (2002), pgs 78-79; O'Farrell (1997), pg 33; O’Callaghan (2018), pg 87; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 364


An IRA party, led by Dan Hogan, rescue one of their comrades (Matt Fitzpatrick) from County Hospital in Monaghan Town.

There was also an attack on Carrickmaccross RIC barracks.

O'Kelly in The Kerryman (1955), pgs 200-203; Lawlor (2011), pgs 120-124 & 141-142


IRA Volunteer James McLoughney is shot following a chase by Crown Forces at Cormackstown about four miles from Thurles, Co. Tipperary.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 364


The British army discover an IRA Lewis gun in Harcourt St, Dublin along with 6,000 rounds of ammunition.


Townshend (1975), pg 175


A landlord’s agent, Frederick Stenning, is shot dead at Innishannon near Bandon, Co. Cork by two IRA men from the Bandon Battalion, Cork No. 3 Brigade (John Lordan and James ‘Spud’ Murphy).   

The IRA accused him of giving information on an ambush to the Crown Forces.  The CFR says that “According to testimony given at the subsequent military inquest, Stenning was known as the staunchest loyalist in his neighbourhood, and according to this witness, that fact no doubt accounted for his murder.” O’Farrell called him a “Land League activist”.


O’Farrell (1997), pg 96; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 364-365; Cork Fatality Register


William Latimer is shot dead by the South Leitrim ASU of the IRA for giving information which led to Selton Hill massacre (see Mar-11-21/1). 

The killing was carried out by Michael Geoghegan, Patrick McGarrity, Mathew Boylan and one other.

McGarty (2020), pg 97; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 365-366


BA soldier, Reginald Smith, accidently kills himself in Dublin Castle.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 555


The Flying Column of the Cork (West) No. 3 under Tom Barry attacks Rosscarbery RIC barracks by placing a mine at the front door.  Two RIC men are killed (Sgt Ambrose Shea and Constable Charles Bowles) and nine other constables wounded.  The mine used in the attack is made by ex-REME Capt McCarthy.

In the aftermath of the attack, a young girl finds an unexploded Mills bomb and hands it to an RIC man, Constable William Doyle, who was apparently drunk.  Doyle throws the Mills bomb into wreckage of the barracks. It explodes and injures a number of bystanders, including Doyle.  Three people subsequently die from the wounds they received – Patrick Collins, George Wilson and Francis Fitzpatrick.  (Fitzpatrick was four years old.)

Sgt Shea was from Co. Wicklow and Constable Bowes was from Kent in England.  The latter had eight months’ service with the RIC.


Hopkinson (2002), pg 113; Abbott (2000), pgs 216-217; Deasy (1973), pgs 260-262; O’Farrell (1997), pg 58; Abbott (2019), pgs 275-276; Leeson (2012), pgs 143-144; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 366 & 370


RIC Constable Stanley Moore is shot dead on the Main St. of Miltown-Malbay, Co. Clare and another RIC man is wounded. The attack was carried out by the 4th Battalion of the Mid-Clare Brigade under Ignatius O’Neill. 

A few days later, practically the entire adult population of Miltown-Malbay is rounded up at gunpoint by Crown Forces so that they can watch them blow up with explosives a house and drapery shop.

Constable Moore was from Glamorgan in Wales and had nine month’s service with the RIC.


Abbott (2000), pg 218; Ó Ruairc (2009), pgs 232-233; Abbott (2019), pg 276; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 367


RIC Barracks Sergeant John Griffith or Griffiths is shot dead by an Auxiliary as he entered the house of the O/C of Portobello BA barracks in Dublin.  The Auxiliary said that he failed to respond to a challenge.


Abbott (2019), pgs 406-407; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 366


Following the number of prisoners ‘shot when trying to escape’, the Deputy Inspector General of the RIC, C. A. Walsh, issues a circular which states “In future prisoners must be handcuffed – The police all carry handcuffs, and a very full explanation will be required if any prisoners escaping – do so not handcuffed”.


Leeson (2012), pgs 183-184


Mary Patterson is shot dead in the home of her friend, Mrs Halpin, in Summerhill Parade in Dublin.  Mrs Halpin’s son, William, is charged with her murder but acquitted.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 367


Michael Looby is shot as an alleged spy at Grantstown, Donaskeigh, Co. Tipperary by men from the ASU of the Tipperary No. 3 Brigade, IRA under the orders of their O/C, Dinny Lacey.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 367


Curfew in Dublin (see Mar-04-21/1) is extended again by the British from 8pm to 5am. 

See Apr-04-21/2.


Sheehan (2007), pg 46 & 67


Macready writes to Greenwood saying that the Irish Independent and Freeman’s Journal should be suppressed.  Greenwood says this is not advisable due to the “pressure which would be put on the [British] Government by English papers” if this was done. 

Kautt comments that the BA did not “understand the irony of their statements condemning the press for bias, and at the same time for not being biased” because, while they were condemning Irish newspapers for being biased against them, they were (according to Kautt) expressing the view that English newspapers “should only report what the army believed”.


Kautt (2014), pgs 130-132


Gola House in Co Monaghan (said to be the finest in the county) burnt by IRA.


Dooley (2017), pg 113


In his report for March, the RIC Deputy Inspector General, C. A. Walsh, notes that the Dungloe area of Co. Donegal still had no RIC and goes on to say that “The area comprises one-sixth of the county and it seems to have become a miniature Republic”. 

The area had no permanent RIC or British Army presence since October 1920.

See Apr-05 to 12-21/1.


Leeson (2012), pg 23


Paddy Daly is released from Ballykinlar Camp.  When he gets back to Dublin, Collins tells him that he was going to put him in command of the Squad. Tom Keogh objects strongly. 

(Former Squad Leader, Mick McDonnell was suffering from nervous exhaustion. He was to leave Ireland, with Collins’s assistance, to go to California in late April.)

See May-1921/3.


Molyneux and Kelly (2021), pgs 219-220 & 244


The RIC Divisional Commissioner in Galway/Mayo, Richard Cruise, starts to carry out 'official' reprisals even though Galway/Mayo are outside the martial law area.  Despite alarm in the Castle, he gets support from Tudor.


Townshend (1975), pg 166


At about this time, de Valera asks Robert Brennan to set up a Foreign Office (where he would be Under-Secretary) to co-ordinate the work of Irish envoys abroad. 

Brennan sets up offices in 2 Harcourt Place (now 36 Fenian St) and brings the following people to work with him: Frank Kelly, James Carty, Mairin Creggan, James Bolger and George Homan.  (De Valera also asked Brennan to go to the States!)

Brennan (1950), pgs 297-298


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