April 1922

Early-Apr

Around this time, British military intelligence estimated that 75% of the IRA in Munster and Dublin were anti-Treaty.

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 172

Apr-01

An order in council of the British government transfers control of the Revenue departments in Dublin Castle to the Provisional Government and sets guidelines for the transfer of other departments.

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 180

Apr-01

Following the setting up of the anti-Treaty Executive, the pro-Treaty GHQ in Beggar’s Bush from this date began to re-organise the Divisions and Brigades of the IRA, paying a set number of officers in each Division.  This re-organisation took place over the following period with Executive officers being replaced with officers loyal to Beggar’s Bush.

 

McDermott (2001), pgs 198-199

Apr-01

Collins attempts to give a speech to a large crowd in Castlebar, Co. Mayo but it is disrupted by anti-Treaty men from the West Mayo Brigade.  At one point shooting breaks out and a civilian, Mrs Fogarty, is wounded.  One of Collins’s men, Charlie Byrne is arrested as is pro-Treaty Joe Ring from Westport.  Both are subsequently released. 

Price (2012), pgs 207-209

Apr-01

In a case of severe agrarian unrest, the home of the Horkan family is raided at Grallagh, near Straide, Co. Mayo in an attempt to force them of land the family had recently bought.  Anne Horkan is shot dead and her sister, Kate, is seriously wounded.  One of the raiders, Patrick Gallagher, is also killed.

Price (2012), pg 212

Apr-02

Over 500 USC men carry out a major sweep of the Cookstown, Greencastle and Draperstown area in Co. Tyrone.  They detain over 300 men but only four are considered to be members of the IRA.

Lawlor (2011), pg 256

Apr-02

De Valera makes a speech in Dundalk deriding the 2nd Craig-Collins pact saying that it implies that northern nationalists have to recognise the Belfast government.

 

Phoenix (1994), pg 201

Apr-03

An RIC constable and a number of Special Constables come under fire at the corner of Old Lodge Road and Lime Street in Belfast resulting in the death of the RIC man (Constable George Turner).  Parkinson says that this killing took place on the 1st April and resulted in the Arnon St killings – see Mar-31st.  He also says that considerable controversy surrounds the killing of Constable Turner.

 

Abbott (2000), pg 284; Parkinson (2004), pg 245

Apr-02

Limerick’s Protestant Young Men’s Association’s premises on 97 O’Connell St, Limerick was damaged by a bomb.  Three day earlier (on the 30th March) it had been subjected to gunfire and on the 29th March, the Association’s pavilion at Farranshone was burned down. Liam Forde, O/C Mid-Limerick Brigade IRA, condemned the attacks.

O’Callaghan (2018), pg 122

Apr-03

Both the Belfast Newsletter and the Belfast Telegraph condemn the Arnon St killings but without attempting to ascertain who were the assailants or their motivation. 

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 246

Apr-03?

A meeting of the officers of the anti-Treaty 1st Northern Division takes place in McCarry’s Hotel in Letterkenny, Co. Donegal.  Those present included Sean Lehane, O/C; Charlie Daly, V/C; Peadar O’Donnell, Divisional Adjutant; Joe McGurk, Divisional QM and Mick O’Donoghue, Divisional Engineer.  Among the decisions were to take over Glenveagh Castle as Divisional HQ and also occupy and garrison the masonic hall in Raphoe.  Both were occupied in the next few days.  They also decided to attack Garrison in Co. Tyrone – See April 6th.

In the days that followed, Lehane travelled throughout Donegal carrying out inspections and making new brigade appointments including: Sean Hegarty as Derry O/C; Jack Fitzgerald as East Donegal (Lagan) O/C; Brian Monaghan as south Donegal O/C and Frank O’Donnell (brother of Peadar) as North-West Donegal O/C.  

Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 87-88

Apr-04

In a telegram to Craig, Collins demands an “immediate joint enquiry” to investigate the Arnon St killings.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 247

Apr-04

A number of prominent Limerick Protestants meet “to condemn the outrages which have been perpetrated in Belfast”. They unanimously resolved that they “never suffered intolerance of any kind and that they lived in perfect harmony with their Catholic neighbours.” See April 2nd above.

 

Apr-04

Harry Clark (a USC man from Magherafelt, Co. Londonderry), writing to Colonel Moore Irvine (USC Co. Londonderry Commander) say that ‘if there is another murder [of a USC man] although I have no connection with it, I understand a body has been formed who will immediately destroy hundreds of Roman Catholics.  About this there is no possible doubt.”

Grant (2018), pg 133

Apr-05

Control of the Special Constabulary handed over to the NI Government and Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) formally set-up.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 235

Apr-05

In a review for the British Cabinet’s Irish Situation Committee, Churchill makes plans in the event of anti-Treatyites staging a coup in Dublin.  

 

Curran J M (1980), pgs 182-183

Apr-06

In a letter in the Leinster Leader, pro-Treaty Thomas Lawler, O/C 5th (Kildare) Brigade of the 1st Eastern Division, IRA states that he will not be responsible for “debts contracted ... by any parties calling themselves the IRA and not under my command”.   His anti-Treaty opposite is Thomas Harris who styles himself “OC 7th Brigade, Acting under Army Council”.

Durney (2011), pgs 60-61

Apr-06

Two ex-RIC men were attacked in their homes in Ballyhaunis, Co. Mayo - one was killed (ex-Constable Cranny) and the other (ex-Constable Butler) was seriously wounded. A third RIC man, called Flynn, is not at home when the assassins arrive – he leaves Ballyhaunis the next morning.

 

Abbott (2000), pg 293; Price (2012), pg 204

Apr-07

Three ex-RIC men are killed in Clare and another two ex-RIC men are killed in Tralee, Co. Kerry.  Another five or six are wounded

 

Hart (1998), pg 114; Abbott (2000), pg 294

Apr-06

A patrol of Special Constables was attacked near Garrison, Co. Tyrone resulting in the wounding of four constables and the death of one (S/Constable James Plumb).  This attack was carried out by men from the anti-Treaty 1st Northern Division based in Donegal.   It was claimed that the Special Constable’s body was mutilated after death but this is disputed by a Catholic priest and Church of Ireland minister and who attended the scene.

Abbott (2000), pgs 284-285; Lawlor (2011), pg 257; Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 88-89

Apr-06

A ‘monster pro-Treaty meeting’ due to be addressed by Arthur Griffith in Sligo on Easter Sunday is proclaimed by local anti-Treaty commander, Liam Pilkington (O/C of anti-Treaty 3rd Western Division).  His troops had taken over a number of buildings in the town.  However, on Holy Thursday night, pro-Treaty troops under Alex McCabe entered the town and took over the jail.  MacEoin brings Provisional Government troops from Athlone and on the day of the meeting, he is joined by further troops led by J J O'Connell.  A tense situation ensues but, at the last minute, under orders from anti-Treaty GHQ, Pilkington backs down and the meeting goes ahead.   Arthur Griffith entered Sligo and the meeting went ahead attended by a large crowd.  It was a major publicity victory for the pro-Treaty side. 

There were a lot of recriminations of the anti-Treaty side in Sligo afterwards. 

Also, as the pro-Treaty forces had taken over a number of buildings in the town, while anti-Treaty forces held others, there was a considerable amount of sniping over the coming period. 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 76; Curran J M (1980), pg 182; Farry (2012), pgs 94-95

Apr-06

A Catholic boy, Joseph Hannigan (9) is shot in the head while playing in the street in Maralin St in the New Lodge Rd area of Belfast.  It is suspected that the shot came from the military  There are riots after this killing.

Parkinson (2004), pg 243

Apr-06

A patrol of Special Constables came under attack at Roughlan's Cross, Co. Armagh on the road between Keady and Monaghan resulting in the death of Special Head Constable Alexander Compton.

Abbott (2000), pg 285

Apr-07

The Northern Ireland Civil Authorities (Special Powers) Bill – known as the flogging bill - receives royal assent.  It suspends habeas corpus; permits search, arrest and detention without warrant; brings in the death penalty for offences such as bomb throwing and flogging for offences such as possession of arms. It also allowed for the banning of inquests and the seizure of properties without warrant. 

Macardle (1999), pg 704; Curran J M (1980), pg 177; Parkinson (2004), pg 235; McDermott (2001), pgs 185-185; McCluskey (2014), pg 127; Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 72-73

Apr-08

The body of RIC Sgt Edward McConnell is found in the Old Demesne, Templemore, Co. Tipperary with six bullets in it.

Abbott (2000), pgs 285-286

Apr-09

The anti-Treaty Army Convention reconvenes in Dublin.  The Convention adopts a constitution (Appendix 8, O’Donoghue 1986).  The convention votes narrowly against setting up a military dictatorship but opposed any election on the Treaty in the near future.  More Detail

See April 13th

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 224; Macardle (1999), pgs 693-694; Neeson (1989), pg 96; Townshend (2014), pg 392

Apr-09

William Blennerhasset, a Protestant farmer, is evicted along with his wife and seven children from his farm at Culleneghy, Beaufort, near Killarney, Co. Kerry by a group of armed masked men including a man called John Murphy who claimed that relatives were evicted from the farm prior to 1880.  The following day, the local IRA Battalion O/C, [Patrick?] Allman reinstated Blennerhasset on the farm.  See 13th May.

Doyle (2008), pg 102

Apr-10

Remaining Specials detained since Clones incident on 11th February released after Second Collins-Craig pact.  (Dooley says 9th)

McDermott (2001), pg 207; Dooley (2017a), pg

Apr-11

National Executive of the Irish Labour Party condemns militarism on both sides.

Macardle (1999), pg 701

Apr-11

Meeting of the Northern Advisory Committee to Provisional Government in Dublin and carries out extensive review of Provisional Government policy towards Northern Ireland government.   More Detail 

Phoenix (1994), pgs 203-212; McDermott (2001), pgs 207-211

Apr-12

The Joint Conciliation Committee, set up under the Collins-Craig pact, meets in Belfast (six nominees from each side).  They ask the NI Minister for Home Affairs Bates for quasi-legal status but he refuses and, by 20th April, the Catholic members resign.  The committee soon lapses.

McDermott (2001), pg 212; Phoenix

Apr-12

Michael Sweeney (21) of the anti-Treaty IRA is shot dead while in the custody of the pro-Treaty forces.  He was being taken back to Mountjoy after his trial in Beggars Bush. 

Dorney (2017), pg 42; Macardle (1999), pg 697

Apr-12

A British army soldier, Private Taylor, shot in Dun Laoghaire and later dies of his wounds.

Dorney (2017), pg 286

Apr-12

Churchill states that 4,000 rifles; 2,200 revolvers, 6 machine guns and ammunition had been handed over to the Provisional Government.  He admitted that many rifles handed over to the Provisional Government had now “passed out of its control”.

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 226; Macardle (1999), pgs 702-703

Apr-12

Wellington Barracks on the South Circular Road in Dublin taken over by the pro-Treaty army under Tom Ennis.  It was to become the HQ of the pro-Treaty 2nd Eastern Division and, more notoriously, the base for Army Intelligence.

Dorney (2017), pgs 38-39

Apr-13

Dundalk Military Barracks is evacuated by the British Army and taken over by 50 IRA men of the 4th Northern Division under Frank Aiken.

Gavin and O’Donnell (1999), pg 31

Apr-13

An RIC man (Sgt John Bruin) is shot in Cosgroves public house on York St. in Belfast and later dies from his wounds.

Abbott (2000), pg 286; Parkinson (2004), pg 245

Apr-13

A Special Constable (S/Constable Nathaniel McCoo) was shot while on a patrol in Joy St., Belfast and later died of his wounds.

Abbott (2000), pg 286; Parkinson (2004), pg 244; McDermott (2001), pg 212

Apr-13 (?)

A suspected informer (Patrick 'Cruxy' Connors) is shot dead in Manhattan, New York by men of the Cork city IRA.  (Even though, word went back to Cork that he had been killed, it is possible that he was survived the attack.)

Hart (1998), pg 114

Apr-13

Anti-Treaty forces under Rory O'Connor (and including Ernie O'Malley, Joe McKelvey and Liam Mellows) take over Four Courts in Dublin and set up their HQ there.  There had been competition for the taking over of army barracks but all handed over in Dublin had been taken over by pro-Treaty forces.

The anti-Treaty forces barricaded the Four Courts and the Public Records Office was turned into a munitions factory.  (Other buildings such as the Fowler Hall, Kildare Street Club and, on the 2nd May, the Ballast Office were also taken over.) 

On this day, Collins noted in a letter to Daly that no government in the world could exist if it did not control its army.  

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xx; Litton (1995), pgs 45-46; Hopkinson (1988), pg 72; Dorney (2017), pg 40; Townshend (2014), pg 397

Apr-14

Liam Mellows, as Secretary to the Army Council (Executive), writes to the Secretary of the Dáil, setting out the conditions by which unity of the army might be attained.  These include (a) the maintenance of the Irish Republic; (2) Dáil Eireann to be the only government in Ireland; (3) the delay of elections 'while the threat of war with England exists'; (4) the disbandment of the new Civic Guard and (5) to maintain the army as the IRA under an elected independent Executive and (6) that the Dáil discharge all current and future financial liabilities of the army.  See April 25th

De Valera issues a statement says that "In Rory O'Connor and his comrades lives the unbought indomitable soul of Ireland" and appeals for support for them. 

Macardle (1999), pg 695

Apr-14

A group of men arrive at the house of John Collins in Ramelton, Co. Donegal.  Collins was an ex-British soldier and had been suspected of spying for the British during the War of Independence.  He had been arrested by the IRA but released just after the Truce.  On this night, he was taken from his home and shot while making an ‘effort to escape’.  He later died of his wounds.

It is not known if this killing was carried out by pro- or anti- forces.

Ó Duibhir (2011), pg 95

Apr-14?

Early in the morning, two Protestant bakers, Matthew Carmichael (40) and John Sloan, were shot dead in Belfast as were Catholics, Daniel Beattie (22) and Thomas Gillan (51).

Parkinson (2004), pg 241

Apr-15

Recruits to the new Civic Guard, who had been housed in the RDS showgrounds in Dublin start to depart to the ex-Royal Artillery Barracks in Kildare.  Soon there would be 900 recruits in the barracks under Camp Commandant, Joe Ring and, by mid-May, there would be 1,500.  See May 15th.

Durney (2011), pgs 47-48

Apr-15

In the early hours of the morning, a pro-Treaty patrol in Donegal Town encountered 10 anti-Treaty men getting ready to break into the Ulster and Belfast banks.  A gun fight ensues with the RIC in the local barracks getting involved.  After some time, the anti-Treaty men withdraw.  (There are numerous bank robberies being carried out by anti-Treaty men around this time after the pro-Treaty army headquarters in Beggars Bush started to withdraw funding to IRA units which had gone over to the anti-Treaty side.)

Ó Duibhir (2011), pg 95

Apr-17

A Catholic, James Green (67) is shot dead in East Belfast.  A lot of gunfire and house burning in the Marrowbone area of Belfast with a number of people injured including James Fearon (56), a Catholic, who dies the following day from his wounds.  McDermott says the attack on the ‘Bone’ has “every appearance of an organised pogrom”.  Attacks continue on the following day and spread to the Falls Road.

Parkinson (2004), pg 241 & 253; McDermott (2001), pg 212

Apr-17

Noting increasing IRA activity in the border area, the Belfast Newsletter warned that this would lead to Fermanagh and Tyrone “for the sake of peace, agree[ing] to inclusion in southern Ireland” which in turn would “render the position of the other four counties perilous, if not untenable and would be a long step in the direction of a united Ireland”.

Parkinson (2004), pg 254

Apr-17

IRA Volunteer Michael McGreal from Co. Clare dies in an accidental shooting.

Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 326

Apr-18?

A Catholic, Agnes McLarnon (30), is shot by a sniper on the Crumlin Rd. in Belfast.

Parkinson (2004), pg 241

Apr-18

During a gun fight in the Marrowbone area of Belfast, S/Constable William Johnston was shot four times at the corner of Walton Place and later died of his wounds.

Abbott (2019), pg 366

Apr-18

Frank Filey from Rahoey, Co. Tyrone is shot dead by a USC patrol when returning from a cockfight in Glaslough, Co. Monaghan.

McCluskey (2014), pg 119

Apr-19

Meeting of the Supreme Council of IRB along with division and county centres meet in 41 Parnell Sq.  Set up committee of six:  Diarmaid O'Hegarty, Sean O'Murthille and Martin Conlon (pro-Treaty) and Florence O’Donoghue, Liam Lynch and Joe McKelvey (anti-Treaty) to try to find a basis for Army re-unification.  This committee meets five times but fails to come up with a firm proposal.

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 234-235; Hopkinson (1988), pg 94

Apr-19

Two Catholic children are playing in Marine St. in the north of Belfast when a gunman approaches them and shoots both children, mortally wounding Mary Keenan (13).  In the east of the city, a sustained gunfight takes place.  Two Catholic women – Mary Berry and Rosie Duggan – are killed by bullets coming through the front window of the room in which they are taking refuge.  A Catholic grocer, Patrick McGoldrick (27) is shot in his shop and another Catholic, Francis Hobbs (36), is shot in the stomach in Thompson St.  A Protestant, James Greer (14), was shot in the Short Strand during riots and died later.  Earlier in the day, John Wall (16), a Protestant, was shot by a sniper.

Parkinson (2004), pg 243 & 251; McDermott (2001), pg 214

Apr-20

Three men tarred and feathered by the IRA and paraded down the Falls Rd in Belfast.  Also, Andrew McCartney, a Catholic, receives an injury in Henry St and dies the following day.  Also on this day (?), Thomas Best, a Protestant teenager, is shot dead in the Oldpark area.  Also on this day, William Kerr (27), a Catholic, is badly beaten by a loyalist mob before being shot.  A Catholic teenager, John Quinn, was shot in the Quinn St area and another Catholic, Dennis Diamond (25) was shot by a sniper in the Short Strand area.  James Johnson (50), a Protestant, shot in the Short Strand area and later dies of his injuries.

Parkinson (2004), pg 249-252

Apr-21

Six people killed in disturbances in Belfast.  RC priest, Fr Bernard Laverty (chair of the Belfast Catholic Protection Committee) sends a telegram to Churchill saying that Catholics were “being gradually but certainly exterminated”.  This leads to an angry exchange of letters between Craig and Collins with both sides blaming the other for non-compliance with various elements of their pact.

Phoenix (1994), pg 215; McDermott (2001), pg 215

Apr-21

The Provisional Government decided that Collins should inform Craig that unless Craig shows good faith that they would regard the agreement as broken. 

Phoenix (1994), pg 216

Apr-21

Ulster Council of IRA meet in Clones and agree that every division with territory inside the six counties would carry out operations in about two weeks.  McDermott says that Collins sanctioned this policy after the breakdown in the relationship with Craig.  He goes on to say that “The aim of the new campaign was to make the government of the six counties as difficult as possible, rather than the overthrow of the state.” 

Woods informs his 3rd Northern divisional council the following day.

Phoenix (1994), pg 218; McDermott (2001), pg 215

Apr-21

The former RIC barracks in Broadford, Co. Clare had been taken over by some of Michael Brennan’s pro-Treaty men. However, on this day, it is occupied by anti-Treaty men under William O’Brien.  On the 23rd April, the barracks is surrounded by pro-Treaty men.  After a brief firefight, the anti-Treaty men agree to leave.  However, as they are leaving, William O’Brien is shot dead.

Ó Ruairc (2009), pgs 294-295

Apr-22

Local anti-Treaty men proclaim meetings to be held in Tralee and Killarney which are to be addressed by Collins.  However, last minute agreements, allow the meetings to go ahead.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 576; Horgan (2018), pg 48; Doyle (2008), pgs 88-90

Apr-23

Ex-RIC Sergeant Gunn is killed in Ennis, Co. Clare.  There is confusion as to who carried out this killing.

Abbott (2000), pg 294; Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 295

Apr-23

A Protestant blind man, Robert Miller (68), was shot dead in his home in Beechfield St in Belfast. 

Parkinson (2004), pg 243

Apr-23

A hand grenade is thrown at the congregation arriving at the much-targeted Catholic St Mathew’s Church in Ballymacarret in Belfast killing Lizzie McCabe (35) and seriously injuring Catholic policeman John Moriarty.

Parkinson (2004), pg 247

Apr-23

Around this time, quite a few men from the 2nd Northern Division IRA left them home places in Derry and Tyrone and went to Donegal as they were coming under pressure from raids by the Crown Forces, especially the Specials.  On this day a number of men from the Dungannon area crossed the border and reported to the former O/C of the 2nd Northern, Charlie Daly in McCarry’s Hotel in Letterkenny.  (Daly was now V/C of the anti-Treaty 1st Northern.)

 

Apr-24

A general strike takes place called by the Labour Party (and supported by 75,000 workers) against militarism and the prospect of civil war. Rally held in O’Connell St addressed by Thomas Johnson, Cathal O’Shannon and Edward O’Carroll.

Litton (1995), pg 56; Macardle (1999), pg 701; Curran J M (1980), pg 185; Dorney (2017), pg 46

Apr-24

During an angry exchange, Brigadier George Adamson of the pro-Treaty forces (a pre-Truce Volunteer) is shot dead in Athlone.  (He is buried beside the Tormey brothers – James and Joseph – both killed in the War of Independence.)

Macardle (1999), pg 697; O'Farrell P (1997), pg 141; Sheehan (2017), pg 362

Apr-24

In Belfast, the Irish News states that the “full responsibility for all these hideous deeds of terrorism and blood rests on the shoulders of the established Government of this city” and goes on to suggest that “their failure to preserve a semblance of law and order is apparently complete”.   Four days earlier, the Irish News had stated that “not a single honest official effort had been made to get at the truth about these ghastly occurrences”.

Parkinson (2. 004), pg 255.

Apr-24

A Protestant, William Sibberson (31), is shot dead while working at his desk at his place of work in the Short Strand area of Belfast.

Parkinson (2004), pg 241

Apr-25

Having received nothing beyond a formal acknowledgment to the letter of the 14th April, the anti-Treaty Army Executive writes again outlining the conditions saying that it was probably the last opportunity “of saving the country from Civil War”.  This Executive meeting decided that the Army was under the control of an “independent elected Executive”. It also acknowledged that the Dáil was the government of the Republic and called on it to pay the Army.  Dorney says that the Executive approach were “a mess of indecision and contradictory policies”.

Macardle (1999), pg 695; Dorney (2017), pg 43

Apr-25

Anti-Treaty volunteers take over a number of positions in Kilkenny City including two former RIC barracks and Kilkenny jail.  The former RIC barracks in Thomastown is also taken over.  In the coming weeks, these positions are re-enforced by anti-Treaty men from Tipperary. 

Walsh (2018), pgs 161-162

Apr-25

Anti-Treaty volunteers set up in Mill St in Pettigo in Co. Donegal (on the border with Tyrone) – many of these are men fleeing from Tyrone and Fermanagh.  There is also a pro-Treaty garrison under Danny Gallagher.  The population of Pettigo is approximately 500.  Of these, about 60% is Protestant and, soon afterwards, many leave their homes.  At around this time, a joint pro- and anti-Treaty force occupy Belleek on the Tyrone side of the Donegal-Tyrone border.  (Belleek is 90% Catholic.)

Ozseker (2019), pg 169

Apr-25

One of two barracks in Letterkenny, Co. Donegal comes under attack.  (Both barracks were held by pro-Treaty troops.) The attackers retreat after troops from the second barracks arrive on the scene.  It is not known if the attack was carried out by anti-Treaty forces or Specials coming across the border.

Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 97-98

Apr-26

Meeting in Maynooth, the Catholic hierarchy refer to the savage persecution of northern Catholics and add that “The authorities cannot plead helplessness.  They have at their disposal tens of thousands of armed men, paid for by the British government”.

Phoenix (1994), pgs 216-217

Apr-26

The Provisional Government’s Northern Advisory Committee meets and urges Collins to start IRA operations again by 2nd May if Craig does not accede to his three demands.  At this time, Collins is involved in preparations for a major Northern offensive by pro- and anti-Treaty forces (without the knowledge, it seems, of his cabinet colleagues). 

Phoenix (1994), pgs 217 & 218; O’Donoghue (1986), pgs 249-250

Apr 26-28

In the early hours of the 26th and the following nights, thirteen Protestants were killed in the Dunmanway-Clonakilty-Bandon area of west Cork.  This became known as the Bandon Valley Massacre.  It resulted in many Protestants leaving Cork City and County.  More Detail 

Hart (1998), pgs 273-279; Macardle (1999), pg 705

Apr 26-29

Conference held in Mansion House in Dublin with a view bringing together pro and anti-Treaty forces.  Led by Labour Party but effort fails.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 93

Apr-26

Three British Intelligence Officers and their driver are kidnapped and later shot as spies in Macroom, Co. Cork.

Hart (1999), pg 280

Apr-26

Three representatives of the Labour Party asked a conference that was taking place in the Mansion House that representatives of the anti-Treaty Army Executive should be added to the conference but Griffith and Collins refuse.  (The conference was probably the one called together by the Archbishop and Lord Mayor of Dublin - see above – it ended in failure on the 29th April.)

Macardle (1999), pg 707

Apr-26

Mulcahy reckons that only 1,900 of the 4,400 men in the Dublin Brigade are reliably pro-Treaty with most of the Brigade staff – along with battalion and company officers – have gone anti-Treaty

Dorney (2017), pg 36

Apr-26

The Irish Times reports the killing of Conor O’Malley in the Skehana region of North Galway.  He was driving an egg delivery van when it is attacked by five masked men.  The reason for the killing is unclear.

McNamara (2018), pg 175

Apr-27

The London Times reports James Craig as saying that the degree of [Belfast] boycott activity is greater than it was during the official boycott.

Parkinson (2004), pg 78

Apr-28

Dáil cabinet meets for last time as a separate body.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 56

Apr-28

As part of their ‘Belfast Boycott’ campaign, anti-Treaty IRA men in Kilkenny raid a bonded whiskey store in Chapel Lane in Kilkenny City and remove 40 casks of whiskey to Kilkenny Jail (which they had previously occupied).  The local pro-Treaty commander, John Prout, issues an ultimatum the following morning that the whiskey be returned and the jail evacuated.  (It transpired that the whiskey was not from Belfast but was from Power’s distillery in Dublin.)  After a stand-off, and some mediation, the anti-Treaty men leave the jail.

Walsh (2018), pgs 161-163

Apr-30

Lord Midleton complains to King George V about the 'hasty withdrawal of British troops, against which your Majesty's Government was repeatedly warned' has led to an 'extremely grave' situation. 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 90

Apr-30

Speaking in Mullingar, de Valera condemns the killings of Protestants in Cork.

Macardle (1999), pg 705

Apr-30

A RIC man (Con Benjamin - or Archibald - Bently) is ambushed and killed at Staneen near Drogheda, Co. Louth. He had been on his way to collect a clergyman from Drogheda to conduct a service at Gormanstown (where some RIC men were stationed awaiting demobilisation).  The ambush was carried out by anti-Treaty volunteers stationed at Millmount barracks in Drogheda. In retaliation, twelve loads of RIC men from Gormanstown arrived in Drogheda just after midnight on the 2nd May and shoot up the town centre.

Constable Bently was from London and had one year’s service with the RIC.

Abbott (2000), pg 286; Hall (2019), pg 93; Abbott (2019), pg 267

Apr

About 100 IRA men enter a bonded store in Dublin and, as part of the on-going Belfast Boycott, proceed to destroy half a million gallons of Dunville whiskey.  (The Dunville distillery is owned by James Craig.)

Parkinson (2004), pgs 75 & 332

Apr

In Dublin, anti-Treaty forces carry out a series of bank robberies to fund their operations for which they issue receipts. They also requisitioned food from shops for which they also issue receipts.  Also, there is regular sniping of pro-Treaty barracks such as Wellington and Beggars Bush.

In Mayo, nearly £10,000 is taken from Bank of Ireland branches in Ballina, Ballinrobe, Claremorris and Westport. Receipts are also issued. Durney says that, in these raids on the Bank of Ireland all over the country by anti-Treaty forces, £250,000 was taken.

Price (2012), pgs 211-212; Durney (2011), pg64

End-Apr

Hierarchy of the Irish Catholic Church issue a statement from Maynooth condemning the Volunteers who had set up an independent Executive.

Macardle (1999), pg 701

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