April 1922



Around this time, British military intelligence estimated that 75% of the IRA in Munster and Dublin were anti-Treaty.


Curran J M (1980), pg 172


An order in council of the British government transfers control of the Revenue departments in Dublin Castle to the Provisional Government and sets guidelines for the transfer of other departments.


Curran J M (1980), pg 180


Following the setting up of the IRA Executive, Beggar’s Bush from this date began to re-organise the Divisions and Brigades of the IRA, paying a set number of officers in each Division.  This re-organisation took place over the following period with Executive officers being replaced with officers loyal to Beggar’s Bush.


McDermott (2001), pgs 198-199


De Valera makes a speech in Dundalk deriding the 2nd Craig-Collins pact saying that it implies that northern nationalists have to recognise the Belfast government.


Phoenix (1994), pg 201


An RIC constable and a number of Special Constables come under fire at the corner of Old Lodge Road and Lime Street in Belfast resulting in the death of the RIC man (Constable George Turner).  Parkinson says that this killing took place on the 1st April and resulted in the Arnon St killings – see Mar-31.  He also says that considerable controversy surrounds the killing of Constable Turner.


Abbott (2000), pg 284; Parkinson (2004), pg 245


Both the Belfast Newsletter and the Belfast Telegraph condemn the Arnon St killings but without attempting to ascertain who were the assailants or their motivation. 


Parkinson (2004), pg 246


In a telegram to Craig, Collins demands an “immediate joint enquiry” to investigate the Arnon St killings.


Parkinson (2004), pg 247


Control of the Special Constabulary handed over to the NI Government and Royal Ulster Constabulary formally set-up.


Parkinson (2004), pg 235


In a review for the British cabinet’s Irish Situation Committee, Churchill makes plans in the event of anti-Treatyites staging a coup in Dublin.  


Curran J M (1980), pgs 182-183


Two ex-RIC men were attacked in their homes in Ballyhaunis, Co. Mayo - one was killed (Constable Cranny) and the other (Constable Butler) was seriously wounded.


Abbott (2000), pg 293


Three ex-RIC men are killed in Clare and another two ex-RIC men are killed in Tralee, Co. Kerry.  Another five are wounded


Hart (1998), pg 114; Abbott (2000), pg 294


A patrol of Special Constables was attacked near Garrison, Co. Tyrone resulting in the wounding of four constables and the death of one (S/Constable James Plumb).  His body was mutilated after death.

Abbott (2000), pgs 284-285


A meeting to be addressed by Arthur Griffith in Sligo is proclaimed by local Anti-Treaty IRA divisional commander, Liam Pilkington.  His troops take over a number of buildings in the town.  MacEoin brings Provisional Government troops from Athlone and on the day of the meeting, he is joined by further troops led by J J O'Connell.  A tense situation ensues but, at the last minute, Pilkington backs down and the meeting goes ahead. 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 76; Curran J M (1980), pg 182


A Catholic boy, Joseph Hannigan (9) is shot in the head while playing in the street in Maralin St in the New Lodge Rd area of Belfast.  As it is suspected that the shot came from the military, there are riots after this killing.

Parkinson (2004), pg 243


A patrol of Special Constables came under attack at Roughlan's Cross, Co. Armagh on the road between Keady and Monaghan resulting in the dead of Special Head Constable Alexander Compton.

Abbott (2000), pg 285


The Northern Ireland Civil Authorities (Special Powers) Bill – known as the flogging bill - receives royal assent.  It suspends habeas corpus; brings in the death penalty for offences such as bomb throwing and flogging for offences such as possession of arms.

Macardle (1999), pg 704; Curran J M (1980), pg 177; Parkinson (2004), pg 235; McDermott (2001), pgs 185-185


The body of RIC Sgt Edward McConnell was found in the Old Demesne, Templemore, Co. Tipperary with six bullets in it.

Abbott (2000), pgs 285-286


The Anti-Treaty Army Convention reconvenes in Dublin.  The Convention adopts a constitution (Appendix 8, O’Donoghue 1986).  The convention votes narrowly against setting up a military dictatorship but opposed any election on the Treaty in the near future.  More Detail

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 224; Macardle (1999), pgs 693-694; Neeson (1989), pg 96


Remaining Specials detained since Clones incident released.

McDermott (2001), pg 207


National Executive of the Irish Labour Party condemns militarism on both sides.

Macardle (1999), pg 701


Meeting of the Northern Advisory Committee to Provisional Government in Dublin which carried out extensive review of Provisional Government policy towards Northern Ireland government.   More Detail 

Phoenix (1994), pgs 203-212; McDermott (2001), pgs 207-211


The Joint Conciliation Committee, set up under the Collins-Craig pact, meets in Belfast (six nominees from each side).  They ask the NI Minister for Home Affairs Bates for quasi-legal status but he refuses and, by 20th April, the Catholic members resign.  The committee soon lapses.

McDermott (2001), pg 212; Phoenix


Michael Sweeney (21) of the anti-Treaty IRA is shot dead while in the custody of the pro-Treaty forces.  He was being taken back to Mountjoy after his trial in Beggars Bush. 

Dorney (2017), pg 42


A British army member, Private Taylor, shot in Dun Laoghaire and later dies of his wounds.

Dorney (2017), pg 286


Churchill states that 4,000 rifles; 2,200 revolvers, 6 machine guns and ammunition had been handed over to the Provisional Government.  He admitted that many rifles handed over to the Provisional Government had now “passed out of its control”.

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 226; Macardle (1999), pgs 702-703


Wellington Barracks on the South Circular Road in Dublin taken over by the pro-Treaty army under Tom Ennis.  It was to become the HQ of the pro-Treaty 2nd Eastern Division and, more notoriously, the base for Army Intelliegence.

Dorney (2017), pgs 38-39


Dundalk Military Barracks is evacuated by the British Army and taken over by 50 IRA men of the 4th Northern Division under Frank Aiken.

Gavin and O’Donnell (1999), pg 31


An RIC man (Sgt John Bruin) is shot in Cosgroves public house on York St. in Belfast and later dies from his wounds.

Abbott (2000), pg 286; Parkinson (2004), pg 245


A Special Constable (S/Constable Nathaniel McCoo) was shot while on a patrol in Joy St., Belfast and later died of his wounds.

Abbott (2000), pg 286; Parkinson (2004), pg 244; McDermott (2001), pg 212

Apr-13 (?)

A suspected informer (Patrick 'Cruxy' Connors) is shot dead in Manhattan, New York by men of the Cork city IRA.  (Even though, word went back to Cork that he had been killed, it is possible that he was survived the attack.)

Hart (1998), pg 114


Anti-Treaty forces under Rory O'Connor (and including Ernie O'Malley, Joe McKelvey and Liam Mellows) take over Four Courts in Dublin and set up their HQ there.  There had been competition for the taking over of army barracks but all handed over in Dublin had been taken over by pro-Treaty forces. The anti-Treaty forces barricaded the Four Courts and the Public Records Office was turned into a munitions factory.  (Other buildings such as the Fowler Hall, Kildare Street Club and, on the 2nd May, the Ballast Office were also taken over.) 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xx; Litton (1995), pgs 45-46; Hopkinson (1988), pg 72; Dorney (2017), pg 40


Liam Mellows, as Secretary to the Army Council (Executive), writes to the Secretary of the Dáil, setting out the conditions by which unity of the army might be attained.  These include (a) the maintenance of the Irish Republic; (2) Dáil Eireann to be the only government in Ireland; (3) the delay of elections 'while the threat of war with England exists'; (4) the disbandment of the new Civic Guard and (5) to maintain the army as the IRA under an elected independent Executive and (6) that the Dáil discharge all current and future financial liabilities of the army.  De Valera issues a statement says that "In Rory O'Connor and his comrades lives the unbought indomitable soul of Ireland" and appeals for support for them. 

Macardle (1999), pg 695


Early in the morning, two Protestant bakers, Matthew Carmichael (40) and John Sloan, were shot dead in Belfast as were Catholics, Daniel Beattie (22) and Thomas Gillan (51).

Parkinson (2004), pg 241


A Catholic, James Green (67) is shot dead in East Belfast.  A lot of gunfire and house burning in the Marrowbone area of Belfast with a number of people injured including James Fearon (56), a Catholic, who dies the following day from his wounds.  McDermott says the attack on the ‘Bone’ has “every appearance of an organised pogrom”.  Attacks continue on the following day and spread to the Falls Road.

Parkinson (2004), pg 241 & 253; McDermott (2001), pg 212


Noting increasing IRA activity in the border area, the Belfast Newsletter warned that this would lead to Fermanagh and Tyrone “for the sake of peace, agree[ing] to inclusion in southern Ireland” which in turn would “render the position of the other four counties perilous, if not untenable and would be a long step in the direction of a united Ireland”.

Parkinson (2004), pg 254


A Catholic, Agnes McLarnon (30), is shot by a sniper on the Crumlin Rd. in Belfast.

Parkinson (2004), pg 241


Meeting of the Supreme Council of IRB along with division and county centres meet in 41 Parnell Sq.  Set up committee of six:  Diarmaid O'Hegarty, Sean O'Murthille and Martin Conlon (Pro-Treaty) and Florence O’Donoghue, Liam Lynch and Joe McKelvey (Anti-Treaty) to try to find a basis for Army re-unification.  This committee meets five times but fails to come up with a firm proposal.

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 234-235; Hopkinson (1988), pg 94


Two Catholic children are playing in Marine St. in the north of Belfast when a gunman approaches them and shoots both children, mortally wounding Mary Keenan (13).  In the east of the city, a sustained gunfight takes place.  Two Catholic women – Mary Berry and Rosie Duggan – are killed by bullets coming through the front window of the room in which they are taking refuge.  A Catholic grocer, Patrick McGoldrick (27) is shot in his shop and another Catholic, Francis Hobbs (36), is shot in the stomach in Thompson St.  A Protestant, James Greer (14), was shot in the Short Strand during riots and died later.  Earlier in the day, John Wall (16), a Protestant, was shot by a sniper.

Parkinson (2004), pg 243 & 251; McDermott (2001), pg 214


Three men tarred and feathered by the IRA and paraded down the Falls Rd in Belfast.  Also, Andrew McCartney, a Catholic, receives an injury in Henry St and dies the following day.  Also on this day (?), Thomas Best, a Protestant teenager, is shot dead in the Oldpark area.  Also on this day, William Kerr (27), a Catholic, is badly beaten by a loyalist mob before being shot.  A Catholic teenager, John Quinn, was shot in the Quinn St area and another Catholic, Dennis Diamond (25) was shot by a sniper in the Short Strand area.  James Johnson (50), a Protestant, shot in the Short Strand area and later dies of his injuries.

Parkinson (2004), pg 249-252


Six people killed in disturbances in Belfast.  RC priest, Fr Bernard Laverty (chair of the Belfast Catholic Protection Committee) sends a telegram to Churchill saying that Catholics were “being gradually but certainly exterminated”.  This leads to an angry exchange of letters between Craig and Collins with both sides blaming the other for non-compliance with various elements of their pact.

Phoenix (1994), pg 215; McDermott (2001), pg 215


The Provisional Government decided that Collins should inform Craig that unless Craig shows good faith that they would regard the agreement as broken. 

Phoenix (1994), pg 216


Ulster Council of IRA meet in Clones and agree that every division with territory inside the six counties would carry out operations in about two weeks.  McDermott says that Collins sanctioned this policy after the breakdown in the relationship with Craig.  He goes on to say that “The aim of the new campaign was to make the government of the six counties as difficult as possible, rather than the overthrow of the state.” 

Woods informs his 3rd Northern divisional council the following day.

Phoenix (1994), pg 218; McDermott (2001), pg 215


Local anti-Treaty IRA proclaims meetings to be held in Tralee and Killarney which are to be addressed by Collins.  However, last minute agreements, allow the meetings to go ahead.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 576


Ex-RIC Sergeant Gunn is killed in Ennis, Co. Clare

Abbott (2000), pg 293


A Protestant blind man, Robert Miller (68), was shot dead in his home in Beechfield St in Belfast. 

Parkinson (2004), pg 243


A hand grenade is thrown at the congregation arriving at the much-targeted Catholic St Mathew’s Church in Ballymacarret in Belfast killing Lizzie McCabe (35) and seriously injuring Catholic policeman John Moriarty.

Parkinson (2004), pg 247


A general strike takes place called by the Labour Party (and supported by 75,000 workers) against militarism and the prospect of civil war. Rally held in O’Connell St addressed by Thomas Johnson, Cathal O’Shannon and Edward O’Carroll.

Litton (1995), pg 56; Macardle (1999), pg 701; Curran J M (1980), pg 185; Dorney (2017), pg 46


During an angry exchange, Brigadier George Adamson of the pro-Treaty forces (a pre-Truce Volunteer) is shot dead in Athlone.  (He is buried beside the Tormey brothers – James and Joseph – both killed in the War of Independence.)

Macardle (1999), pg 697; O'Farrell P (1997), pg 141; Sheehan (2017), pg 362


In Belfast, the Irish News states that the “full responsibility for all these hideous deeds of terrorism and blood rests on the shoulders of the established Government of this city” and goes on to suggest that “their failure to preserve a semblance of law and order is apparently complete”.   Four days earlier, the Irish News had stated that “not a single honest official effort had been made to get at the truth about these ghastly occurances”.

Parkinson (2004), pg 255.


A Protestant, William Sibberson (31), is shot dead while working at his desk at his place of work in the Short Strand area of Belfast.

Parkinson (2004), pg 241


Having received nothing beyond a formal acknowledgment to the letter of the 14th April, the anti-Treaty Army Executive writes again outlining the conditions saying that it was probably the last opportunity “of saving the country from Civil War”.  This Executive meeting decided that the Army was under the control of an “independent elected Executive”. It also acknowledged that the Dáil was the government of the Republic and called on it to pay the Army.  Dorney says that “It was a mess of indecision and contradictory policies”.

Macardle (1999), pg 695; Dorney (2017), pg 43


Meeting in Maynooth, the Catholic hierarchy refer to the savage persecution of northern Catholics and add that “The authorities cannot plead helplessness.  They have at their disposal tens of thousands of armed men, paid for by the British government”

Phoenix (1994), pgs 216-217


The Provisional Government’s Northern Advisory Committee meets and urges Collins to start IRA operations again by 2nd May if Craig does not accede to his three demands.  At this time, Collins is involved in preparations for a major Northern offensive by IRA (without knowledge of his cabinet colleagues).  Northern IRA staff paid for as part of pro-Treaty army and supplied with arms from anti-Treaty divisions after Collins negotiated this with Liam Lynch.

Phoenix (1994), pgs 217 & 218; O’Donoghue (1986), pgs 249-250

Apr 26-28

In the early hours of the 26th and the following nights, thirteen Protestants were killed in the Dunmanway-Clonakilty-Bandon area of west Cork.  This became known as the Bandon Valley Massacre.  It resulted in many Protestants leaving Cork. More Detail 

Hart (1998), pgs 273-279; Macardle (1999), pg 705

Apr 26-29

Conference held in Mansion House in Dublin with a view bringing together pro and anti-treaty forces.  Led by Labour Party but effort fails.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 93


Three British Intelligence Officers and their driver are kidnapped and later shot as spies in Macroom, Co. Cork.

Hart (1999), pg 280


Three representatives of the Labour Party asked a conference that was taking place in the Mansion House that representatives of the Anti-Treaty Army Executive should be added to the conference but Griffith and Collins refuse.  (The conference was probably the one called together by the Archbishop and Lord Mayor of Dublin - see above – it ended in failure on the 29th April.)

Macardle (1999), pg 707


Mulcahy reckons that only 1,900 of the 4,400 men in the Dublin Brigade are reliably pro-Treaty with most of the Brigade staff – along with battalion and company officers – being anti-Treaty

Dorney (2017), pg 36


The Times reports Sir James Craig as saying that the degree of [Belfast] boycott activity is greater than it was during the official boycott.

Parkinson (2004), pg 78


Dáil cabinet meets for last time as a separate body.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 56


Lord Midleton complains to King George V about the 'hasty withdrawal of British troops, against which your Majesty's Government was repeatedly warned' has led to an 'extremely grave' situation. 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 90


Speaking in Mullingar, de Valera condemns the killings of Protestants in Cork.

Macardle (1999), pg 705


A RIC man (Con Benjamin or Archibald Bently) is ambushed and killed at Staneen near Drogheda, Co. Louth.

Abbott (2000), pg 286


About 100 IRA men enter a bonded store in Dublin and, as part of the on-going Belfast Boycott, proceed to destroy half a million gallons of Dunville whiskey.  (The Dunville distillery is owned by Sir James Craig.)

Parkinson (2004), pgs 75 & 332


In Dublin, anti-Treaty forces carry out a series of bank robberies to fund their operations for which they issue receipts. They also requisitioned food from shops for which they also issue receipts.  Also, regular sniping of pro-Treaty barracks such as Wellington and Beggars Bush.



Hierarchy of the Irish Catholic Church issue a statement from Maynooth condemning the Volunteers who had set up an independent Executive.

Macardle (1999), pg 701


An Anti-Treaty prisoner, Michael Sweeney, is shot dead in Dublin.

Macardle (1999), pg 697




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