April 1922


Around this time, British military intelligence estimated that 75% of the IRA in Munster and Dublin were anti-Treaty.


Curran J M (1980), pg 172


An order in council of the British government transfers control of the Revenue departments in Dublin Castle to the Provisional Government and sets guidelines for the transfer of other departments.


Curran J M (1980), pg 180


Following the setting up of the anti-Treaty Executive, the pro-Treaty GHQ in Beggar’s Bush, from this date, began to re-organise the Divisions and Brigades of the IRA, paying a set number of officers in each Division.  This re-organisation took place over the following period with Executive officers being replaced with officers loyal to Beggar’s Bush.


McDermott (2001), pgs 198-199


Collins attempts to give a speech to a large crowd in Castlebar, Co. Mayo but it is disrupted by anti-Treaty men from the West Mayo Brigade. 

At one point shooting breaks out and a civilian, Mrs Fogarty, is wounded.  One of Collins’s men, Charlie Byrne, is arrested as is pro-Treaty Joe Ring from Westport.  Both are subsequently released. 


Price (2012), pgs 207-209


In a case of severe agrarian unrest, the home of the Horkan family is raided at Grallagh, near Straide, Co. Mayo in an attempt to force them to sell land the family had recently bought.  Anne Horkan is shot dead and her sister, Kate, is seriously wounded.  One of the raiders, Patrick Gallagher, is also killed.


Price (2012), pg 212


Anti-Treaty men raid the post office in Ennis, Co. Clare and take away £82.


Power (2020), pg 25


Over 500 USC men carry out a major sweep of the Cookstown, Greencastle and Draperstown area in Co. Tyrone.  They detain over 300 men but only four are considered to be members of the IRA.


Lawlor (2011), pg 256


De Valera makes a speech in Dundalk deriding the 2nd Craig-Collins pact saying that it implies that northern nationalists have to recognise the Belfast government.


Phoenix (1994), pg 201


Limerick’s Protestant Young Men’s Association’s premises on 97 O’Connell St, Limerick is damaged by a bomb.  Three day earlier (on March 30th) it had been subjected to gunfire and on March 29th, the Association’s pavilion at Farranshone was burned down.

Liam Forde, O/C Mid-Limerick Brigade IRA, condemned these attacks.

See Apr-04-22/2.


O’Callaghan (2018), pg 122


An RIC constable and a number of Special Constables come under fire at the corner of Old Lodge Road and Lime Street in Belfast resulting in the death of the RIC man (Constable George Turner). 

Parkinson says that this killing took place on April 1st and resulted in the Arnon St Affair – see Mar-31-22/4

He also says that considerable controversy surrounds the killing of Constable Turner.


Abbott (2000), pg 284; Parkinson (2004), pg 245; Parkinson (2020), pgs 168


Both the Belfast Newsletter and the Belfast Telegraph condemn the Arnon St killings but without attempting to ascertain who were the assailants or their motivation. 


Parkinson (2004), pg 246


A meeting of the officers of the anti-Treaty 1st Northern Division takes place in McCarry’s Hotel in Letterkenny, Co. Donegal. 

Those present included Sean Lehane, O/C; Charlie Daly, V/C; Peadar O’Donnell, Divisional Adjutant; Joe McGurk, Divisional QM and Mick O’Donoghue, Divisional Engineer.  They decide to take over Glenveagh Castle as Divisional HQ and also occupy and garrison the masonic hall in Raphoe.  Both were occupied in the next few days.  They also decided to attack Garrison in Co. Tyrone – See Apr-06-22/3.

In the days that followed, Lehane travelled throughout Donegal carrying out inspections and making new brigade appointments including: Sean Hegarty as Derry O/C; Jack Fitzgerald as East Donegal (Lagan) O/C; Brian Monaghan as south Donegal O/C and Frank O’Donnell (brother of Peadar) as North-West Donegal O/C.


Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 87-88


At a meeting of the Irish Committee of the British cabinet, it was agreed that the BA in Ireland could restart a limited form of intelligence gathering.  Lieutenant-Colonel Charlie French was put in charge but they were, according to McMahon, only to engage in unobtrusive intelligence gathering.

See Apr-28-22/4.


McMahon (2008), pg 67


In a telegram to Craig, Collins demands an “immediate joint enquiry” to investigate the Arnon St killings.


Parkinson (2004), pg 247


A number of prominent Limerick Protestants meet “to condemn the outrages which have been perpetrated in Belfast”. They unanimously resolved that they “never suffered intolerance of any kind and that they lived in perfect harmony with their Catholic neighbours.”

See Apr-02-22/3.




Harry Clark (a USC man from Magherafelt, Co. Londonderry), writing to Colonel Moore Irvine (USC Co. Londonderry Commander) says that ‘if there is another murder [of a USC man] although I have no connection with it, I understand a body has been formed who will immediately destroy hundreds of Roman Catholics homes.  About this there is no possible doubt.”


Grant (2018), pg 133


Control of the Special Constabulary handed over to the NI Government and Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) formally set-up.


Parkinson (2004), pg 235;McMahon (2008), pg 138


At Westminster, an anti-Coalition motion put down by Conservative Party ‘Die-Hards’ is defeated by 288 to 95 after Chamberlain (leader of the Conservatives) gave a strong pro-Coalition speech.   (However, Matthews says that “Although justifiably proud of his victory, Chamberlain drew the wrong conclusion from this episode.  … It would prove to be a costly mistake.”)


Matthews (2004), pgs 76-77


In a review for the British Cabinet’s Irish Situation Committee, Churchill makes plans in the event of anti-Treatyites staging a coup in Dublin or declaring a republic in some part of the country.  

He says that “The [Provisional] Government is feeble, apologetic, expostulatory: the conspirators, active, audacious and utterly shameless”.  He concluded that “There is no doubt that the Irish have a genius for conspiracy rather than government.”

The next day the Military Sub-Committee of the British Cabinet’s Irish Situation Committee is asked to bring “the latest information as to the position of troops, ships, stores of arms, explosives and equipment” in Ireland.


Curran J M (1980), pgs 182-183; Ferriter (2021), pg 40; McMahon (2008), pg 74


In a letter in the Leinster Leader, the pro-Treaty O/C of the 5th (Kildare) Brigade of the IRA, Thomas Lawler, states that he will not be responsible for “debts contracted ... by any parties calling themselves the IRA and not under my command”.   His anti-Treaty opposite is Thomas Harris who styles himself “OC 7th Brigade, Acting under Army Council”.


Durney (2011), pgs 60-61


Two ex-RIC men are attacked in their homes in Ballyhaunis, Co. Mayo - one was killed (ex-Constable Cranny) and the other (ex-Constable Butler) was seriously wounded. A third RIC man, called Flynn, is not at home when the assassins arrive – he leaves Ballyhaunis the next morning.


Abbott (2000), pg 293; Price (2012), pg 204


A patrol of Special Constables is attacked near Garrison, Co. Tyrone resulting in the wounding of four constables and the death of one (S/Constable James Plumb). 

This attack was carried out by men from the anti-Treaty 1st Northern Division based in Donegal.   It was claimed that the Special Constable’s body was mutilated after death but this is disputed by a Catholic priest and Church of Ireland minister who attended the scene.


Abbott (2000), pgs 284-285; Lawlor (2011), pg 257; Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 88-89; McGarty (2020), pg 112


A ‘monster pro-Treaty meeting’ due to be addressed by Arthur Griffith in Sligo on Easter Sunday is proclaimed by local anti-Treaty commander, Liam Pilkington (O/C of anti-Treaty 3rd Western Division).  His troops had taken over a number of buildings in the town. 

However, on Holy Thursday night, pro-Treaty troops under Alex McCabe entered the town and took over the jail.  MacEoin brings further Provisional Government troops from Athlone and on the day of the meeting, he is joined by more troops led by J J O'Connell. 

A tense situation ensues but, at the last minute, under orders from anti-Treaty GHQ, Pilkington backs down and the meeting goes ahead.   Arthur Griffith entered Sligo and the meeting went ahead attended by a large crowd.  It was a major publicity victory for the pro-Treaty side. 

There were a lot of recriminations of the anti-Treaty side in Sligo afterwards. 

Also, as the pro-Treaty forces had taken over a number of buildings in the town, while anti-Treaty forces held others, there was a considerable amount of sniping over the coming period.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 76; Curran J M (1980), pg 182; Farry (2012), pgs 94-95


A Catholic boy, Joseph Hannigan (9) is shot in the head while playing in the street in Maralin St in the New Lodge Rd area of Belfast.  It is suspected that the shot came from the BA.  There are riots after this killing.


Parkinson (2004), pg 243


A patrol of Special Constables came under attack at Roughlan's Cross, Co. Armagh on the road between Keady and Monaghan resulting in the death of Special Head Constable Alexander Compton.


Abbott (2000), pg 285


A British Navy intelligence officer (Captain G M Crick) based in Queenstown (Cobh) writing to Rear Admiral M.S. Fitzmaurice says that the split in the IRA is “practically entirely bluff” and that they will come together again and declare a republic as soon as British forces have left the country. 

See also Apr-12-22/7.


Ferriter (2021), pg 34; McMahon (2008), pgs 71-72


The Northern Ireland Civil Authorities (Special Powers) Bill – known as the flogging bill - receives royal assent. 

It suspends habeas corpus; permits search, arrest and detention without warrant; brings in the death penalty for offences such as bomb throwing and flogging for offences such as possession of arms. It also allowed for the banning of inquests and the seizure of properties without warrant. 

Macardle (1999), pg 704; Curran J M (1980), pg 177; Parkinson (2004), pg 235; McDermott (2001), pgs 185-185; McCluskey (2014), pg 127; Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 72-73; Parkinson (2020), pgs 236-237


Abbott says that five recently retired members of the RIC are shot and killed – three of those killed came from Co. Clare and the others killed in Tralee, Co. Kerry.  He also says that another five or six are wounded.  (Unusually for Abbott, he does not name those killed.)

Hart says that “On April 6, six were shot in one day in Clare and Kerry”.  Hart does not make it clear if they were current or retired members of the RIC.  He also does not make it clear if they died from being shot.  (The source which Hart references in the Irish Times on April 7th.)

Other sources confirm that one ex-RIC man was killed in Clare - see Apr-22-22/5.


Hart (1998), pg 114; Abbott (2000), pg 294; Abbott (2000), pg 277


The body of RIC Sgt Edward McConnell is found in the Old Demesne, Templemore, Co. Tipperary. He had been shot six times.


Abbott (2000), pgs 285-286


The anti-Treaty Army Convention reconvenes in Dublin. 

The Convention adopts a constitution (given as Appendix 8 in O’Donoghue (1986)).  The convention votes narrowly against setting up a military dictatorship but opposes any election on the Treaty in the near future. 

More Detail

See Apr-13-22/5 and Apr-14-22/1.

The next Army Convention meets on June 18th – see Jun-18-22/1.


O’Donoghue (1986), pgs 224 & 230; Macardle (1999), pgs 693-694; Neeson (1989), pg 96; Townshend (2014), pg 392


William Blennerhasset, a Protestant farmer, is evicted along with his wife and seven children from their farm at Culleneghy, Beaufort, near Killarney, Co. Kerry by a group of armed masked men including a man called John Murphy who claimed that relatives were evicted from the farm prior to 1880.  The following day, the local IRA Battalion O/C, [Patrick?] Allman reinstates Blennerhasset on his farm. 

See May-13-22/1.


Doyle (2008), pg 102


The remaining members of the USC, detained since Clones incident on 11th February, are released after Second Collins-Craig pact.


McDermott (2001), pg 207; Dooley (2017a), pg


National Executive of the Irish Labour Party condemns militarism on both sides.


Macardle (1999), pg 701


The Northern Advisory Committee to the Provisional Government meets in Dublin and carries out extensive review of Provisional Government policy towards Northern Ireland government.

More Detail 

See Apr-12-22/1.


Phoenix (1994), pgs 203-212; McDermott (2001), pgs 207-211


The Joint Conciliation Committee, set up under the Collins-Craig pact, meets in Belfast (six nominees from each side).  They ask the NI Minister for Home Affairs for quasi-legal status but he refuses and, by April 20th, the Catholic members resign.  The committee soon lapses. 

See Apr-20-22/2.


McDermott (2001), pg 212; Phoenix


Michael Sweeney (21) of the anti-Treaty IRA is shot dead while in the custody of the pro-Treaty forces.  He was being taken back to Mountjoy after his trial in Beggars Bush.


Dorney (2017), pg 42; Macardle (1999), pg 697


A British Army soldier, Private Taylor, is shot in Dun Laoghaire and later dies of his wounds.

Dorney (2017), pg 286


Writing to Collins, Churchill says that “Mr de Valera may gradually come to personify not a cause but a catastrophe”. 

He goes on to say that the Provisional Government must “assert itself or perish and be replaced by some other form of control”.  He puts to Collins the following choice “the threat of civil war, or of a Republic followed by a state of war with the British Empire”.


Ferriter (2021), pg 2; Kissane (2005), pg 153; Regan (2013), pg 116


Churchill states that 4,000 rifles; 2,200 revolvers, 6 machine guns and ammunition had been handed over to the Provisional Government.  He admitted that many rifles handed over to the Provisional Government had now “passed out of its control”.


O’Donoghue (1986), pg 226; Macardle (1999), pgs 702-703


Wellington Barracks on the South Circular Road in Dublin is taken over by the pro-Treaty army under Tom Ennis.  It was to become the HQ of the pro-Treaty 2nd Eastern Division and, (with time) more notoriously, the base for pro-Treaty Army Intelligence.


Dorney (2017), pgs 38-39


A report by the British Special branch states that rumours were rife in England that the anti-Treaty army was “contemplating a big coup to dispose the Free State Government during the Easter holidays”.

The following day, the BA’s Colonel Brind (Head of BA Intelligence in Ireland) says that at least 75 per cent of the IRA in Munster was anti-Treaty and warned of “an outburst in the near future”.


McMahon (2008), pg 73

Apr-13  to 29-22/1

According to Kissane, a conference is convened in the Mansion House in Dublin with a view bringing together pro and anti-Treaty forces.  It us held at the prompting of the RC Archbishop of Dublin, Edward Byrne, and the Lord Mayor of Dublin, Laurence O’Neill.  The pro-Treaty side said that they wanted a plebiscite on acceptance or rejection of the Treaty within a month but the anti-Treaty side rejects this proposal.  Kissane also says that the Labour Party proposes that a Provisional Government be replaced with a Council of State (with the Minister of Defence chosen by the Army Convention).  This was rejected by the pro-Treaty side.

Hopkinson says that the “Labour Party peace attempts culminated in the Mansion House Conference of April 26-29” but talks “broke down on Collins’s insistence that an election or plebiscite take place on the Treaty issue.

According to Macardle, three representatives of the Irish Labour Party asked the conference on March 26th that representatives of the anti-Treaty Army Executive should be added to the conference but Griffith and Collins refuse. Macardle elaborates on the Labour Party proposals mentioned by Kissane but concludes “The Conference ended, in failure, on April 29th.”

Griffith refers to this conference in his address to the Dáil on April 26th – see Apr-26-22/1.


Kissane (2005), pgs 69-70; Hopkinson (2004), pg 93; Macardle (1999), pgs 707-708; Ferriter (2021), pgs 37-38


Dundalk Military Barracks is evacuated by the British Army and taken over by 50 IRA men of the 4th Northern Division under Frank Aiken.


Gavin and O’Donnell (1999), pg 31


An RIC man (Sgt John Bruin) is shot in Cosgroves public house on York St. in Belfast and later dies from his wounds.

Abbott (2000), pg 286; Parkinson (2004), pg 245


A Special Constable (S/Constable Nathaniel McCoo) was shot while on a patrol in Joy St., Belfast and later died of his wounds.

Abbott (2000), pg 286; Parkinson (2004), pg 244; McDermott (2001), pg 212


A suspected informer (Patrick 'Cruxy' or ‘Croxy’ Connors) is shot outside Central Park in Manhattan, New York.  The Cork City IRA had sent three men to execute him – Pa Murray, Dan Healy and Martin Donovan.  Even though, word went back to Cork that he had been killed, Connors survived the attack.


Hart (1998), pg 114; Borgonovo (2007), pgs 89-90


Anti-Treaty forces under Rory O'Connor (and including Ernie O'Malley, Joe McKelvey and Liam Mellows) take over the Four Courts in Dublin and set up their HQ there.  There had been competition for the taking over of BA barracks but all handed over in Dublin had been taken over by pro-Treaty forces.

The anti-Treaty forces barricaded the Four Courts and the Public Records Office was turned into a munitions factory.  (Other buildings such as the Fowler Hall, Kildare Street Club and, on May 2nd, the Ballast Office were also taken over.) 


O'Farrell P (1997), pg xx; Litton (1995), pgs 45-46; Hopkinson (1988), pg 72; Dorney (2017), pg 40; Townshend (2014), pg 397


Liam Mellows, as Secretary to the Army Council (Executive), writes to the Secretary of the Dáil, setting out the conditions by which unity of the army might be attained. 

These include (a) the maintenance of the Irish Republic; (2) Dáil Eireann to be the only government in Ireland; (3) a delay to elections 'while the threat of war with England exists'; (4) the disbandment of the new Civic Guard; (5) to maintain the army as the IRA under an elected independent Executive and (6) that the Dáil discharge all current and future financial liabilities of the army.  See Apr-25-22/1.

De Valera issues a statement says that "In Rory O'Connor and his comrades lives the unbought indomitable soul of Ireland" and appeals for support for them. 

With regards to Issue No. 5 above, the previous day, Collins (when writing to Daly) says “no government in the world could exist unless its Executive controlled the Army”.


Macardle (1999), pg 695; Kissane (2005), pgs 70 & 154


A group of men arrive at the house of John Collins in Ramelton, Co. Donegal. 

Collins was an ex-British Army soldier and had been suspected of spying for the British during the War of Independence.  He had been arrested by the IRA but released just after the Truce.  On this night, he was taken from his home and shot while making an ‘effort to escape’.  He later died of his wounds.

It is not known if this killing was carried out by pro- or anti-Treaty forces.


Ó Duibhir (2011), pg 95


Two Protestant bakers, Matthew Carmichael (40) and John Sloan, are shot dead in Belfast as are Catholics, Daniel Beattie (22) and Thomas Gillan (51).


Parkinson (2004), pg 241


Recruits to the new Civic Guard, who had been housed in the RDS showgrounds in Dublin start to depart to the ex-Royal Artillery Barracks in Kildare.  Soon there would be 900 recruits in the barracks under Camp Commandant, Joe Ring and, by mid-May, there would be some 1,500. 

See May-15-22/4.


Durney (2011), pgs 47-48


In the early hours of the morning, a pro-Treaty patrol in Donegal Town encounters 10 anti-Treaty men getting ready to break into the Ulster and Belfast banks.  A gun fight ensues with the RIC in the local barracks getting involved.  After some time, the anti-Treaty men withdraw. 

(There are numerous bank robberies being carried out by anti-Treaty men around this time after the pro-Treaty army headquarters in Beggars Bush started to withdraw funding to IRA units which had gone over to the anti-Treaty side.)


Ó Duibhir (2011), pg 95


Macready writes to Churchill trying to get Andy Cope removed from his position in Dublin Castle.  He says that Cope is “out of place and a danger to Ireland at the present moment”. 

According to McMahon, this attempt was due to their differing interpretations of the situation in Ireland.  Cope was confident of the Provisional Government winning out (see Apr-19-22/3) but Macready was predicting an anti-Treaty victory by force or through elections.

Macready failed in his attempt to get Cope removed.

(Ultimately, Cope proved to be correct – see Jul-01-22/4 - but, in April 1922, it would have been very much in the balance as to who had the ear of the British cabinet.)


McMahon (2008), pg 70


A Catholic, James Green (67) is shot dead in East Belfast.  A lot of gunfire and house burning in the Marrowbone area of Belfast with a number of people injured including James Fearon (56), a Catholic, who dies the following day from his wounds. 

McDermott says the attack on the ‘Bone’ has “every appearance of an organised pogrom”.  Attacks continue on the following day and spread to the Falls Road.


Parkinson (2004), pg 241 & 253; McDermott (2001), pg 212


Noting increasing IRA activity in the border area, the Belfast Newsletter warned that this would lead to Fermanagh and Tyrone “for the sake of peace, agree[ing] to inclusion in southern Ireland” which in turn would “render the position of the other four counties perilous, if not untenable and would be a long step in the direction of a united Ireland”.


Parkinson (2004), pg 254


IRA Volunteer Michael McGreal from Co. Clare dies in an accidental shooting.


Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 326


A Catholic, Agnes McLarnon (30), is shot by a sniper on the Crumlin Rd. in Belfast.


Parkinson (2004), pg 241


During a gun fight in the Marrowbone area of Belfast, S/Constable William Johnston is shot four times at the corner of Walton Place and later dies of his wounds.

Abbott (2019), pg 366


Frank Filey from Rahoey, Co. Tyrone is shot dead by a USC patrol when returning from a cockfight in Glaslough, Co. Monaghan.

McCluskey (2014), pg 119


Craig reports to the NI cabinet that he made it clear to Churchill the previous day that “Ulster could not afford to postpone her organisation for defence”.

Fanning (2013), pg 324


The Supreme Council of IRB along with division and county centres meet in 41 Parnell Sq. 

They set a up committee of six:  Diarmaid O'Hegarty, Sean O'Murthille and Martin Conlon (pro-Treaty) and Florence O’Donoghue, Liam Lynch and Joe McKelvey (anti-Treaty) to try to find a basis for Army re-unification.  This committee meets five times but fails to come up with a firm proposal.


O’Donoghue (1986), pg 234-235; Hopkinson (1988), pg 94


After Andy Cope had written to Churchill on April 17th saying, with regards to the anti-Treaty garrison in the Four Courts, that “The PG [Provisional Government] want us to leave the whole position to them.  I agree with them.”, Churchill on this day writes back to Cope saying “I do not understand why they do not ring them round and starve them out”

Ferriter (2021), pg 36


Two Catholic children are playing in Marine St. in the north of Belfast when a gunman approaches them and shoots both children, mortally wounding Mary Keenan (13). 

In the east of the city, a sustained gunfight takes place.  Two Catholic women – Mary Berry and Rosie Duggan – are killed by bullets coming through the front window of the room in which they are taking refuge. 

A Catholic grocer, Patrick McGoldrick (27) is shot in his shop and another Catholic, Francis Hobbs (36), is shot in the stomach in Thompson St. 

A Protestant, James Greer (14), was shot in the Short Strand during riots and died later.  Earlier in the day, John Wall (16), a Protestant, was shot by a sniper.


Parkinson (2004), pg 243 & 251; McDermott (2001), pg 214


Three men, tarred and feathered by the IRA, are paraded down the Falls Rd in Belfast. 

Also, Andrew McCartney, a Catholic, receives an injury in Henry St and dies the following day. 

Around this time Thomas Best, a Protestant teenager, is shot dead in the Oldpark area.  Also on this day, William Kerr (27), a Catholic, is badly beaten by a loyalist mob before being shot.  A Catholic teenager, John Quinn, was shot in the Quinn St area and another Catholic, Dennis Diamond (25) was shot by a sniper in the Short Strand area.  James Johnson (50), a Protestant, is shot in the Short Strand area and later dies of his injuries.


Parkinson (2004), pg 249-252


In a letter to Churchill, Collins says that the Collins-Craig pact was a “dead letter”.

According to McMahon, that following the collapse, “the British government sided with the representations of the Belfast authorities, threw its full support behind their security policies … - it no longer tried to be a neutral mediator between Collins and Craig”. 


See Apr-21-22/1.


McMahon (2008), pg 142


Arthur Solly-Flood is given “supreme control of all the Constabulary Forces in Northern Ireland for all purposes”.  The NI Cabinet Secretary sends him a letter stating that they would “stand over any action taken” by him, even if it was not “strictly covered from a legal point of view”.


McMahon (2008), pg 151


Writing in The Republic of Ireland, de Valera states that the IRA would be right to prevent a new election taking place so as to ensure that Britain did not get the “appearance of popular sanction for his usurped authority”. 

Kissane (2005), pg 60


RC priest, Fr Bernard Laverty or Bishop MacRory (chair of the Belfast Catholic Protection Committee) sends a telegram to Churchill saying that Belfast Catholics were being “gradually but certainly exterminated by murder, assault, and starvation, their homes burned, streets swept by snipers, life unbearable military forces inactive, Special Police hostile; Northern Government either culpable or inefficient.  Your Government saved the Armenians and the Bulgarians.  Belfast Catholics getting worse treatment”. 

This leads to an angry exchange of letters between Craig and Collins with both sides blaming the other for non-compliance with various elements of their pact.

See Apr-21-22/2.


Phoenix (1994), pg 215; McDermott (2001), pg 215


The Provisional Government decided that Collins should inform Craig that unless Craig shows good faith that they would regard the agreement as broken. 

See Apr-21-22/3.


Phoenix (1994), pg 216


Ulster Council of IRA meet in Clones and agree that every division with territory inside the six counties would carry out operations in about two weeks. 

McDermott says that Collins sanctioned this policy after the breakdown in the relationship with Craig.  He goes on to say that “The aim of the new campaign was to make the government of the six counties as difficult as possible, rather than the overthrow of the state.” 

Woods informs the council of his 3rd Northern Division the following day.

See Apr-22-22/2.


Phoenix (1994), pg 218; McDermott (2001), pg 215


The former RIC barracks in Broadford, Co. Clare had been taken over by some of Michael Brennan’s pro-Treaty men.

However, on this day, it is occupied by anti-Treaty men under William O’Brien. 

On April 23rd, the barracks is surrounded by pro-Treaty men.  After a brief firefight, the anti-Treaty men agree to leave.  However, as they are leaving, William O’Brien is shot dead.

 [Power says April 8th/9th.]


Ó Ruairc (2009), pgs 294-295; Power (2020), pg 30


The Roscommon Herald reports the arrest and subsequent release of Jim Gralton for organising land seizures and cattle drives at Drumlion and Gowel in Co. Leitrim.


McGarty (2020), pg 108


O’Duffy publicly accuses Lynch’s 1st Southern Division of retaining Thompson machine guns intended for the northern IRA.  An account of this accusation appears in the Irish Independent on April 26th “providing invaluable information for the British army … and, one may safely wager, Collins’ fellow ministers”.

See Apr-22-22/4.


Regan (2013), pgs 90-91


Local anti-Treaty men proclaim meetings to be held in Tralee and Killarney which are to be addressed by Collins.  However, last minute agreements, allow the meetings to go ahead.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 576; Horgan (2018), pg 48; Doyle (2008), pgs 88-90


Collins writes to Churchill saying that Craig had violated the second Collins-Craig pact in “practically every detail”.


Kissane (2005), pg 82


Ex-RIC Sergeant Gunn is killed in Ennis, Co. Clare.  There is confusion as to who carried out this killing.  Power says that he may have been shot because “he knew many people, including IRA members, who spied for the British”.  Sgt Gunn was a Presbyterian.

The following night the IRA try to kill ex-RIC William Burns in Ennis but he escapes through a back window.  In his claim for compensation to the Irish Distress Committee (set up in 1924 by the British government), Burns states “I narrowly escaped shooting on the night of the 23 April 1922, my house was raided by armed men determined to murder me, having murdered my colleague, Sergeant Gunn, on the previous evening I escaped by jumping out the window in my shirt and trousers … I was a crime special constable and acted as a guide to the Crown forces in all parts of Clare up to the time of disbandment”.

Power also gives examples of ex-RIC men intimated into leaving Clare by the IRA during this period and comments “Clearly, the ex-RIC men were persona non grata in Clare after the war was over, and they knew it”.


Abbott (2000), pg 294; Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 295; Power (2020), pgs 19 & 36-37


A blind Protestant man, Robert Miller (68), is shot dead in his home in Beechfield St in Belfast.


Parkinson (2004), pg 243


A hand grenade is thrown at the congregation arriving at the much-targeted Catholic St Mathew’s Church in Ballymacarret in Belfast killing Lizzie McCabe (35).  The grenade also seriously injures Catholic RIC man John Moriarty.


Parkinson (2004), pg 247; Parkinson (2020), pgs 159-160


Around this time, quite a few men from the 2nd Northern Division IRA leave their home places in Derry and Tyrone and went to Donegal as they were coming under pressure from raids by the Crown Forces, especially the Specials. 

On this day a number of men from the Dungannon area crossed the border and reported to their former O/C of the 2nd Northern Division, Charlie Daly, in McCarry’s Hotel in Letterkenny, Co. Donegal.  (Daly was now V/C of the anti-Treaty 1st Northern Division.)




A general strike takes place. It had been called by the Labour Party (and supported by 75,000 workers) to protest against militarism and the prospect of civil war. A rally held in O’Connell St., Dublin and addressed by Thomas Johnson, Cathal O’Shannon and Edward O’Carroll.

Litton (1995), pg 56; Macardle (1999), pg 701; Curran J M (1980), pg 185; Dorney (2017), pg 46


During an angry exchange, Brigadier George Adamson of the pro-Treaty forces (a pre-Truce Volunteer) is shot dead in Athlone, Co. Westmeath. 

(He is buried beside the Tormey brothers – James and Joseph – both killed during the War of Independence – See Jan-14-21/3 and Feb-02-21/6.)


Macardle (1999), pg 697; O'Farrell P (1997), pg 141; Sheehan (2017), pg 362


In Belfast, the Irish News states that the “full responsibility for all these hideous deeds of terrorism and blood rests on the shoulders of the established Government of this city” and goes on to suggest that “their failure to preserve a semblance of law and order is apparently complete”.  

Four days earlier, the Irish News had stated that “not a single honest official effort had been made to get at the truth about these ghastly occurrences”.


Parkinson (2. 004), pg 255.


A Protestant, William Sibberson (31), is shot dead while working at his desk at his place of work in the Short Strand area of Belfast.


Parkinson (2004), pg 241


Having received nothing beyond a formal acknowledgment to the letter of April 14th (see Apr-14-22/1), the anti-Treaty Army Executive writes again outlining the conditions saying that it was probably the last opportunity “of saving the country from Civil War”. 

As noted, the anti-Treaty Army Executive had decided that the Army was under the control of an “independent elected Executive”. It also acknowledged that the Dáil was the government of the Republic and called on it to pay the Army. 

Dorney comments that the Executive’s approach was “a mess of indecision and contradictory policies”.


Macardle (1999), pg 695; Dorney (2017), pg 43


Anti-Treaty Volunteers take over a number of positions in Kilkenny City including two former RIC barracks and Kilkenny jail.  The former RIC barracks in Thomastown is also taken over.  In the coming weeks, these positions are re-enforced by anti-Treaty men from Tipperary. 


Walsh (2018), pgs 161-162


Anti-Treaty Volunteers set up in Mill St in Pettigo in Co. Donegal (on the border with Tyrone) – many of these Volunteers are men fleeing from Tyrone and Fermanagh.  There is also a pro-Treaty garrison under Danny Gallagher. 

The population of Pettigo is approximately 500.  Of these, about 60% is Protestant and, soon afterwards, many leave their homes. 

Also around this time, a joint pro- and anti-Treaty force occupy Belleek on the Tyrone side of the Donegal-Tyrone border.  (Belleek is 90% Catholic.)


Ozseker (2019), pg 169


One of the two ex-RIC barracks in Letterkenny, Co. Donegal comes under attack.  (Both barracks were held by pro-Treaty troops.) The attackers retreat after troops from the second barracks arrive on the scene.  It is not known if the attack was carried out by anti-Treaty forces or Specials coming across the border.


Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 97-98


At a meeting in Maynooth, the Catholic hierarchy issue a statement saying “We think that the best and wisest course for Ireland is to accept the Treaty and make the most of the freedom it undoubtedly brings to us, freedom for the first time in 700 years”. 

They condemn the anti-Treaty men (who they describe as “the young men connected with the military revolt”) saying that “When they shoot their brothers on the opposite side they are murderers; when they commandeer public and private property they are robbers and brigands”.

They also refer to the savage persecution of northern Catholics and add that “The authorities cannot plead helplessness.  They have at their disposal tens of thousands of armed men, paid for by the British government”.


Phoenix (1994), pgs 216-217; Power (2020), pg 29; Kissane (2005), pg 153; Macardle (1999), pg 701

Apr 26 to 28-22/1

In the early hours of April 26th and the following nights, thirteen Protestants are killed in the Dunmanway-Clonakilty-Bandon area of west Cork.  This became known as the Bandon Valley Massacre.  These killings became highly controversial.  They resulted in many Protestants leaving Cork City and County.

More Detail 


Hart (1998), pgs 273-279; Macardle (1999), pg 705; Hughes (2016), pg 128


The Fifth Session of the Second Dáil – Day One – April 26th 1922

The Dáil reconvened on this day.  It was to meet on eleven days between April 26th and May 20th.

Griffith summarised the current position as follows: “The Provisional Government, which came into existence as a consequence of the approval of the Treaty, functions in complete harmony with, and by the authority of Dáil Éireann. As agreed at the Ard-Fheis of Sinn Féin, the constitution of Saorstát Éireann is being drafted, and will be published before the elections in June.  In accordance with the principles of freedom and democracy, on which the Dáil was founded, whatever measures are necessary will be taken to ensure that the electorate of Ireland, which created Dáil Éireann, shall be free to vote for or against the Treaty which the plenipotentiaries of Dáil Éireann signed and which Dáil Éireann has approved. At the invitation of the Archbishop of Dublin, the Minister of Finance and myself have met members of the opposition with the object of securing a peaceful election. There is, so far, no result.”

Thereafter, the Dáil dealt with a number of reports from Ministers.

The Dáil is informed that between March 23rd and April 19th there had been 331 raids on post offices.


The proceedings of Day One of the Fifth Session of the Second Dáil are available here: https://www.oireachtas.ie/en/debates/debate/dail/1922-04-26/  

The second day of the Fifth Session of the Second Dáil takes place on April 27th 1922 – see Apr-27-22/1.


Ferriter (2021), pg 25


The Provisional Government’s Northern Advisory Committee meets and urges Collins to start IRA operations by May 2nd if Craig does not accede to his three demands. (For the three demands – see Apr-11-22/2.) 

At this time, Collins is involved in preparations for a major Northern offensive by pro- and anti-Treaty forces (without the knowledge, it would seem, of some of his cabinet colleagues).

See May-15-22/1. 


Phoenix (1994), pgs 217 & 218; O’Donoghue (1986), pgs 249-250


Three British Intelligence Officers and their driver are kidnapped and later shot as spies in Macroom, Co. Cork. 

They were Lieutenant R. A. Harry or Hendy of the BA’s Royal Warwickshire Regiment; Lieutenant R. A. Dove of the 2nd Hampshire; Lieutenant K. R. Henderson of the 2nd Green Howards.  The driver was Private J. Brooks of the RASC. 

Sheehan says that only two of the officers were involved in intelligence (and that Dove had been at Clonmult).

According to McMahon, this intelligence gathering mission arose from the British decision to re-start an intelligence service in Ireland (see Apr-03-33/4) and led to the withdrawal of the final BA troops in Cork on May 17th.


Hart (1999), pg 280; Sheehan (2017), pg 163; McMahon (2008), pg 67


Mulcahy reckons that only 1,900 of the 4,400 men in the Dublin Brigade are reliably pro-Treaty with most of the Brigade staff – along with battalion and company officers – have gone anti-Treaty.


Dorney (2017), pg 36


The Irish Times reports the killing of Conor O’Malley in the Skehana region of North Galway.  He was driving an egg delivery van when it is attacked by five masked men.  The reason for the killing is unclear.


McNamara (2018), pg 175


The Fifth Session of the Second Dáil – Day Two – April 27th 1922

There is a long debate in which both the pro- and anti-Treaty sides restate their positions. 

Further reports from Ministers are taken.

The proceedings of Day Two of the Fifth Session of the Second Dáil are available here: https://www.oireachtas.ie/en/debates/debate/dail/1922-04-27/  

The third day of the Fifth Session of the Second Dáil takes place on April 28th 1922 – see Apr-28-22/3.




The London Times reports James Craig as saying that the degree of [Belfast] boycott activity is greater than it was during the official boycott.


Parkinson (2004), pg 78


Dáil cabinet meets for last time as a separate body.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 56


As part of their ‘Belfast Boycott’ campaign, anti-Treaty IRA men in Kilkenny raid a bonded whiskey store in Chapel Lane in Kilkenny City and remove 40 casks of whiskey to Kilkenny Jail (which they had previously occupied). 

The local pro-Treaty commander, John Prout, issues an ultimatum the following morning that the whiskey be returned and the jail evacuated.  (It transpired that the whiskey was not from Belfast but was from Power’s distillery in Dublin.)  After a stand-off, and some mediation, the anti-Treaty men leave the jail.


Walsh (2018), pgs 161-163


The Fifth Session of the Second Dáil – Day Three – April 28th 1922

Questions are put to a number of Ministers.

Kate O’Callaghan puts down a motion that the report of the Minister of Defence (Mulcahy) should not be accepted.  Referring to Mulcahy she says that she “cannot see how he has maintained the Army as the Army of the Irish Republic [see Jan-10-22/1]. Under his management, it has split into two camps”.  Seconding the motion, Liam Mellows says that “the Army is not concerned with majorities or minorities” but with “a question of honour, a question of principle and a question of right”.

The motion is adjourned.

The proceedings of Day Three of the Fifth Session of the Second Dáil are available here: https://www.oireachtas.ie/en/debates/debate/dail/1922-04-28/  

The fourth day of the Fifth Session of the Second Dáil takes place on May 3rd 1922 – see May-03-22/1.


Ferriter (2021), pg 23


The Roscommon Herald reports on the burning of the Parke Masonic Hall in Carrick-on-Shannon, Co. Leitrim

McGarty (2020), pg 115


The Clare Champion reports that 91-year-old James McGuane has been taken from his bed in Coolmeen, Co. Clare and shot. He subsequently dies from his wounds.  This shooting arose from an agrarian dispute.


Power (2020), pg 20


Lord Midleton complains to King George V about the 'hasty withdrawal of British troops, against which your Majesty's Government was repeatedly warned'.  He says that this has led to an 'extremely grave' situation. 


Hopkinson (1988), pg 90


Speaking in Mullingar, de Valera condemns the killings of Protestants in Cork.


Macardle (1999), pg 705


A RIC man (Con Benjamin - or Archibald - Bently) is ambushed and killed at Staneen near Drogheda, Co. Louth.

He had been on his way to collect a clergyman from Drogheda to conduct a service at Gormanstown (where some RIC men were stationed awaiting demobilisation).  The ambush was carried out by anti-Treaty volunteers stationed at Millmount barracks in Drogheda. In retaliation, twelve loads of RIC men from Gormanstown arrived in Drogheda just after midnight on May 2nd and shoot up the town centre.

Constable Bently was from London and had one year’s service with the RIC.


Abbott (2000), pg 286; Hall (2019), pg 93; Abbott (2019), pg 267


About 100 IRA men enter a bonded store in Dublin and, as part of the on-going Belfast Boycott being carried out by the anti-Treaty side, proceed to destroy half a million gallons of Dunville whiskey.  (James Craig is the owner or a director of Dunville.)


Parkinson (2004), pgs 75 & 332; Parkinson (2020), pg 125


In late April, the Special Branch of the London Metropolitan Police break up an anti-Treaty gun running operation in England.  Six men are caught “re-handed” with a considerable amount of ammunition in Birmingham; another six men were arrested shortly afterwards.  There was also a find of documents in Liverpool which disclosed attempts to obtain arms and explosives for the “mutinous section of the I.R.A.”.

However, McMahon comments that “the Special Branch was under no illusions about its limited ability to prevent gunrunning”.


McMahon (2008), pg 103


In Dublin, anti-Treaty forces carry out a series of bank robberies to fund their operations for which they issue receipts. They also requisitioned food from shops for which they also issue receipts.  Also, there is regular sniping of pro-Treaty barracks such as Wellington and Beggars Bush.

In Mayo, nearly £10,000 is taken from Bank of Ireland branches in Ballina, Ballinrobe, Claremorris and Westport. Receipts are also issued. Durney says that, in raids on the Bank of Ireland all over the country by anti-Treaty forces, £250,000 was taken. 

See also May-01-22/2.


Price (2012), pgs 211-212; Durney (2011), pg64

Home     1922      Next Month    Previous Month      Bibliography