Some Key Background Events - 1858 to 1918

Note:  This page is designed to give only the briefest of background to the 1919 to 1923 period in Ireland with a little more detail for the years 1917 and 1918


Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) Founded

Curran J M (1980), pg3





Fenian (IRB) Insurrection

Curran J M (1980), pg4





Tory leader Salisbury says “On Tory principles, … Ireland must be kept, like India, at all hazards: by persuasion, if possible; if not, by force”. 


Fanning (2013), pg 11





IRB Re-organised and revitalised – they decide on an ‘entryist’ policy into Irish/Ireland Movement.

Curran J M (1980), pg5





Unionist Liberals join with Tories to defeat Gladstone/Parnell Home Rule Bill in the British House of Commons.  The Tories win the subsequent election. The Liberals were in office for almost twenty of the thirty years before 1886 and they were out of office for all but three of the next twenty years.

Tory leader Salisbury says (in May 1886) “self-government … works admirably well when it is confided to people who are of Teutonic race, but it does not work so well when people of other races are called upon to join in it”.

Curran J M (1980), pg1; Fanning (2013), pgs 8-11





Fall of Parnell and split in Irish Parliamentary Party

Curran J M (1980), pg1





Gladstone’s second Home Rule bill is defeated in the British House of Lords.

Fanning (2013), pg 12





Gaelic League founded

Curran J M (1980), pg2





Irish Parliamentary Party reunites under John Redmond

Fanning (2013), pg19





Llyod George, President of the Board of Trade in the UK cabinet, visits Belfast.  In a speech, he says that Ireland’s schism from the Empire was unthinkable and that the “supremacy of the Imperial Parliament must be maintained”.


Fanning (2013), pg 36





Sinn Féin founded by Arthur Griffith

Curran J M (1980), pg2





ITGWU founded by Jim Larkin

Curran J M (1980), pg2





In January, there was a general election in UK.  In Britain, Liberals win 274 while the unionists (Conservative and Liberal Unionists parties combined) win 252 with 40 seats for the Labour Party.  Asquith is elected prime minister.

In Ireland, Irish Parliamentary Party wins 81 seats and the Unionists 21 seats.  Irish Parliamentary Party holds balance of power.


Fanning (2013), pg 30


On February 21st, Edward Carson elected leader of the Irish Unionist MPs in Westminster.


Fanning (2013), pg 45


On May 6th, Edward VII of England dies and is succeeded by George V.


Fanning (2013), pg 43


In December, second general election within a year in UK.  Liberals win 272 seats while the unionists (Conservative, Liberal Unionists and Irish Unionist parties combined) win 272 seats with 42 seats for the Labour Party. Irish Nationalists wins 84 seats. 

Results very similar to previous January. Irish Parliamentary Party again holds balance of power. Asquith is re-elected prime minister.


Fanning (2013), pg 47





Population of Ireland is 4,390,319.  In the six counties which was to become Northern Ireland, there 1,250,531 people. Of these, 820,370 Protestants and 430,161 were Catholics.  (That is, Catholics are 34% of the population of the six counties that were to become NI.)  In addition, there are Catholic majorities in Fermanagh and Tyrone -136,678 Catholics and 108,603 Protestants.


Curran J M (1980), pg296


On February 21st, the Parliament Bill to remove the House of Lords veto on legislation, is introduced at Westminster. Bill enacted on August 18th  – thereafter House of Lords only had the power to suspend the operation of bills passed by the House of Commons by two years thus paving the way for the passing of a Home Rule for Ireland Bill.


Fanning (2013), pgs 48-50


Writing to Balfour (Leader of the Conservatives) on March 7th, Salisbury says the “great object is to get the present [Liberal] Government out of power.  When we fight them on the Veto [of the House of Lords] we are fighting them on the point which unites them most.  When we fight them on Home Rule, we are fighting them on the point which divides them most”.


Fanning (2013), pg 46


Speaking to 50,000 Orangemen at Craigavon on September 23rd, Carson says “We must be prepared … the morning Home Rule passes, ourselves to become responsible for the Government of the Protestant Province of Ulster”. 

Two days later, 400 delegates to the Ulster Unionist Council appointed a Commission of Five under Craig to frame a Constitution for a Provincial Government for Ulster which would “come into operation on the day of the passage of any Home Rule Bill”.


Fanning (2013), pgs 50-51


On November 8th, Arthur Balfour resigns as leader of the Conservative and Unionist Party – he is succeeded by Andrew Bonar Law.

Fanning says “Under Bonar Law’s leadership rules would be broken, conventions abandoned, revolution encouraged … moderation would hold no appeal for him, and under him the Conservative and Unionist Party would embrace a policy of revolution without parallel in modern British history”.


Fanning (2013), pgs 51-52





On April 11th, Asquith (Liberal PM) introduces Home Rule Bill in Westminster.  

Curran J M (1980), pg4; Fanning (2013), pg 68


Speaking at Blenheim Palace, on July 29th, Bonar Law says that he regarded the British government as “a Revolutionary Committee which had seized upon despotic power by fraud … They may .. carry their Home Rule Bill through the House of Commons but what then?  I said the other day in the House of Commons and I repeat here that there are things stronger than Parliamentary majorities. I can imagine no length of resistance to which Ulster can go in which I should not be prepared to support them and in which, in my belief, they would not be supported by the overwhelming majority of the British people.”.

(Fanning says July 29th 2012 but Boyce says July 29th 1913.)


Fanning (2013), pg 71;  Boyce (1972), pg 30


Between September 19th and 28th 1912, the Ulster Covenant, which pledges resistance “all means which may be found necessary to defeat the present conspiracy to set up a Home Rule Parliament in Ireland” is signed by nearly half a million people, mostly in Ulster but also in other cities throughout Britain and Ireland.

The Covenant is supported by Bonar Law.


Curran J M (1980), pg6; Townshend (2014), pg xviii; Fanning (2013), pg 71





Ulster Volunteer Force founded on the 1st February.  It would grow to over 100,000 men.


Fanning (2013), pg 74


There is a lock-out of workers in Dublin.  After many violent clashes, the unions are defeated.

The Irish Citizens Army is founded by Jim Larkin and James Connolly to protect strikers on November 19th.

Curran J M (1980), pg6; Fanning (2013), pg 95


Irish Volunteers founded by Eoin MacNeill with a meeting of a steering committee on the 11th November 11th – first public meeting on November 25th. 

O’Neill gets a lot of support from the IRB. Eventually the Irish Volunteers is supported by Irish Parliamentary Party.


Curran J M (1980), pg6; Fanning (2013), pg 95


British proclamation prohibits the importation of arms and ammunition into Ireland. 

Fanning notes that, despite the UVF drilling and arming for over a year, this proclamation was issued only days after the founding of the Irish Volunteers.


Fanning (2013), pgs 95-96





The Curragh Mutiny – In March 1914, when told by their commanding officer in the Curragh BA military camp that they would be moving against the UVF in Ulster, a large number of British army officers declare that they would resign their commissions rather than confront the UVF. 

Fanning notes that “the political significance of the episode [is] that an elite corps of British army officers had revolted against the Irish policy of the democratically elected [UK] government”.   According to Fanning, the political cost of the British government’s surrender to their army mutineers was that it had to abandon its Irish policy and “issue no order which the army, and the king, deemed politically unacceptable”.


Townshend (2014), pg xviii; Fanning (2013), pgs 112 &117


Curran says that, by September 1914, there were 200,000 men in Irish Volunteers and half that number in the Ulster Volunteer Force.  [Fanning says there were 160,000 Irish Volunteers by the end of July.]

In April, the UVF bring 25,000 rifles and 3 million rounds of ammunition into Larne, Donaghdee and Bangor.

In July, Erskine Childers and Darrel Figgis bring 1,500 rifles and ammunition into Howth for the Irish Volunteers. In contrast to what happens after the UVF gun-running, the British army opened fire on unarmed civilians on Bachelor’s Walk in Dublin killing four and wounding thirty. 

Fanning quotes Michael Laffan as follows: “The [British] army, apparently reluctant to move against organised Ulster gun-runners, was prepared to kill hostile but unarmed Dublin civilians”.


Curran J M (1980), pg 7; Fanning (2013), pg 116 & 122 & 128-129; Townshend (2014), pgs xviii & 95


Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife are assassinated on June 28th 1914 in Sarajevo by Serb nationalist, Gavrilo Princip.   This killing was to lead to the outbreak of World War One.




Split in Irish Volunteers after war starts with about 150,000 joining Redmond’s National Volunteers and in support of British war effort.  About 13,000 left in Irish Volunteers.


Curran J M (1980), pg8


On September 18th, Home Rule enacted in Westminster but suspended for the duration of the war.   The Liberal PM, Asquith, also gives the following reassurance to unionists “the employment of force, any kind of force, for … the coercion of Ulster, is an absolutely unthinkable thing … a thing that we would never countenance or consent to”.

On September 20th, in a speech at Woodenbridge in Co. Wicklow, Redmond urged his followers to join the British army.  100,000 or more Irishmen were to serve in the British Army during WWI “wherever the firing line extends”.


Curran J M (1980), pg8; Townshend (2014), pg 4; Fanning (2013), pgs 134 & 136


In September, IRB and Connolly decide for rebellion.


Curran J M (1980), pg9


Writing of “the Irish”, Walter Long says that are far as they are concerned “one thing and one thing alone succeeds, namely, a strong unflinching attitude towards those who are openly disloyal.  It is the only form of government which the Irish understand.  They are very quick and when they see that disloyalty not only goes unpunished but sometimes rewarded the naturally do not hesitate to indulge in their own tastes. It is not because they really want to do mischief so much as, like naughty children, they think it amusing to give way to their inclinations.”

Hart (2007), pgs 120-121 





Coalition government formed in Westminster of Liberals and Conservatives with Asquith still as prime minister but with many hard line unionists (Bonar Law, Chamberlain, Long, Balfour and even Carson) in the British cabinet 

(Note: There is a very good piece in Fanning on how Ireland never again became central to British politics after start of WW1. – See Fanning (2013) pgs 138-139.)


Fanning (2013), pg 136


IRB Military Council founded and headed by Pearse.

Curran J M (1980), pg9





Easter Rising in Dublin (Monday 24th to Saturday 29th April) - 800 turn out with about another 800 joining during the week. 

Various estimates of fatalities.  Curran says about 60 rebels killed, 132 Crown Forces (116 soldiers and 16 police) and more than 300 civilians killed.  Also, nearly 2,000 wounded. 

Fanning says 450 killed (including over 100 British soldiers) and 3,000 wounded. 

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin say 504 killed made up of 276 civilians; 84 Irish military; 17 police and 127 British military.  (Latter figures most accurate.)


Curran J M (1980), pg 11; Fanning (2013), pg 140; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 543


15 rebel leaders shot and Roger Casement hung - 97 death sentences commuted. 

(O’Halpin and Ó Corráin include the 16 executed in their fatality numbers.)


Curran J M (1980), pg12


After the Easter Rebellion, 3500 rebel suspects arrested, 1500 let go almost immediately, 1800 interned in England. (However most ~1300 let go quickly.)


Curran J M (1980), pg11


In December, Lloyd George made Prime Minister by ousting his Liberal Party colleague Asquith.  War cabinet instituted and made up of one Liberal (Llyod George), one Labour (Henderson) and three Conservatives/Unionists (Law, Curzon and Milner).

Curran J M (1980), pg13; Morgan (1979), pg 14


By December, all remaining Irish internees are released but 150 convicted prisoners still held.

Curran J M (1980), pg14








Count Plunkett wins seat for Sinn Féin in Roscommon.

O'Farrell P (1997) P (1997), pg xiv; Fanning (2013), pg 160


John Redmond dies and succeeded as leader of Irish Party by John Dillon.


Curran J M (1980), pg15


Irish Volunteer meeting in Dublin leads to formation of National Executive.



Apr or May-1917/1

Joseph McGuiness wins seat for Sinn Féin in South Longford while in prison.

O'Farrell P (1997) P (1997), pg xiv; Fanning (2013), pg 160


On April 6th, America declares war on Germany.


Fanning (2013), pg 159


On April 10th, US President Woodrow Wilson sends a confidential message to his Secretary of State, Robert Lansing, that he should instruct the American Ambassador in London to inform British PM Llyod George that “the failure so far to find a satisfactory method of self-government for Ireland” alone stood in the way of “absolutely cordial” Anglo-American co-operation.


Fanning (2013), pg 159


Irish Convention called by Llyod George. However, Sinn Féin & Labour Party boycott it.  It is attended by Irish Party, Unionists and Bishops – Starts in Dublin on July 25th and ends on April 5th 1918. 

Fanning notes that the Convention was “not so much an attempt to solve the Irish problem as to shelve it” and quotes F. S. L. Lyons as saying that it was a “gigantic irrelevancy”.


Curran J M (1980), pg15; Fanning (2013), pgs 161-162; Boyce (1972), pg 35


Remaining prisoners from 1916 Rebellion are released including de Valera.


Curran J M (1980), pg14


On July 10th, de Valera wins seat for Sinn Féin in East Clare. 

An Irish Volunteer (Daniel Scanlon) is shot dead during victory celebrations.  An RIC man (Constable Lyons) is found guilty but no action is taken against him.


O'Farrell P (1997), pg xiv and pg 93


WT Cosgrave wins seat in Kilkenny for Sinn Féin.

Curran J M (1980), pg17


Thomas Ashe, leader of the successful Ashbourne ambush during the 916 Rising and President of IRB, dies due to force-feeding in Mountjoy Prison during a hunger strike. 

A massive funeral procession organised for him.  After a volley of shots was fired over his grave, Michael Collins stepped forward to give the oration.  It was short.  Nothing additional remains to be said. That volley which we have just heard is the only speech which it is proper to make above the grave of a dead Fenian".


O'Farrell P (1997), pg 4; Townshend (2014), pg 5; Molyneux & Kelly (2020), pg 14

Oct-25 to 26-17/1

Sinn Féin Ard Fheis held in the Mansion House in Dublin - 1,700 delegates – de Valera elected President; Griffith and Michael O’Flanagan as Vice-Presidents. Darrell Figgis and Austen Stack as joint Secretaries.  Cathal Brugha, Eoin MacNeill and Michael Collins on Standing Committee.

The Ard Fheis agreed that Sinn Féin’s objective was to create a republic but, once that had been achieved, the people were free to decide on the form of government which they wanted.  (This was a compromise between the hard line republicans and the more moderates like Griffith.  The republicans believed that it necessary to achieve sovereignty - i.e. for them a Republic – before the Irish people could express themselves freely.)


Curran J M (1980), pg18; Deasy (1973), pg 16; Townshend (2014), pg 24; Molyneux & Kelly (2020), pg 15; Ferriter (2021), pg 17; Kissane (2005), pg 43


Irish Volunteer Convention held in the GAA grounds on Jones Road in Dublin  - over 1,100 Volunteers attended. De Valera is elected President. A 22 member national executive is elected and a seven member resident executive.  Cathal Brugha is made chair of the resident committee.  Michael Collins made Director of Organisation and Richard Mulcahy made Director of Training.  

See Mar-1918/1.


Curran J M (1980), pg18  O'Donnoghue F (1986), pg 15; Townshend (2014), pg 6; Molyneux & Kelly (2020), pg 15





Henry Wilson made Chief of the Imperial General Staff (CIGS) of the British army.


Jeffrey (2006), pg 236


British cabinet decides to impose conscription on Ireland. However, the Chief Secretary for Ireland, Duke, says that implementing conscription would “consolidate into one mass of antagonism all the Nationalist elements in Ireland, politicians, priests, men and women”.

 (For Walter Long’s response – see Apr-1918/1.)


Townshend (2014), pgs 7 & 10; Fanning (2013), pgs 170-171


The National Executive of the Irish Volunteers recommends the setting up of a GHQ. 

Mulcahy elected Chief of Staff (was O/C of the Dublin Brigade).  Austen Stack became V/C; Collins becomes Director of Organisation and Adj Gen.  Dick McKee is made Director of Training (and O/C Dublin Brigade) and Sean McMahon is QMG.  Eamon Duggan is made Director of Intelligence and Rory O’Connor is made Director of Engineering.


Hopkinson (2002), pg 16; Molyneux & Kelly (2020), pg 18


Sinn Féin set up a press bureau under Robert Brennan.


Mitchell (1995), pg 100


At a British cabinet meeting, Walter Long tells his cabinet colleagues that the Irish “race has one marked characteristic”, they were “particularly liable to be influenced by their immediate environment”.  He continued that in suitable surroundings it was possible to rouse them to imperial enthusiasm but they were just as easily “filled with hatred and anger by a few crafty sedition mongers and young priestly fanatics”.


Townshend (2014), pg 18


Conscription Bill is passed by British House of Commons. This heightens the conscription crisis. 

John Dillion leads the Irish Parliamentary Party out of Westminster.  Fanning notes “Never again were the elected representatives of nationalist Ireland to sit at Westminster”.

Chief Secretary for Ireland Duke resigns.  He is replaced by Edward Shortt (a Liberal MP).

GOC of the British Army in Ireland (McMahon) had reported to the British cabinet that that he was “satisfied, from reliable information received …. that on conscription becoming law, armed insurrection is intended”.


O'Donnoghue (1986), pg21; Townshend (2014), pg 10; Fanning (2013), pgs 174-175; O’Halpin (1987), pg 157


Writing to Llyod George to congratulate him on getting the Conscription Bill passed, Walter Long says “The Irish will talk, shout, perhaps get up a fight or two, but they know they are beaten and if we sit tight, make no concessions, you will soon have 200 to 300,000 fine fighting Irish men in the ranks”.


Hart (2007), pg 119


Field Marshall John French is appointed Lord Lieutenant (Viceroy) for Ireland.

In his own head, French thought of himself as a military governor. He planned to establish air strips in each of the four provinces.  With the range of military aircraft available, this would allow one “to play about with either bombs or machine guns” which “ought to put the fear of God into these playful young Sinn Feinners”.

The traditional relationship between Chief Secretary and Viceroy was to be reversed with the Viceroy now firmly in charge.

O'Donnoghue (1986), pg 22; Townshend (2014), pg 11; Fanning (2013), pg 174 & 181; O’Halpin (1987), pg 158; Molyneux & Kelly (2020), pgs 28-32


British cabinet decide to withdraw threat of conscription in Ireland in the face of a united nationalist opposition (but said that it was expected that there would be 50,000 volunteers by the end of September). 

See Oct-07 to 09-18/1.


Townshend (2014), pg 15

May-17 to 18-18/1

Sinn Féin leaders arrested (including de Valera, Plunkett, Griffith and MacNeil) on charges of conspiracy with Germany – known as the "German Plot".  Even though Sinn Féin knew about their imminent arrests, quite a few decided to let themselves be arrested to gain political capital.

More Detail 

Curran J M (1980), pg19; Townshend (2014), pg 16; Fanning (2013), pgs 181-187; O’Halpin (1987), pgs 161-162; Molyneux & Kelly (2020), pgs 33-34; McMahon (2008), pg 24


Walter Long persuades French to replace Sam Power (a Catholic) with Edward Saunderson as his private secretary. 

According to O’Halpin, “This was a significant appointment: Saunderson distrusted all Catholics on principle.  As private secretary he was able to steer French away from political conciliation, and he brought him into close contacts with leading Ulster unionists.  Saunderson also kept Long privately informed of the affairs of the [Castle] administration”.

When recommending Saunderson, Long said that “he is one of the few Protestants who has the full confidence of Roman Catholics of all classes”.  Hart comments “If this comment was sincere, it reveals a near-complete ignorance of the Irish political scene in 1918.”


O’Halpin (1987), pg 164; Hart (2007), pg 115h


Arthur Griffith wins a by-election for Sinn Féin.


Molyneux & Kelly (2020), pg 35


Dick McKee reorganises the Dublin Brigade of the Irish Volunteers.  Frank Henderson replaces him as O/C 2nd Battalion.  The other battalion O/Cs are Tom Byrne – 1st; Joseph O’Connor – 3rd and Edward Kelly – 4th.


Molyneux & Kelly (2020), pg 36


On the retirement of Edward O’Farrell as Under Secretary in Dublin Castle, James McMahon is appointed as his replacement.  McMahon is a Catholic. 

According to French “we must try as far as we can to get in touch with the Catholic Hierarchy” – McMahon was seen as close to the Bishops.

However, French was to grow to distrust McMahon – See Dec-11-19/1.


O’Halpin (1987), pg 165


Sinn Féin, Irish Volunteers, Cumann na mBan and the Gaelic League are proclaimed by Dublin Castle as dangerous organisations under the Crimes Act.

The intention was not to make them illegal organisations but to try to prevent “the criminal activities of Sinn Fein without interfering with its political programme so far as that was considered innocuous to any degree”.


O’Halpin (1987), pg 168


Pat O’Sullivan and Dan Harrington from Kilnamatyra, Co. Cork disarm two RIC men at Béal na nGleanna.

O’Farrell (1997), pg 85


Writing to the new Chief Secretary for Ireland (Edward Shortt), Walter Long says “the Irish more than any other people understand and appreciate firmness and consistency, the two qualities that they lack more than any other”.


O’Halpin (1987), pg 167


First edition of An tOglaċ, journal of the Irish Volunteers appears.  It is edited by Piaras Béaslaí.  It states that the Volunteers are “the Army of the Irish Republic … an instrument framed by Irishmen to further Ireland’s determination to be free”.


Townshend (2014), pg 75; Molyneux & Kelly (2020), pg 47


A protest by women against the continued detention of the ‘German Plot’ prisoners at Foster Place in Dublin is baton charged by the DMP.

A Cumman na mBan member, Josie (or Josephine) McGowan, is so badly beaten by the DMP that she dies a week later.


Molyneux & Kelly (2020), pg 41; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 105

Oct-07 to 09-18/1

As only 8,000 of the expected 50,000 had joined the British Army, the issue of imposing conscription re-emerged. 

On October 7th, Shortt writes saying that conscription would be no easier to impose at this point than in the Spring unless Home Rule was granted. 

On October 8th, French writes that “every day that has passed since I became Viceroy … has proved more clearly the unfitness of Ireland for any form of Home Rule, now or in the immediate future”. 

On October 9th, Long advises doing nothing on either conscription or Home Rule and this advice is taken by the British cabinet.  (Long agrees with French that resistance to conscription could easily be put down by force but said that the British parliament would not put up with “repressive measures after one or two priests and a few women have been shot down by the soldiers”.)


O’Halpin (1987), pg 170





1st World War ends

Curran J M (1980), pg19


As they prepared to fight an election together, Llyod George writes to Bonar Law saying that his proposed joint platform on Ireland was “the right to bring a settlement into effect based on the exclusion of Ulster’s six northeastern counties”.  It is not clear whether he considered this exclusion temporary or permanent but a Council of Ireland was included in the manifesto.


Matthews (2004), pg 15


The manifesto issued by Coalition parties in Britain (The Conservatives under Bonar Law and the Coalition Liberals – or Liberal Imperialists - under Llyod George) contains the following: “So long as the Irish question remains unsettled there can be no political peace either in the United Kingdom or in the Empire, and we regard it as one of the first obligations of British statesmanship to explore all political paths towards the settlement of this grave and difficult question, on the basis of self-government”.


Boyce (1972), pg 25


The CIGS of the Britsh Army, Henry Wilson, sends a memo to the British cabinet in which he estimated that the “military commitments remaining after peace has been signed” would require between 350,000 and 500,000 soldiers to serve in various parts of the British Empire.  There were 3.8 million men in the British army in November 1918.  This was to reduce to 890,000 in November 1919 and to 430,000 by November 1920.

Wilson wanted to maintain conscription but during the election campaign (see Dec-14-18/1) Llyod George had promised to speed up demobilisation. 

See Jan-03-19/1.


Jeffery (2006), pgs 229-231


Irish Volunteer Captain Richard Coleman dies in Usk prison in Wales from Spanish Flu.  He had been arrested as part of the German Plot.  More than 15,000 attended his funeral. 

Molyneux & Kelly (2020), pg 45; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 106


Polling day of General Election in Britain and Ireland (except for University constituencies). 

In Britain, the coalition of the ‘Coupon’ Liberals (i.e. Liberal Imperialists) and Conservatives wins 478 out of the 707 seats (made up of 335 Conservative and 133 Coalition Liberal seats).  In addition, there was 23 non-Coalition Conservatives.

In Ireland, Sinn Féin wins 73 out of 105 seats - the remaining seats are 23 Northern Unionists; 6 Irish Party and 3 Southern Unionists.  Sinn Féin received 48% of votes cast - however there were unopposed in 26 constituencies.  (Also, it received 68% of vote outside the six counties of north-east Ulster which were to become Northern Ireland.) 

More Detail


Curran J M (1980), pgs 20-21; Figgis 1927, pg 225; Walker (1992), pgs 4-9; Ozseker (2019), pgs 91-92; Townshend (2014), pg 61; Fanning (2013), pg 190; Kissane (2005), pg 30


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