May 1922


Tom Hales, O/C 3rd Cork Brigade, issues a statement in the press in which he promised “to give to all citizens in this area, irrespective of creed or class, every protection within my power”.


Macardle (1999), pg 705


Around this time there is a series of raids carried out on branches of the National Bank and the Bank of Ireland - £18,000 taken in Ennis; £20,910 in Tipperary; £18,285 in Clonmel and £10,000 in Ballina.  These were ordered by the anti-Treaty Executive.  Many other raids carried out on post offices, etc. by anti-Treaty forces.  (£167,000 taken between January 1st and July 22nd 1922.) They often leave receipts for the money taken.

Macardle says “The Republican army without funds felt justified in taking money from banks and post offices to arm and provision the republicans, the executive took full responsibility for the raids on 1 May 1922.  On that day more that £50,000 taken”.

Sean Moylan commented “Sure it’s only a venial sin to rob a bank”.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 90; Macardle (1999), pg 696; Farry (2012), pg 93; Garvin (1996), pg 101; Power (2020), pg 25; Ferriter (2021), pg 35


Senior pro- and anti-Treaty IRA officers sign a document which proposes acceptance that the majority of Irish people support Treaty and an election be held to form a government that would have the confidence of all citizens.  Also calls for army unity. 

More Detail

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xx; Breen (1989), pgs 172-173; Hopkinson (1988), pg 94; Macardle (1999), pg 708;  Curran J M (1980), pg 186


Joe Sweeney and Tom Glennon (O/C and V/C of the pro-Treaty 1st Northern Division) meet with Sean Lehane and Charlie Dally (O/C and V/C anti-Treaty 1st Northern Division) in Drumboe Castle in Co. Donegal. 

Sweeney insists that Lehane evacuate the county with his men but Lehane refuses and says that he will continue to launch attacks on the Specials in Counties Fermanagh, Tyrone and Londonderry.  The meeting ends with no resolution.

See May-04-22/3.


Ó Duibhir (2011), pg 98


As part of the ‘Northern Offensive’, the 2nd Northern Division of the IRA attack the RIC barracks in Bellaghy and Draperstown in the south of Co. Londonderry.

During the attack on the RIC barracks at Bellaghy, Co. Londonderry, one RIC man (Con John Harvey) is killed and another (Sgt Kerr) is wounded.  Both attacks fail to capture the barracks. 

Afterwards, three IRA men are captured by B Special Constables. An IRA man was wounded in these attacks and may have died of his wounds.


Abbott (2000), pgs 286-287; McDermott (2001), pg 220; Grant (2018), pg 134; Lawlor (2011), pgs 268-269; Ozseker (2019), pg 166; Parksinson (2020), pg 92


Following the Bandon Valley Massacre, Liam Forde, O/C Mid-Limerick Brigade IRA, issues a statement saying that drastic action would be taken against anyone threatening Protestants.

O’Callaghan (2018), pg 124

May-02 to 06-22/1

Hostilities break out between pro- and anti-Treaty forces in Kilkenny in what became known as the Battle of Kilkenny. 

After pro-Treaty forces gain the upper hand and take all anti-Treaty positions in the City, an agreement is reached between pro- and anti-Treaty leaders in Dublin (see May-04-22/1) leads to a compromise in the City whereby all captured anti-Treaty men are released and the anti-Treaty forces are given back one ex-RIC barracks in the City. 

More Detail


Hopkinson (1988), pg 75; Macardle (1999), pg 698;  Walsh (2018), pgs 163-174


The Fifth Session of the Second Dáil – Day Four – May 3rd 28th 1922

Sean Hegarty, although not a TD, is allowed to address the Dáil on the May 1st statement of the army officers (see May-01-22/3).  He warns of civil war breaking out from incidents happening around the country.  After hearing the statement from Hegarty, the Dáil unanimously passes the following resolution “That having heard the statement put before the House by the Army Officers, a Committee of the House be set up to report to the House”.  The Dáil subsequently sets up a Committee of Ten.

The pro-Treaty members are Sean Hales; Sean MacEoin; Joe McGuinness; Seamus O'Dwyer and Padraic Ó Máille.  The anti-Treaty members were Harry Boland; Kathleen Clarke (chair); Liam Mellows; Sean Moylan and PJ Ruttledge.  See May-10-22/1.


The proceedings of Day Four of the Fifth Session of the Second Dáil are available here:  

The fifth day of the Fifth Session of the Second Dáil takes place on May 5th 1922 – see May-05-21/1.


O’Donoghue (1986), pg 238; Hopkinson (1988), pgs 95-96; Macardle (1999), pgs 708-709


A Special Constable (S/Con William McKnight) dies after his patrol is attacked at Corbanaghan six miles from Cookstown, Co. Tyrone.  In retaliation, the USC shoot dead John McCracken in the doorway of his pub in Dungate.

Abbott (2000), pg 287; McCluskey (2014), pg 122; Lawlor (2011), pg 269


A force of pro-Treaty men, led by Paddy O’Daly and Frank Thornton, arrive in Drogheda and demand that the anti-Treaty men in Millmount vacate the barracks.  However, when they refuse, the pro-Treaty men take over the West Gate barracks.


Hall (2019), pg 94


A patrol of Special Constables, which is going to the aid of a Special Constable whose home was attacked by the East Tyrone IRA, is itself ambushed at Annaghmore, Co. Tyrone resulting is the death of S/Con Robert Cardwell. 

In retaliation, the USC kill Thomas (or Peter) Hagan and Charles Lavelle.  These two men are described by the Coalisland commander of the B Specials as “two innocent Roman Catholics”.


Abbott (2000), pgs 287-288; McCluskey (2014), pg 122; Lawlor (2011), pg 261


An RIC sergeant (Frederick Frizelle) and two Special Constables (Edward Hegarty and Thomas Hunter) are returning from patrol in Ballyronan, near Magherafelt, Co. Londonderry when they are attacked and all three killed. 

Two Catholics are killed in reprisal on May 6th by the USC at White Mountain near Dungiven.  They were John Carolan and his nephew, Michael (or Dennis) Kilmartin. See also May-11-22/2.


Gallagher (2003), pgs 39 & 71; Abbott (2000), pg 288; Phoenix (1994), pg 219; McDermott (2001), pg 220; Lawlor (2011), pg 271


A postman, George Part, is killed and his son wounded near Keady in Co. Armagh.  Part was “blamed for giving tips to the S/Constabulary re road mines”.

Hughes (2016), pg 50


A joint Army committee is set up consisting of (Anti) Liam Lynch, Liam Mellows, Sean Moylan, Rory O'Connor and Seamus Robinson and (Pro) Michael Collins, Richard Mulcahy, Diarmaid O'Hegarty, Eoin O'Duffy, Gearoid O'Sullivan and Sean MacEoin

A truce is declared until May 8th and is then extended.  Anti-Treaty side gets impatient and Lynch warns on May 15th that "Negotiations must cease if a definite understanding for agreement is not reached."


O’Donoghue (1986), pg 239; Hopkinson (1988), pg 95; Macardle (1999), pg 708


Provisional Government agree to obstruct the NI Government in every way. Collins issues a confidential memo to all ministries of the Provisional Government instructing them to prepare schemes of non-cooperation with the Northern Government. He said what was needed was a plan “making it impossible for them to carry on”.


Phoenix (1994), pg 218; Ó Duibhir (2011), pg 108; Kissane (2005), pg 82


In the early morning, two major attacks are attempted by anti-Treaty volunteers based in Donegal on Crown Forces across the border.

In their aftermath, there are serious incidents in Buncrana and Newtowncunningham which lead to the deaths of two civilians and four pro-Treaty soldiers. 

More Detail


See May-27-22/4 and May-29-22/5.


Grant (2018), 135; Ozseker (2019), pg 175; Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 100-11



Meeting convened by Eoin O’Duffy, pro-Treaty Chief of Army, to discuss northern offensive.  Considerable swapping of arms between pro- and anti-Treaty troops.


McDermott (2001), pg 216


Writing to Chartres, Collins says that the Treaty provided the Irish with one of the finest chances they ever had to mould the national destiny, and if they failed they would have shown themselves and their nation unworthy of the task.


Kissane (2005), pg 29


The Fifth Session of the Second Dáil – Day Five – May 5th 1922

As the committee appointed by the Dáil (see May-03-22/1) were not in a position to report, it was decided to adjourn the Dáil until May 10th.

The proceedings of Day Five of the Fifth Session of the Second Dáil are available here:  

The sixth day of the Fifth Session of the Second Dáil takes place on May 10th 1922 – see May-10-22/1.




The Northern Bank is robbed of £600 in Drumshanbo, Co. Leitrim and is again held up three days later.

McGarty (2020), pg 111


The body of an ex-British soldier, Israel Sagarsky (aka John Erin), is found on a road near Gortin, Co. Tyrone with a label on him with the words “Convicted Spy”.


McCluskey (2014), pg 123


The Anglo Celt reports that Jim Gralton and his followers had taken over land at Mong, Co. Leitrim belonging to Milton Vaugh, sub-sheriff of Leitrim and intend to use it for the “grazing of cows of poor people resident in the district”.


McGarty (2020), pg 113


According to Macardle, total casualties up to this point in clashes between pro- and anti-Treaty forces are 8 killed and 49 wounded.


Macardle (1999), pg 698


When the USC try to force local nationalists to fill in a trench dug by the IRA on a road at Beaghmore, eight miles outside Cookstown, Co. Tyrone, one local farmer Bernard Campbell refuses.  He is stabbed with a bayonet in the hip and badly injured.


Lawlor (2011), pg 265


Three Unionist houses are attacked by the IRA at Clonaneese Glebe, Castlecaulfield, Co. Tyrone resulting in the death of S/Con Samuel Milligan who lived in one of the three houses.  Another householder was also killed.


Abbott (2000), pg 288; Lawlor (2011), pg 264-265


The Fifth Session of the Second Dáil – Day Six – May 10th 1922

The Committee of Ten (see May-03-22/1) reports to the Dáil that it has failed to come up with basis for unity.  Dáil asked both sides to present their reports the following day.  See May-11-22/3.

The proceedings of Day Six of the Fifth Session of the Second Dáil are available here:   

The seventh day of the Fifth Session of the Second Dáil takes place on May 11th 1922 – see May-11-22/3.


Curran J M (1980), pg 187


A brief case, which has been left on a tram in Belfast, had just been deposited in the cashier’s office of the Ardoyne depot when it exploded killing a tram conductor, John Mansfield (42).  Mansfield was a Protestant.


Parkinson (2004), pg 265; McDermott (2001), pg 223


A group of men wearing police caps enter the McKeown household in Ballymulderg, Ballyronan, Co. Londonderry. The three sons present – James, Francis and Thomas McKeown – are shot.  James dies instantly – the other two survive but are seriously wounded.  The Specials were looking for another brother called Henry. (Parkinson says the three brothers were killed but this would appear not to be the case.) 

This attack on the McKeown brothers was probably a further retaliation for the killing of the RIC man and two Special Constables in Ballyroan on May 3rd – see May-03-22/5.


Parkinson (2004), pg 350; McDermott (2001), pg 223; Grant (2018), pg 136; Lawlor (2011), pgs 272-273


The Fifth Session of the Second Dáil – Day Seven – May 11th 1922

The reports from both sides of the Committee of Team were read to the Dáil.  Seumas O’Dwyer read the report from the pro-Treaty side and concluded with the recommendation that a new Dáil election be held “Recognising the fact that the Treaty having been approved by a majority of Dáil Éireann, would, in the circumstances, be accepted by a majority of the people if put as an issue at a contested election, and desiring to evade such a contest and its attendant conflicts we recommend that an agreed election without contests be held and a Coalition Government be formed”.

Harry Boland reads the report from the anti-Treaty side.  It is obvious that they are still far apart.  O’Dwyer requests that “the Dáil adjourns without discussing the reports from the Committee set up under Dr. Hayes' motion until Wednesday next [May 17th], and I desire at the same time to say to the Dáil that we have agreed to meet in the meantime in the hope of finding a solution”.  After some discussion, this is accepted.


The proceedings of Day Seven of the Fifth Session of the Second Dáil are available here:    

The eighth day of the Fifth Session of the Second Dáil takes place on May 17th 1922 – see May-17-22/1.





Michael Cullen (44), a Catholic, was shot dead in the Marrowbone district of Belfast by a four-strong gang who had asked him his religion.


Parkinson (2004), pg 258; McDermott (2001), pg 223


The IRA carry out a robbery in south Belfast with over £2,500 of railway workers’ wages snatched.


Parkinson (2004), pg 349


Churchill confers with his Irish advisers (Fitzalan, Greenwood, Macready and Cope) in London. 

Topics include whether (a) to issue more arms to the Provisional Government with proof they were going to move against the Four Courts garrison and (b) to evacuate the remaining British troops in the twenty-six counties, especially Dublin, where they could get sucked into fighting between pro- and anti-forces.  See May-15-22/2.

(Llyod George was in Criccieth in Wales recuperating from neuralgia from March 10th to 27th and at the Genoa Conference from April 8th until late May – leaving Irish policy very much in Churchill’s hands.  Fanning comments the Churchill had “used the Ulster issue to court radical support among the Liberals at the height of the Curragh crisis of 1914; now he used it to bolster his popularity among the Tories”.)


Fanning (2013), pg 322 & 325


After returning to Belfast from a conference with Collins and the Chancellor of the Exchequer in London, Craig reports to his NI cabinet that “the British Government were quite clear in their assurances that they would see Ulster through against any attack from the South, and bringing five more Battalions into Ulster, making the total number 22”.  He also said that “Ulster’s position is much better appreciated in Great Britain than previously the case”.

See May-22-22/8.


Fanning (2013), pgs 324-325


At a training camp being conducted by the Waterford Brigade of the IRA at Lackendarra Lodge in the Comeragh Mountains, Volunteer Sean Morrissey is accidently shot dead by a fellow IRA man.


McCarthy (2015), pg 98


Following the attack on April 9th (see Apr-09-22/2), William Blennerhasset’s farm at Beaufort, Co. Kerry is again attacked.  A three-day siege ensued, during which both Blennerhasset and his son are wounded. Eventually, the Blennerhassets surrender but bring their case to the High Court in Dublin.  See Jun-16-22/6.


Doyle (2008), pg 102


The Roscommon Herald reports on a court case taken against Patrick and Bernard Gilhooley who were charged with seizing the land of a neighbour.  Their defence at a republican court held in Drumsna, Co. Leitrim was that their father, who sold the land to a neighbour called Fox, was “fond of a drop and he was not as cute as Mr. Fox was”.  They undertook to vacate the land.


McGarty (2020), pg 113


Robert Beattie, a Protestant postman, is shot dead as he delivers post in Butler St in Belfast.


Parkinson (2004), pg 264


A British army soldier, Gunner James Rolfe, is shot dead on Bachelors Walk in Dublin – possibly by anti-Treaty volunteers.

Dorney (2017), pg 286; Sheehan (2017), pg 164


Kathleen Douglas (13) of Marine St in Belfast is shot by a sniper and dies later.  Also, Ellen Dargan (19) is shot as she returned with messages to her home in Emily Place.

A Protestant woman, Lizzie McAloney (47), shot dead in Belfast – probably in crossfire between Crown forces and the IRA.


Parkinson (2004), pg 260 & 266


A meeting of the Provisional Government’s Northern Advisory Committee takes place in the Metropole Hotel in York St. in Belfast.  They decided to urge Provisional Government to wage a campaign of destruction within the six counties which the aim of making the rule of the NI Government more expensive and difficult. 

Sinn Féin people present – such as Cahir Healy and George Murnaghan - were obviously unaware that the IRA (including leading members present such as Seamus Woods and Frank Crummey) were planning a major offensive in the next few days with authorisation from Collins.


Phoenix (1994), pg 220; McDermott (2001), pgs 224-225


Churchill got information on a possible electoral pact between Collins and de Valera (see May-20-22/1) and fires off a letter to Collins denouncing the pact as “an outrage upon democratic principles”. 

See British cabinet meeting on May 16th – May-16-22/2.


Fanning (2013), pg 326


Belfast executive of Sinn Féin ‘in the name of the persecuted minority’ calls on pro- and anti-Treaty people in the South to establish stable government. 

Also, a bomb left on a tram in Belfast is extinguished by being doused with water.


Parkinson (2004), pg 265


The Kildare Mutiny

Civic Guards, stationed in the old Artillery Camp in Kildare, mutiny after the promotion is announced of ex-RIC men.  

More Detail 


See May-26-22/2.


Durney (2011), pgs 49-52


Churchill reviews Irish situation for the British cabinet. 

He says that Ireland was in a process of rapid social disintegration and complained that the Irish people had not been given a chance to vote on the Treaty.  He said that, if British troops were withdrawn from Dublin, then he believed a Republic would be declared.  He said that they might have to retain what he called the “English capital” and maybe converting it into a “Pale” once more.  He also said that he was suspending the supply of munitions to Dublin “until he was satisfied that they would be used effectively against the Republican party”.

They agreed that the Irish leaders should be invited to London and told that there would be no further large issues of arms until they showed that they were going to deal with O’Connor and his men in the Four Courts. 

(According to Price, Collins had sent a message to Churchill saying that Provisional Government had decided to take the fight to the anti-Treaty forces but that he proposed dealing “first with outlying areas like Drogheda and Castlebar and leave the Republicans in Dublin undisturbed”.  However, Churchill had proposed that Dublin should be dealt with first and only then would additional weapons be supplied.)


Curran J M (1980), pg 190; Price (2012), pg 209; McMahon (2008), pgs 76-77


In disturbances in Belfast following the funeral of Robert Beattie – see May-13-22/3 – a Catholic unloading fruit in North St is shot dead.  His name was William Madden (21).  Another Catholic, John Cribben (21) was shot by a loyalist sniper in Great Patrick St and died in hospital the following day.  In the evening, Nellie McMullan was shot in Great Georges St.


Parkinson (2004), pg 258 & 260; McDermott (2001), pg 225


Set up earlier in the year by the Provisional Government, the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) had 50 detectives, a clerk and three drivers – it main purpose was to combat armed robbery.  It was based in Oriel House in Dublin and led by Frank Saurin.

Also based in Oriel House was the pro-Treaty Military Intelligence service led by Liam Tobin who held the position of National Army Director of Intelligence.   Members of the Military Intelligence section were nearly all ex-members of the Squad or IRA Intelligence.  Included Liam Tobin, Frank Thornton, Tom Cullen, Joe Dolan, Charlie Dalton, James Murray, Joe Guilfoyle, C. Byrne, H Conroy, D. McDonnell and J. Shanahan.  Also worked out of Wellington Barracks on the South Circular Road.

Oriel House was later to develop a very unsavoury reputation.


Dorney (2017), pgs 36 & 37


The Fifth Session of the Second Dáil – Day Eight – May 17th 1922

The Dáil debates their two separate reports of the Dáil Committee of Ten (see May-11-22/3).  The idea of an agreed election, where each side would nominate candidates got some support from both sides.  Also, they agreed that other interests could take part in the election and that a coalition government would be formed after it (and a second election if the coalition government proved unworkable).  However, they could not agree on a split in the nominations and acceptance of the Treaty also proved a stumbling block. 

De Valera asks Griffith if he wanted the co-operation of the anti-Treaty side on the understanding that they were not committed to the Treaty and that the people should not be asked to commit itself to the Treaty.  Griffith replied that he wanted the co-operation in not obstructing the people in the expressing of their views.  Brugha retorted that the pro-Treatyites wanted to obstruct a million Irish adults from expressing their views by holding an election on the unrevised register.  (He added that that he was “sick of politics” and both sides should unite in a crusade to protect their people in the North-East.)

Collins makes a speech which is quite conciliatory and seeking a coalition of the two sides.  De Valera responds positively and they are requested to examine the possibility of finding an agreement.  Collins and De Valera are closeted together to attempt some form of compromise.  See May-20-22/1.


The proceedings of Day Eight of the Fifth Session of the Second Dáil are available here:     

The ninth day of the Fifth Session of the Second Dáil takes place on May 18th 1922 – see May-18-22/3.



Macardle (1999), pgs 709-710; Hopkinson (1988), pgs 96-97; Curran J M (1980), pg 187; Townshend (2014), pg 398; O’Donoghue (1986), pg 240


A Protestant, Robert Dudgeon, is shot in Cupar St. in Belfast – probably in crossfire between Crown forces and the IRA.


Parkinson (2004), pg 266


Writing in his diary, Strickland says “And so this is the end of two and half years toil, a year ago we had a perfect organisation and had them beat, a short time more would have completed it thoroughly … All our labours and energy have been thrown in the gutter … It almost makes one wish one had never been concerned with the show.”



Sheehan (2017), pg 56


Northern deputation, led by Frank Aiken, meets with Collins, Griffith, de Valera and Rory O’Connor and calls for unity as a final rift would ensure “permanent partition of the nation”.


Phoenix (1994), pg 221; Ó Duibhir (2011), pg 112


Two Catholics, Samuel McPeake (50) and James Donaghy (46), are shot dead by loyalist gunmen in a sectarian attack on a Crumlin Rd tram in Belfast.  They had been seen crossing themselves as they passed a Catholic church.  Another Catholic, Thomas McCaffrey, is shot on Falls-bound tram.


Parkinson (2004), pg 257; McDermott (2001), pg 229; Parkinson (2020), pg 158


The Fifth Session of the Second Dáil – Day Nine – May 18th 1922

As Collins and de Valera are in discussions, the reports of a number of Ministers are dealt with.

The proceedings of Day Nine of the Fifth Session of the Second Dáil are available here:      

The tenth day of the Fifth Session of the Second Dáil takes place on May 19th 1922 – see May-19-22/6.


Macardle (1999), pg 710; Curran J M (1980), pg 188


During an attack by the IRA on Musgrave St. RIC barracks in Belfast one RIC man is killed (Constable John Collins) and a Special Constable McKeown is wounded. 

More Detail



Abbott (2000), pgs 288-289; Hopkinson (1988), pg 84; Phoenix (1994), pg 219; Parkinson (2004), pg 220 & 345 & 262 & 265 & 270;  McDermott (2001), pgs 225-229; Parkinson (2020), pg 188


Special Constable George Johnston dies after he is thrown from the Crossley tender in which he is travelling on the Keady to Newtownbutler road in Co. Armagh.


Abbott (2019), pg 407


Joint pro- and anti-Treaty IRA offensive on Northern Ireland

On this date the joint pro- and anti-Treaty IRA offensive on Northern Ireland was due to start.  There was considerable activity in the area of the IRA’s 3rd Northern Division but there is little action taken by the other IRA Divisions.

According to Hopkinson, it was a dismal failure but, according to Phoenix, these co-ordinated attacks came as a severe shock to NI Government to which they responded with great force. 

More Detail 


Hopkinson (1988), pgs 83-86; Macardle (1999), pg 731; Phoenix (1994), pgs 219 & 229; McDermott (2001), pg 231; Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 113-114; Regan (2013), pg 61; McMahon (2008), pg 77


By this stage, British troops had withdrawn from Cork and Curragh, leaving about 5,000 troops under Macready in Dublin.


Curran J M (1980), pg 190


RIC Constable William Heaslip (Heslip) shot dead in Smithfield, Belfast after giving chase to a gang of robbers.   

Agnes Coudet (Condit) (22) and John Hickey (50) were killed by loyalist snipers in York St.  In the evening, Thomas McShane (35) was shot in the neck and Peter Prunty (35) was shot during disturbances. John Murphy (40), another Catholic, was shot in the chest in Northumberland St.   Also, a Protestant woman, Mary Donaldson (50) died in the North Queen St area of Belfast after being caught in crossfire between security forces and the IRA. 

In the mid-afternoon, a nine-strong IRA gang entered Garrett’s copperage in Little Patrick St and ordered Protestant workers to one side.  They wounded four of them, three fatally.  The three killed were William Patterson (35); Thomas Maxwell (25) and Thomas Boyd (20). 

Two Catholics, Francis McDermott and Arthur McMurrough, are shot by loyalists in Belfast as they work at the Pumping Station. (McDermott says that Francis (Frank) McDermott was targeted by a loyalist gang in frustration at their failure to locate his two republican sons.  He and McMurrough had survived an earlier attempt on their lives.) 

Eleven premises subject to arson attacks by the IRA.


Parkinson (2004), pg 260 & 266 & 268 & 350; McDermott (2001), pg vii & 229-230; Abbott (2000), pg 317


Four (or six?) Catholics killed in Desertmartin, Co. Londonderry. 

The IRA had burnt to the ground the large Sterrett’s flax mill in Desertmartin. In retaliation, the Specials burn the homes and businesses of Catholics in the village.  Four Catholics are taken from their home – Michael McGeehan and his three sons Henry, James and John – by the USC, lined up against a wall and repeatedly shot. 

Lawlor says that two other men – brothers Francis and John Higgins – were also killed along with the four McGeehans. 

Ó Duibhir and Parkinson says that Henry McGeehan and his brother James were killed along with John Higgins and his nephew Francis.


McDermott (2001), pgs 220 & 231; Grant (2018), pg 136; Lawlor (2011), pgs 274-282; Ó Duibhir (2011), pg 113; Parksinson (2020), pg 92


Attack by IRA on Martinstown RIC barracks (about six miles outside Ballymena, Co. Antrim).  Barracks is stoutly defended but a patrol from Ballymena on its way to help is ambushed and Special Constable James O’Neill is killed.  (Abbott says that S/Constable O’Neill was killed accidentally.)


McDermott (2001), pg 231; Lawlor (2011), pgs 273-274; Abbott (2019), pg 410


The Fifth Session of the Second Dáil – Day Ten – May 19th 1922

Griffith moves that an election takes place but no vote is taken as the Collins-de Valera talks are continuing.


The proceedings of Day Ten of the Fifth Session of the Second Dáil are available here:       

The eleventh of the Fifth Session of the Second Dáil takes place on May 20th 1922 – see May-20-22/1.




The Fifth Session of the Second Dáil – Day Eleven – May 20th 1922


Collins and de Valera announce in the Dáil that they have agreed an election Pact with the election to take place on June 16th

More Detail  


The proceedings of Day Eleven of the Fifth Session of the Second Dáil are available here:       

The first day of the Sixth Session of the Second Dáil takes place on June 8th 1922 – see Jun-08-22/3.


O'Farrell P (1997), pg xx; Hopkinson (1988), pgs 97-98; Macardle (1999), pgs 709-713; Curran J M (1980), pg 189; Phoenix (1994), pgs 221-222; Garvin (1996), pg 42; Regan (2013), pg 69


Two Catholic teenagers, Patrick McAuley and Thomas McGuigan, were shot dead in Duncrue St in Belfast. 

Earlier in the morning, a Catholic John Connolly (35) was singled out by a loyalist gunman and fatally wounded.  Also, Cecilia Kearns, a Catholic, was shot by a loyalist gunman in her shop on York St.  Yet another Catholic, Joseph Murtagh was shot. 

In a particularly tragic case, a toddler Brigid Skillen (3) has been given a penny to buy a bun but she was shot by a sniper as she made her way to the corner shop on York St. from her home.


Parkinson (2004), pg 259 – 261; McDermott (2001), pg 230; Parkinson (2020), pg 160


As part of the Northern Offensive (see May-19-22/1), four mansions are demolished by the IRA and others severely damaged.

Among those demolished were Shane Castle (which stood on the shores of Lough Neagh near Antrim Town) and owned by Lord O’Neill. Others damaged or destroyed included Hawthorne Hall in Co. Armagh; Kilclief House and Old Court near Strangford, Co. Down and in Co. Antrim Crebilly Castle (near Ballymena), Glenmona House (near Cushendum), and Garron Tower.


Parkinson (2020), pgs 197-198


In reaction to the Collins-de Valera Pact, Churchill suspends the evacuation of British troops from the 26-counties and suspends further supplies to the Provisional Government.


Macardle (1999), pg 715


In Belfast, Hugh McDonald (20), is dragged off an early morning tram at Bridge End and savagely beaten before being shot dead.  Another Catholic, Patrick Hughes is also killed. 

After the killing of Hugh McDonald, an IRA sniper kills Protestant Robert Newell (26) in Memel St., Belfast.  Later, another Protestant, Robert Powell (35) was shot in Edward St after being asked his religion. 

Also, the Tivoli Cinema in Christian Place was the subject of an arson attack.


Parkinson (2004), pg 258 & 260 & 266 & 274; McDermott (2001), pg 230; Parkinson (2020), pg 158


In an effort to secure army unity after the Collins-de Valera pact, each side appoints four officers to meet in conference. 

On the pro-Treaty side were Mulcahy, O’Duffy, O’Sullivan and McMahon and on the anti-Treaty side were Lynch, O’Connor, O’Malley and Moylan.

They come up with various proposals to split the Minister of Defence and Chief-of-Staff between the two sides – along with concomitant splits in GHQ staff and Army Council.  However, when Lynch brought these proposals back to the Four Courts, they meet strong opposition.  For detail of these negotiations, see O’Donoghue (1986) pgs 240-244 and Hopkinson (1988), pgs 100-104.

See May-26-22/3.


Macardle (1999), pgs 732-733; Hopkinson (1988), pg 101


John McLarnon, a Catholic, is shot dead as he works in the Midland Railway Station in Belfast and another Catholic, Charles McMurty, suffers a similar fate at his place of work. A Protestant shipyard worker, George Lawson (30), was shot by a sniper operating from the Short Strand area of Belfast as he made his way to work. Also, a Protestant bar manager, Thomas Boyd (25) was shot on Albertbridge Road by possibly the same sniper. 

Later, a Catholic man, Jack O’Hare (30), was severely beaten by a loyalist gang loitering near the Albert Bridge and they then threw him over the bridge into the River Lagan.  A nearby police patrol did not intervene.  A Catholic, James Brady, was shot dead by the IRA who mistook him for a Protestant.


Parkinson (2004), pg 259; McDermott (2001), pg 234; Parkinson (2020), pg 156


At a meeting with a delegation from the synod of the Church of Ireland, Collins tells them that “Ireland required the services of all of her sons of every class and creed” and he condemned attacks on member of the Protestant community.


Dolan and Murphy (2018), pg 201


An ex-RIC man (H/Constable Joseph Ballantine or Ballintine) is shot dead as he enters his home in Raphoe, Co. Donegal. Ó Duibhir says that this killing was carried out by refugees from Northern Ireland at the instigation of the wife of a local publican.  


Abbott (2000), pg 294; Ozseker (2019), pg 186; Ó Duibhir (2011), pg 115


William Twaddell, who is the MP in the Northern Ireland parliament for Woodvale, is assassinated in Belfast.  After this killing some 350 IRA and Sinn Féin members are interned and all republican organisations are declared illegal in Northern Ireland.

More Detail

Hopkinson (1988), pg 85; Gallagher (2003), pg 39; Phoenix (1994), pg 223;  Parkinson (2004), pgs 274-276 & 293 & 296; McDermott (2001), pg 234; Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 115; Ferriter (2021), pg 28; Parkinson (2020), pgs 203-205 & 237-239; McMahon (2008), pg 151


Four Catholic homes on the Magherafelt side of Desertmartin in Co. Londonderry are attacked.  One was burnt to the ground while the others were shot up with some of the occupants receiving injuries. (See May-19-22/4.) Subsequently, Catholics received letters ordering them to leave the area.


Lawlor (2011), pgs 280-282


A meeting of pro-Treaty army officers express dissatisfaction with the developments on the Army unity talks and the following day J J O'Connell tenders his resignation, but it is not accepted.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 103


After the Waterford Farmers’ Association announced that it would not partake in the annual negotiations to set wages, the ITGWU announces a county-wide strike starting on this day. In the east of the county, the farmers soon give in to the strikers’ demand after picketing and boycotting by shop and factory workers.  However, large farmers in the Blackwater Valley announced a reduction in wages of farm labourers from 38 shillings to 30 shillings a week and the strike drags on.  See Jun-07-22/4.


McCarthy (2015), pg 103


An ex-RIC man (Sgt Walshe) is shot dead on a visit to his wife and child in Newport, Co Mayo.


Abbott (2000), pg 294; Price (2012), pg 204


Mary Grant (60) who had earlier been shot by a sniper in the York St area of Belfast dies in hospital.


Parkinson (2004), pg 261


Craig tells the NI parliament that “We, as a united Cabinet, now state that we will not have any Boundary Commission under any circumstances whatever … What we have, we hold”.


Fanning (2013), pg 327; Matthews (2004),  3pg


Craig informs Churchill that nearly 282 arrests made and this was to grow to nearly 500. 

By end of June, most of those interned were kept on the prison ship Argenta.  The Argenta had been purchased by the NI government on May 17th and fitted out as a prison ship in Harland & Wolff. It could hold about 500 prisoners.  It was brought into operation on June 19th when 300 internees were moved on board.  Conditions on board were atrocious.

Twenty-one prisoners were flogged between April 26th and July 17th.


 McCluskey (2014), pg 124; Parkinson (2020), pgs 240-241


An ex-RIC man (Constable Timothy O'Leary) is taken from his pony and trap between Kinsale and Kilbrittain, Co. Cork and his body is later found by the roadway.


Abbott (2000), pg 294


Sinn Féin Ard Fheis ratifies the Collins-de Valera pact. (Macardle says May 23rd but Curran says May 25th.)


Macardle (1999), pg 714; Curran J M (1980), pg 190


Colonel Brind, head of intelligence for the BA in Ireland, reports to the British cabinet that “organisers from outside the six counties” were “responsible for most of the aggression displayed by the local I.R.A.”.


McMahon (2008) pg 143


The British signatories to the Treaty meet in London with Balflour, Macready and Fitzalan in attendance. Churchill gives a gloomy assessment of the situation in Ireland saying that they may not be a sudden breakdown or clear issue but that “the Free State would slide into an accommodation with the Republicans … Looking back on the political history one could see how we have been sold”.

They discuss the Collins-De Valera election pact. Lloyd George said that they “may have to face reconquest” but they could not break with the Irish unless there was such a clear violation of the Treaty that could not be argued with and the election pact was not such a violation.  Churchill agreed.  The go on to discuss various possible actions in the event of the breakdown of the Treaty. 

Chamberlain says that, while he continued to trust Griffith, he no longer believed that Collins was “keeping faith with us” and that he was “losing confidence in Mr. Collins”.

(According to McMahon, there was a similar meeting the previous day which agreed to provide funding for the Special Constabulary for the next six months.  They also agreed to augment Solly-Flood’s staff with BA officers and provide substantial arms and equipment to NI.  They also decided to send BA officers to the newly created Criminal Investigation Department in Belfast.  The latter was created in early May and controlled by Solly-Flood.) See also Jun-06-22/6.


Curran J M (1980), pgs 191-192; Matthews (2004), pg 79; McMahon (2008), pgs 77-78 & 146 & 149


With the introduction of the Constabulary Bill (Northern Ireland), the setting up of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was proposed in law.  Charles Wickham was appointed its first Inspector General.   See Jun-01-22/3.

Also, the Special Constabulary became the Ulster Special Constabulary.


Abbott (2000), pg 142; Abbott (2019), pg 351; McMahon (2008), pg 152


Three bombs go off in trams in Belfast.  Only one fatality – Grace Orr or Todd (30) who was a Protestant. 

Gunbattles follow. James Telford (63), a Protestant gravedigger, was beaten and fatally shot by a mob on the Falls Rd in Belfast.  Also, a gunbattle raged in the Falls Rd area resulting in three deaths.  The Irish News reported “At times the firing, especially in the upper portion of the Falls Road, was of unprecedented intensity, and the residents were in a state of nerve-wrecking terror.”


Parkinson (2004), pgs 265-266 & 283 & 350; McDermott (2001), pg 236; Parksinson (2020), pg 97


Ruth Beaumount, an English woman who lived in Convoy, Co. Donegal, has her hair cut by anti-Treaty Volunteers.

Ozseker (2019), pg 187


The Military Adviser to the NI government, Major-General Arthur Solly-Flood, writes that the was a secret deal between Collins and de Valera to build up their military strength under the cover of the Free State “until the time was ripe for the two forces to unite and strike at the Empire”.

Also, on this day, Solly-Flood issues a secret memo to senior police officers saying that it was only a question of time before open hostilities between the North and South broke out.

Solly-Flood later wrote that there was abundant evidence that “Irish Republicans are in close touch with foreign Communists. Bolshevists, and internationalists to promote revolution in England and bring about the destruction of the Empire”.


McMahon (2008), pg 144


During a gun battle in the Springfield Road area of Belfast an Ulster Special Constable (S/Constable James Murphy) is fatally wounded.


Abbott (2000), pg 289; Parkinson (2004), pg 262


Speaking in Liverpool, ex-Field Marshall Henry Wilson describes “the surrender of the Provisional Government to de Valera” as “one of the most pitiful, miserable and cowardly stories in history”.




An Ulster Special Constable (S/Con George Connor or O’Connor) is shot by a sniper in a McAuley St., Belfast. 

Also, a teenager, Esther McDougall is shot close to her home – she was due to give evidence against a loyalist for throwing a bomb. In addition, a Protestant teenager, John Moore, was shot outside his front door in Hooker St, Belfast.


Abbott (2000), pg 289; Parkinson (2004), pg 260 & 262 & 265-266; McDermott (2001), pg 238


Darrell Figgis, a member of the Executive of Sinn Féin, addresses the Executive of the Farmers Party and other business interests and urges them to put forward candidates in all constituencies in which anti-Treaty candidates were likely to top the polls.




Griffith goes to London (along with Duggan, Cosgrave and O’Higgins.  O’Hegarty and Kennedy are also there as secretary and legal advisor respectively.) 

Collins goes the following day after going to Kildare to try to deal with the Civic Guard mutiny – see May-26-22/2. 

They meet with Churchill who outlines British objections to the pact but it was defended by Griffith, Duggan and O’Higgins. See May-27-22/1. 

More Detail  


O’Donoghue (1986), pg 244; Macardle (1999), pg 714; Curran J M (1980), pgs 193-194


Churchill receives a delegation of Irish loyalists in London.  They claim that the Bandon Valley Massacre is a harbinger of things to come.  They claim that there is no effective police force and that there is “nothing to prevent the peasants expropriating every Protestant and every loyalist”.  They go on to claim that “The slightest spark may, at any moment, kindle the flame and cause a massacre … A massacre is now only a matter of time”. See May-28-22/6.


McMahon (2008), pg 75


Knowing that the British Government is disenchanted with the Collins-de Valera pact, Craig writes to Churchill decrying the ‘odious’ idea of the Boundary Commission saying that it is ‘at the root of all evil’.  He also points out that as the NI Government was not a party to the Treaty “we have not broken the treaty”.


Phoenix (1994), pg 224


Collins goes to Kildare Barracks to meet with the Civic Guard mutineers. 

He offers the mutineers an inquiry on the basis that Staines and his staff would return to their posts in Kildare.  The mutineers, led by Michael Daly, agree but on the basis that a party of no more than five officers return.  However, when Staines tries to enter the barracks on June 9th, he is again refused entry. The response of the Provisional Government was to isolate the mutineers and withdraw pay.  This led to a drop in morale among the mutineers. Some left to join the anti-Treaty forces while others went home. 

See Jun-17-22/3. 


Durney (2011), pgs 52-53


Army unity talks which had been on-going agree on a number of issues including no more commandeering and that a number of the occupied building in Dublin (excluding the Four Courts) would be evacuated.  Talks proceeded on issues of army organisation and these complex deliberations were submitted to the (anti-Treaty) Executive on June 14th.

See Jun-14-22/5.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 101


Speaking to the Northern Ireland cabinet, Sir Henry Wilson says that “There is a grave danger that the British Cabinet will come to the view that the Pact between Mr. Collins and Mr. de Valera does not violate the Treaty”


Macardle (1999), pg 714


Alexander Morrison, a Protestant from Ballyclare, was visiting a market on Albertbridge Rd in Belfast when he was attacked by a loyalist gang and fatally wounded. 

William Toal (17), a Catholic, who had been shot in the Marrowbone area died in hospital on this day.  Also, around this time, another Catholic, Lizzie Donnelly, is the victim of sniping in the Millfield area. 

A Protestant building contractor, Victor Kidd, was shot by a sniper operating from the New Lodge area of Belfast as he made his way to his business premises.  Mr Kidd was an off-duty Special Constable.  Later in the day, another Protestant, William Shields (21) was shot as he made his way home from work down the Newtownards Rd. 

In addition, the ‘Falls Firebugs’ were at work again, this time starting 13 fires between eight and eleven o’clock mostly in the Falls and Divis Street areas including an attack on the (mostly Protestant) Model School.   There were further arson attacks on commercial properties over the next few days. In his 2020 book, Parkinson quotes the Belfast Telegraph as saying that between eighty and ninety commercial properties were targets of arson attacks during May and June 1922 – the peak period was the end of May and beginning of June. 

According to Parkinson (2004) “For Belfast Republicans, the tacit of arson offered another way of directly attacking what they saw as the ‘godfathers’ of terror, without running such high risks or inviting a backlash on the already harassed Catholics in the city.”


Parkinson (2004), pg 258 & 260 & 264 & 271 & 273; Abbott (2019), pg 408; Parkinson (2020), pg 201


Craig writes to Churchill saying that pro- and anti-Treaty forces were secretly preparing to declare a republic and carry out an onslaught on NI.


McMahon (2008), pg 144

May 26 to 27-22/1

The IRA carries out in a number of attacks in South Armagh over these two days.  During one attack in the Jonesborough-Forkhill area an Ulster Special Constable (S/Constable Herbert Martin) was shot dead.


Abbott (2000), pg 289


During the meeting between the Irish and British delegations (starting at 6.00pm), Lloyd George (back from Genoa and taking a direct interest in Irish affairs for the first time in a considerable period) tells the Irish side that the new Free State constitution (which had been produced by the Irish committee which included High Kennedy, James Douglas and Prof Alfred O'Rahilly and presented to the British the previous day) was a republican one with a thin veneer and a complete evasion of the Treaty.   He said that the Irish would be sent a list of British objections to their draft constitution by May 29th – see May-29-22/1.

The two delegations then discuss the pact election in detail.  Churchill pointed out that Article 17 of the Treaty obliged all members of the Provisional Government to sign a declaration of adherence to the Treaty and the Pact did not require the four republican ministers to sign such a declaration. Despite reservations the British agreed that the election could go ahead but warned that problems could occur if the anti-Treaty cabinet members did not take the oath.  Churchill said that if Article 17 did not apply then “the process of the transfer of function does not go forward anymore”.  See Jun-01-22/1.

Also, a subcommittee of the Committee for Imperial Defence, chaired by Churchill, made contingency plans to occupy the waterline of lakes and rivers running from Dundalk to Letterkenny to defend the North against invasion.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 106; Curran J M (1980), pgs 194-195; Townshend (2014), pg 400; Fanning (2013), pg 329; Matthews (2004), pg 80; Kissane (2005), pg 71; McMahon (2008), pg 77


A proclamation is issued by the Provisional Government calling an election on June 16th  

Nomination forms referred to elections to the “Provisional Parliament pursuant to the Free State (Agreement) Act” and not for the Third Dáil. 

Lord Fitzalan, later in the day, declared that the Parliament of Southern Ireland was dissolved and “I hereby call a Parliament to be known as and styled the Provisional Parliament”.


Macardle (1999), pg 718


William Smyth (21), a Catholic, is shot dead in the Short Strand area of Belfast.  Robert Rainey (50) is shot when he went to the aid of a man injured in disturbances in the Cullingtree Rd area of Belfast.  A young Protestant girl (Georgina Campbell who was 5) was shot by a sniper allegedly operating from St Matthew’s Church in Belfast.


Parkinson (2004), pgs 260-262 & 265


In an action which was to set off a confrontation between the IRA and the BA on the Donegal/Tyrone border, Basil Brooke, O/C of the USC in Co. Fermanagh, sends 64 USC men by boat across Lough Erne and they occupy Magherameenagh Castle, a few miles from Belleek.  A patrol from the castle comes under attack from an anti-Treaty column advancing towards Magherameenagh castle but manages to get back to base without any casualties.  However, they are besieged in the castle. 

See May-28-22/2.


Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 120-121


Lance Corporal Emery of the British Army is shot dead in College Green in Dublin.

Dorney (2017), pg 286


Ex-RIC Sergeant James Greer is taken from his home at Cootehall near Boyle, Co. Roscommon and shot dead.  His son, Thomas, who lived nearby and was an ex-Auxiliary, is also shot dead. 

Abbott (2019), pg 378; Abbott (2000), pg 294; Burke (2021), pg 125


RIC Sgt William Leech is shot dead outside Westland Row Railway Station in Dublin.  Dorney says that Sgt Leech was rumoured to be working with British Intelligence.


Abbott (2000), pg 290; Dorney (2017), pg 45


To relieve the men besieged in Magherameenagh Castle, a four or five vehicle police patrol of A Specials is sent from Garrison, Co. Tyrone.  It is attacked by pro-Treaty troops at Belleek on the Donegal-Tyrone border. 

The resulting gun battle lasts several hours and one Ulster Special Constable (S/Constable Albert Rickerby) is killed. 

The Specials eventually withdrew but without relieving their comrades in Magherameenagh Castle. The men in the castle withdraw by boat to Boa Island in Lough Erne when they are reinforced with 100 more Specials.

A section of anti-Treaty army men is sent to a narrow isthmus of land called Waterfall which is in Donegal but stretches down to Lough Erne.  

Sir Basil Brooke mobilises all A and B Specials in Fermanagh and they attack Pettigo on June 1st, which is across the border in Co. Donegal, but they are repelled.  See Jun-04-22/3. 


Abbott (2000), pg 290; Lawlor (2011), pgs 286-287; Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 122-125; Parkinson (2020), pgs 196-197



Honoria Kelly from Sonnagh, near Charlestown, Co Mayo is killed after being fired on by her neighbour, Michael McIntyre (son of anti-Treaty Mayo County Councillor, John McIntyre) after they got into an argument over the Treaty.


Price (2012), pg 214



A Protestant woman, Minnie Boyd (38) dies from a back wound received in the Millfield area of Belfast.


Parkinson (2004), pg 266


Two Co. Antrim IRA men, Charlie McAllister from Waterfoot and Pat McVeigh from Tamlaght are shot dead on Tamlaght Brae by Crown Forces.

Lawlor (2011), pg 301


A loyalist woman from Co. Cork (A. Hodder) writes “when will the British Government realise that they are really dealing with savages and not ordinary normal human beings”.  See Jun-26-22/5.


McMahon (2008), pg 75


British present Irish delegation with detailed objections to their draft of the constitution and their belief that it was inconsistent with the Treaty.  See May-30 to 31-22/1.


Curran J M (1980), pgs 206-208


A police patrol comes under attack in McDonnell St. in the Falls Rd. area of Belfast and an Ulster Special Constable (S/Constable John Megarrity) is shot dead.  A Catholic invalid, Francis James Hughes (45) is shot in his bed in Lesson St following the killing of the Special.


Abbott (2000), pgs 290-291; Parkinson (2004), pg 261-263; McDermott (2001), pg 240


An RIC man (Constable Henry O'Brien) is shot near Cullingtree Rd, Belfast and dies of his wounds the next day. Also, Thomas Drumgoole was fatally shot by a police patrol in this area.

Abbott (2000), pg 291; Parkinson (2004), pgs 262-263; McDermott (2001), pg 240


Anti-Treaty Captain James Flannagan is killed at Gormanstown train station during an attempt to hold up two RIC men.

Hall (2019), pg 94


On the night of May 29th, there is a prolonged gun battle between anti-Treaty forces and the Specials in the Lifford-Strabane area on the Donegal/Tyrone border.

Also, around this time, Specials patrolling in an armoured car in the nearby village of Clady, Co. Tyrone are attacked and, according to Ó Duibhir, one Special Constable is killed.  However, Abbott does not mention this killing.

During this period, Protestant farmhouses in the Castlefin area of Co. Donegal are raided and some are commandeered.  Ó Duibhir says “Those identified as militant loyalists received notice to clear out and the vast majority moved to Castlederg in Co. Tyrone.” Ó Duibhir does not say how ‘militant loyalists’ were identified.



Ó Duibhir (2011), pg 116


The Cork Examiner publishes an interview with Rory O'Connor in which he states inter alia that Republicans controlled three-quarters of the arms, that an attack on the North was ready and that popular will should not be expressed through parliamentary channels.  This upsets the delicate army unity talks and Sean O’Hegarty protests to the Cork Examiner about O'Connor's claim to speak for the army.



May-30 to 31-22/1

Hugh Kennedy and British Lord Chief Justice Hewart meet to try to resolve differences on the constitution.  They do not succeed and when Hewart informs Lloyd George on the evening of May 31st, the latter sends a communication to Collins and Griffith asking them if they are going to honour the Treaty and specifically tells him that if the Irish delegation refuse to change the proposition (in their draft of the constitution) which excluded the Crown from the Irish Executive then this would mean a break in negotiations.  

See Jun-01-22/1


Curran J M (1980), pgs 208-209; Townshend (2014), pg 401


Pro-Treaty army officer, James McLoughlin, is accidently shot dead by a sentry as he approaches the Pearse-Connolly Hall in Gowel, Co. Leitrim.  (The Pearse-Connolly Hall had been built by Jim Gralton and his followers. It had been occupied by pro-Treaty soldiers in a dispute over land agitation.)


McGarty (2020), pg 114


At a meeting between Griffith and Collins and a number of British cabinet ministers (including Lloyd George and Chamberlain), the Irish side (especially Collins) denounce the violence against Catholics in Northern Ireland saying it is a pogrom aimed at the extermination of Northern Catholics and demanded an impartial inquiry into the killings and that the British impose martial law. 

Later, Lloyd George (at a British cabinet meeting) compared the Specials to Mussolini’s Fascisti and urged support for Collins demand for an enquiry in the disturbances in Belfast.


Curran J M (1980), pgs 195-196; Phoenix (1994), pg 225; Matthews (2004), pgs 79-80


Two Catholics, Mary McElroy (52) and her daughter Rose (29) are shot dead in a butcher shop on the Old Lodge Road in Belfast owned by Mary McElroy’s husband.  The assailants also looted the Catholic owned public house next door and tried to kill the owner.


Parkinson (2004), pg 259; Parkinson (2020), pg 157


Two Ulster Special Constables were shot by the small anti-Treaty IRA in Belfast in the Millfield area of Belfast and both (S/Constable Andrew Roulston and S/Constable William Campbell) later died of their wounds. 

This results in a large attack by Specials on Catholic areas of Belfast, especially Peter’s Place and Boyd St., which resulted in nine deaths (all Catholics except for a blind Protestant man who was lodging in a Catholic house) and over 80 Catholic families were left homeless in one night. 

More Detail


Abbott (2000), pg 291; Macardle (1999), pgs 728-729; Phoenix (1994), pg 225; Parkinson (2004), pg 258 & 261-264 & 283; McDermott (2001), pg 241; Abbott (2019), pg 374


Local Government Bill introduced into NI Parliament which proposes abolition of the proportional representation in local elections. 

The Bill re-introduces the first-past-the-post system and requires all local officials to take an oath of loyalty to the King of England and to the NI government.  The Bill passes all its stages by July 5th.

Little regard was given to the view of the nationalist minority that proportional representation was an important safeguard for them.  This Bill is also significant in how it could potentially affect the work of the Boundary Commission.  See Jun-28-22/8.


Phoenix (1994), pgs 243-244;  Matthews (2004), pgs 83-84


This was the date set for the official disbandment of the RIC (except in NI) but the process continues until August 31st.


Abbott (2000), pg 292 & 295


Frank Crummey, I/O 3rd Northern Division, IRA is arrested in Belfast.  A number of other IRA men captured in Belfast at this time leading to a decline in their on-going campaign in NI and demoralisation among the northern IRA and nationalists.


McDermott (2001), pg 250


In an agitated debate on whether the election pact between Collins and de Valera violated the Treaty, Churchill tells the British House of Commons (with Collins and Griffith in the Strangers' Gallery) that he had unreserved good faith in their sincerity and that the two leaders were doing their best to carry out the Treaty. 

More Detail


Hopkinson (1988), pg 107; Macardle (1999), pgs 715- 716; Curran J M (1980), pgs 196-197


Catherine McAnaney, a Cumman na mBan dispatch rider from Derry city, is accidently shot dead by an IRA sentry as his gun goes off when she approaches his post at Burnfoot on the Derry/Donegal border.


Grant (2018),pg 139


By end of May, 227 people killed in Six Counties since beginning of year – 87 Protestants and 150 Catholics.  75 people (including 42 Catholics) killed in Belfast during May. The first 18 days of June were to add another 27 (6 Protestants and 21 Catholics).  Many Catholic refugees from Belfast go south of the border.


Macardle (1999), pg 729; Phoenix (1994), pg 219


A raid by Crown Forces on a house in Belfast found a full list of IRA officers in the city. It also found documents proving the involvement of southern leaders in the IRA in NI.


McMahon (2008), pg 151


After meeting three times, the Police Advisory Committee (set up under the Craig-Collins pact) dissolved without meeting its objectives.


Phoenix (1994), pg 222


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