March 1922

Mar

Large-scale arrests of anti-Treaty army men in Britain – in all 160 arrested and many deported to Ireland (including Art O’Brien).

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 255

Mar-01

Naas Barracks handed over to Colonel Commandant Sean Boylan and Brigadier Thomas Lawler. 

Durney (2011), pg 32

Mar-02

Arms from Bremerhaven, Germany landed from a schooner called the Hannah by anti-Treaty forces at Helvick Head, Co Waterford – they are used to arm anti-Treaty forces in Dublin.  The smuggling had been arranged by Robert Briscoe and Charlie McGuinness – both of whom had gone anti-Treaty.  See October 28th 1921 and November 10th 1921.

 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xix; Hopkinson (1988), pg 574; Macardle (1999), pg 673; McCarthy (2015), pg 100

Mar-02

An RIC man (Sgt John Cotter) is shot on St. Peter's Road, Phibsborough, Dublin and dies soon after from his wounds.

Abbott (2000), pgs 278-279

Mar-02

A civilian, Edward Reed, is shot dead by a British soldier outside a pub in Ship St, Dublin

Dorney (2017), pg 45

Mar-02

Dáil ratifies agreement reached at Sinn Féin Ard Fheis (see 21st February above).

Macardle (1999), pg 668

Mar-02

Kate O’Callaghan, introduces a bill in the Dáil aimed at giving the vote to all women on the same basis as men, i.e. all women over 21 years of age (and not only those over 30 who meet certain property criteria).  While Griffith believes in full female suffrage, he looked on O’Callaghan’s bill as a ploy to defeat the Treaty.  O’Callaghan’s bill is defeated by 47 votes to 38.  (Women under 30 do not get the vote until April 1923.)

O’Callaghan (2018), pg 105; Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 297; Price (2012), pg 203

Mar-02

The Freeman’s Journal mocks de Valera calling him a “so-called republican of the Royal Irish Republic of Documents 2 and 3”

Dorney (2017), pg 30

Mar-03

A police party leaving Tipperary town in a Crossley and another vehicle are attacked at Michael Street-Bank Place which results in the death of two RIC men (H/Constable Christopher Davis and Constable William Cummings).  It is later reported in the Irish Times that RIC men has been arrested and charged with aiding the IRA in this attack.

Constable Cummings was from Hampshire in England and have eighteen months’ service with the RIC.  H/Constable Davis was from Galway.

Abbott (2000), pg 279; Litton (1995), pg 42; Abbott (2019), pgs 356-357

Mar-03

A gunman approaches a Catholic, Owen Hughes, on a late night tram in Belfast and asks his religion then shoots Mr Hughes dead.

Parkinson (2004), pg 247

Mar-03

Max Green, head of the Irish Prisons Board, shot dead on Molesworth St., Dublin as he tries to prevent an armed robbery.

Dorney (2017), pg 46

Mar-03

A pro-Treaty outpost of about 250 men is set up in Listowel, Co. Kerry under Tom Kennelly – it is well equipped by GHQ. See July 29th.

Doyle (2008), pgs 82-83

Mar-04

Gunmen enter the house of ex-RIC Sergeant John O’Dowd and try to kill him.  Instead they kill his wife as she tries to defend him.

Price (2012), pg 203

Mar-05

Limerick Stand-Off.  As the Commandant of the Mid-Limerick Brigade, Liam Forde, had earlier (18th February) repudiated the authority of GHQ.  On this date, GHQ orders Michael Brennan, Commandant of the 1st Western Division (and pro-Treaty) into Limerick (not in his divisional area) to take over barracks from the evacuating British.  This led to a standoff, especially when the Divisional Commandant for the 2nd Southern Division, Ernie O'Malley, sent troops into Limerick.  Eventually, Liam Lynch (Commandant 1st Southern Division) and Oscar Traynor (Commandant Dublin Brigade) sorted out a compromise around the 12th/13th March.  More detail

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 206; Hopkinson (1988), pgs 63-65; Macardle (1999), pgs 674-675; O’Callaghan (2018), pgs 104-105; Corbett (2008), pgs 76-

Mar-05

Collins said the following (quoted from the Irish Independent of the 6th): “War, though necessary and noble for necessary and noble ends, has terrible effects incidental to it, not only material ruin, but moral effects when prolonged unrighteously, a tendency to lose balance and judgment, to forget and misinterpret the real object of the national struggle, to grow to believe that strife, even fratricidal strife, is noble in itself.  Such things must cease as soon as freedom is secured or the nation will perish”

Curran J M (1980), pgs 175-176

Mar-05

A Protestant, James Martin (37), is shot dead in the nationalist Albert St area of Belfast.

Parkinson (2004), pg 248

Mar-06

IRA man, Andrew Leonard (21), is shot in the neck near Townsend St in Belfast and later dies in hospital. (McDermott says March 13th).  Also, Catherine Lynch (51), shot dead in her home on the Falls Rd.  Another two Catholics, Thomas Heathwood and William Warder are shot dead by military patrols in the Wakk St and Hanover St areas respectively.  British army has gun battles with loyalist gunmen.

Parkinson (2004), pgs 248-249; McDermott (2001), pgs 182 & 185

Mar-06

The British Army barracks in Waterford is handed over to the IRA.  A party of 82 men under George Lennon take over the Infantry Barracks and a further 32 men take over the Artillery Barracks.

McCarthy (2015), pgs 97-98

Mar-06

An employee of the Congested Districts Board in Mayo, Patrick Cassidy, is shot by gunmen in Mayo – he is shot four times but survives.  He is moved to Galway Hospital.  See March 15th.

Price (2012), pg 203

Mar-07

Meeting in Belfast of Sinn Féin special advisory committee (set up at Ard Fheis the previous month).  They re-affirm policy of abstention and non-recognition of the NI parliament and government.   

Phoenix (1994), pg 188

Mar-07

John Roddy, a Protestant, is shot dead delivering papers in the Peters Hill area of Belfast.  Two other Protestants – John Morrison (23) and William Johnston (40) – are fatally wounded in the west of the city. Also, John Mullan, a Catholic teenager, is shot dead in the Upper Library St area by a Specials patrol.

Parkinson (2004), pg 241 & 249

Mar-07

Advertisement appears in the Irish Independent announcing the formation of a new police force called ‘An Garda Síochána’ or ‘Civic Guard’.  Soon recruiting advertisements would appear in the provincial press.  First commissioner was to be Michael Staines TD.  See April 15th.

Durney (2011), pg 45

Mar-08

In Belfast, 50-year-old Joseph Duffy was shot dead on York St.  Also, Robert Hazzard (24), a member of the Orange Order is shot by the military for allegedly sniping from a rooftop in York St.

Parkinson (2004), pg 240 & 250

Mar-08

A delegation from the Expelled Workers Committee goes to Dublin from Belfast to ask the Provisional Government to re-impose the Belfast Boycott.

McDermott (2001), pg 177

Mar-08

Making his last contribution in Westminster, Capt William Redmond unreservedly recommends the Treaty.

McCarthy (2015), pg 96

Mar-08

The constitution committee presents three different drafts of the constitution to Collins drawn up by three different groups within the committee.  When Collins went to London on May 26th, he brought with him what was (with some amendments) the draft drawn up by Douglas, France and Kennedy.  (Curran gives a detailed summary of this document.)

Curran J M (1980), pgs 201-204; Townshend (2014), pg 400

Mar-09

Two RIC men were attacked in Hanover St., Cork and one is killed (Constable Dudley O'Sullivan). 

Also, a Catholic blind man, Patrick Morgan, is fatally wounded.  He is outside when a gunfight started in the Carrick Hill area of Belfast.  Also, in the same area, a Catholic ex-soldier, Benedict Leith, is shot in the head and later dies.    A young Catholic boy, Terence Murphy (2) is shot in the leg when sniping breaks out in North Thomas St area of Belfast and he dies two days later.

Abbott (2000), pg 280; Parkinson (2004), pg 242 & 243

Mar-10

Two RIC men (Constable James Cullen (23) and Constable Patrick O'Connor (35)) were attacked at the corner of Dunlewey St and the Falls Rd. in Belfast resulting in the death of both.  McDermott says that this was the start of more aggressive opposition of the Northern IRA to the NI Government. 

Also, a Protestant woman, Sarah Keys (27) is fatally wounded as she crosses Annadale St. in the New Lodge Rd area.  Two other Protestants – Herbert Woods (21) and Joseph Thompson - are shot dead in Belfast on this day.

Abbott (2000), pg 280;  Parkinson (2004), pg 241 & 249; McDermott (2001), pg 182

Mar-10

Lieutenant E. Bruce of the Seaforth Highlanders is killed in Alfred St. in Belfast.  Parkinson says he was killed by the IRA while McDermott says it is unclear whether he was killed by republicans or loyalists.

Parkinson (2004), pg 244; McDermott (2001), pg 183

Mar-11

In disturbances following Robert Hazzard’s funeral in the Whitehouse area of Belfast, Hugh McAnaney (a Catholic) is shot dead.  Also, a pregnant Catholic and mother of three children, Catherine Neeson (27) was shot by loyalist gunmen – she dies later after giving birth to her child.

Parkinson (2004), pg 240 & 243

Mar-11

The RIC barracks in Waterford City are handed over to the IRA.

McCarthy (2015), pg 98

Mar-12?

A Protestant ex-soldier, William Allen, from Sackville St., Belfast is shot and dies later in hospital.

Parkinson (2004), pg 244

Mar-12

Parkinson says that Charles Vokes, a Protestant and a member of the Special Constabulary, was shot and fatally wounded by the army in Belfast after he tried to escape from them following his arrest. (Abbott says he was shot accidentally by the military.)

Parkinson (2004), pg 249; Abbott (2000), pg 320

Mar-13

RIC Sgt Christopher Clarke is shot dead on the Falls Rd., Belfast while returning from the funerals of Constables Cullen and O'Connor – see March 10th.  (It is alleged that Clarke was a member of the Nixon gang – see April 23rd 1921 and March 23rd 1922) The RIC returned fire and in the crossfire Daniel Rogan, a passer-by, is fatally wounded. 

A bomb is thrown at a group in Foundry St, Belfast injuring 14.

Abbott (2000), pg 280; Parkinson (2004), pg 244; McDermott (2001), pg 185; Lawlor (2009), pg 183

Mar-13

Slum residents, led by William James Larkin of the Limerick City Workers’ Housing Association, move into houses in Garryowen Villas which had previously housed families of the British Army’s Royal Engineers Corps (who were evacuating the city). Forty adults and 87 children moved into 27 houses. 

O’Callaghan (2018), pgs 103-104

Mar-13

Belfast Catholic businessman, JP O’Kane says that nationalists in Belfast should recognise the NI Government as a way of putting an end to the “present campaign of persecution”.

McDermott (2001), pg 184

Mar-13

NI government passes Civil Authorities (Special Powers) Act – ratified in April - see April 7th.  (McDermott says Dawson Bates introduced the bill into the NI Parliament on the 21st March and McCluskey says March 15th.)

Hopkinson (1988), pg 81; Phoenix (1994), pg 194; Parkinson (2004), pg 203; McDermott (2001), pg 184 & 191; McCluskey (2014), pg 127

Mar-14

Local anti-Treaty IRA men attempt to disrupt a meeting being addressed by Collins in Cork.  Meetings he held in Durgarvan and Castlebar were similarly disrupted.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 76

Mar-14

Churchill writes to Collins and says “You seem to have liquidated the Limerick situation in one way or another.  No doubt you know your own business best, and thank God you have got to manage it and not me.  An adverse decision by the convention of the Irish Republican Army (so called) would, however, be a very grave event at the present juncture.  I presume you are quite sure there is no danger of this”

Curran J M (1980), pg 171

Mar-14

A Catholic child, Mary Wilson (4) is shot dead by a sniper as she sat on the doorstep of her Norfolk St home in Belfast.

Parkinson (2004), pg 243

Mar-15

Dáil cabinet decides to prohibit Army Convention due to take place on 26th March.  However, anti-Treaty officers decide to go ahead with Convention. More Detail

 

See March 20th

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 216; Hopkinson (1988), pg 66; Macardle (1999), pgs 676-677; Curran J M (1980), pg 171;  Neeson (1989), pg 95; Townshend (2014), pg3 291-392

Mar-15

Two ex-RIC men (Sgt Tobias Gibbons and Sgt John Gilmartin) are shot dead in their hospital beds in St Bridgid's (or Brides) Home, Galway and another constable wounded. Another man, a civilian, Patrick Cassidy was also killed in Galway Hospital.

Abbott (2000), pg 281; Hart (1998), pg 114; McNamara (2018), pg 175; Price (2012), pgs 203-4

Mar-15

Eamonn de Valera announces the formation of a new political party called Cumann na Poblachta.  (Macardle says that it was formed in late January and Curran says early March.)

Next day, he makes a speech in Dungarvan, (guarded by armed member of the Waterford Brigade of the IRA) in which he said that acceptance of the Treaty meant that freedom could only be won by civil war and if they did not fight today they must fight tomorrow.

On the 17th March, (Townshend says 14th March) in Carrick-on-Suir, he told an audience that included 700 IRA men that if the Treaty was accepted “the fight for freedom would still go on; and the Irish people, instead of fighting foreign soldiers, would have to fight the Irish soldiers of an Irish Government set up by Irishmen.  If the Treaty was not rejected, perhaps it was over the bodies of the young men he saw around him that day that the fight for Irish freedom may be fought”. 

On the 17th March in Thurles he said “"If they accepted the Treaty … the Volunteers … would have to wade through Irish blood, through the blood of the soldiers of the Irish Government and through, perhaps, the blood of some of the members of the Government in order to get Irish freedom”.  

On the 19th (Townshend says 18th), he said in a speech in Killarney that the Republic must exist because “Men and women were shot for helping the enemy, and there were be no justification for the shooting of these if the Republic did not exist”.  He continued, again in front of IRA units, "if we continue on that movement which was begun when the Volunteers were started, and we suppose this Treaty is ratified by your votes, then these men, in order to achieve freedom, will have … to march over the dead bodies of their own brothers.  They will have to wade through Irish blood."  In this speech, he also says that “the people had never a right to do wrong”. 

These speeches are castigated by many as highly irresponsible and an incitement to civil war and were the cause for many people laying the blame for the subsequent civil war on de Valera’s shoulders.  De Valera attempted to say that his speeches were not incitements but warnings.  However, Keogh says that de Valera’s attempt to refute interpretations of his words were not very convincing. Keogh also says that, at this time, de Valera was under “great personal strain and may have suffered what is known today as a nervous breakdown”. 

Litton (1995), pg 43; Hopkinson (1988), pg 71; Macardle (1999), pg 657; Curran J M (1980), pg 173; McCarthy (2015), pg 100-101; Townshend (2014), pg 361; Keogh (2005), pg 6

Mar-15

In Belfast, a 24-year-old Catholic, Patrick Rooney is shot dead in the York St area.

Parkinson (2004), pg 240

Mar-16

A bomb is lobbed from the Newtonards Rd into Seaforde St in Belfast injuring five people and one of them, John Kearney – a Catholic – dies later in hospital.  Also, John Taylor (52) – a Protestant – is shot by the security forces in the west of the city.  Around this time another Protestant, William Johnson (27) was shot by the British army for allegedly sniping from his Louisa St. home. Four bombs were thrown around this time in Belfast, three in the Short Strand.

Parkinson (2004), pg 247 & 249; McDermott (2001), pg 186

Mar-16

Dawson Bates declares in the NI parliament that “we are at war” with the IRA. (McDermott says 15th March.)

Phoenix (1994), pg 194; McDermott (2001), pg 186

Mar-16

Seven pro-Treaty soldiers are arrested by the RIC and Specials in Cosquin, just across the Donegal-Derry border in Derry.  They are held for several months but are released in September after they recognise the Northern Courts.

Gallagher (2003), pg 38

Mar-16

William Kane (50), a Catholic milkman, is shot dead on the Newtownards Rd. in Belfast.

Parkinson (2004), pg 240

Mar-16

A convention is held in Kilkenny Military Barracks with representatives of all nine battalions and 62 companies that make up the Kilkenny Brigade of the IRA.  Speeches are made both pro- and anti- the Treaty but no vote is taken.

Walsh (2018), pg 160

Mar-17

A Special Constable (S/Con Alexandra Fitzpatrick) is shot and fatally wounded at Moyola Bridge, Upperlands, Co. Londonderry.

Abbott (2000), pgs 281-282

Mar-17

A Protestant farmer is shot dead as he feeds his cattle on the Tyrone-Monaghan border.

Dooley (2000), pg 45

Mar-18

Specials commandeer St Mary’s Hall in Belfast which housed the IRA Liaison Office.  More Detail

Phoenix (1994), pg 195; Parkinson (2004), pgs 217-218 & 241; McDermott (2001), pgs 187-188; Ozseker (2019), pg 164  

Mar-18

Meeting of the Supreme Council of IRB along with division and county centres meet in 41 Parnell Sq.  No resolution but strong sentiment still in favour of unity.  (O’Donoghue points out that this group had no official standing in the constitution of the IRB.)  See April 19th.

O'Donoghue (1986), pg 233; Townshend (2014), pg 369

Mar-18

A bomb is thrown into the home of Belfast Catholics, Mary Mullan (40) and Rose McGreevy – both later die from the injuries received. Also, Augustus Orange (24), a Catholic, is shot in the Woodstock area and dies the next day. Also, a Protestant, James Harkness (32) was shot dead by a sniper on the Newtownards Rd. 

Parkinson (2004), pg 242 & 251

Mar-19

The IRA attack the RIC barracks in Maghera, Co. Londonderry and make away with a substantial quantity of arms.  A party of IRA were destroying Moyola bridge between Maghera and Upperlands (to prevent USC reinforcements from Magherafelt from chasing them) when a Special Constable comes along – he is shot dead.  (This Special Constable is presumably Alexandra Fitzpatrick – see March 17th above.)

Grant (2018), pg3 132-133; Ozseker (2019), pg 165

Mar-19

Henry Garvey (25), a Protestant, is shot dead the North Howard St in Belfast. Also, a bomb planted on an Antrim Rd tram by the IRA kills Alexander Devaney (35), a Protestant, and injures many passengers.  (McDermott says 18th.) Later, gunmen call to the home of Margaret Murphy in Campbell St and kill her when they discover that their intended target, her husband, is not home.  (Mrs Murphy was a Protestant married to a Catholic.)

Parkinson (2004), pg 241 & 250; McDermott (2001), pg 189

Mar-19

With the help of a sympathetic constable, the IRA raid Pomeroy RIC barracks in Co. Tyrone.  The tie up the RIC men in the barracks and remove the weapons.  Charlie Daly deemed this “a very successful job”.

McCluskey (2014), pg 120

Mar-20

Mulcahy meets with leaders of the 1st Southern Division IRA in Mallow and agrees that a council should be set to discuss how the IRA could be associated with the "Government elected by the Irish people.".  However, 1st Southern Division demands that recruiting to the Civic Guard should be stopped.  The Dáil cabinet rejects this and the Republican Military Council decide to go ahead with the Army Convention on the 26th March – see also 23th March.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 67; Ó Duibhir (2011), pg 81; Townshend (2014), pg 392

Mar-20

James Magee, a Catholic, is killed by a loyalist gunman in the Earl St area of Belfast.  Also, James Hillis (23), a Catholic, is beaten by a mob before being shot. 

Parkinson (2004), pg 241 & 250

Mar-20

Special Constable Foster MacGeagh dies after being shot accidentally in the Antrim Road RIC Barracks in Belfast

Abbott (2019), pgs 409

Mar-21

Sir Henry Wilson submits his report on future security to the NI government. He urges further expansion of the USC especially the ‘C’ Specials.

McDermott (2001), pg 191

Mar-21

In the House of Commons, Churchill is asked if he not think it “extremely undesirable that a Government that is not a Republican Government should utilize forces which describe themselves as Republican”.  Churchill replied that “I think in all the difficult circumstances prevailing in Ireland, the Provisional Government are doing their best”

Macardle (1999), pg 672

Mar-21

A Special Constable (S/Con Samuel Laird) is fatally wounded during an attack by the Dromore IRA on the home of his employer (John Allinghamm the local B Specials Commander) at Glengeen Lodge, Trillick, Co. Tyrone. The homes of four other members of the USC are burnt.

Abbott (2000), pg 282; McCluskey (2014), pg 120

 

Mar-21

Kilbride Camp in Wicklow taken over anti-Treaty men from South Dublin Brigade under Pat O’Carroll.  He goes to Beggar’s Bush barracks to get arms for his men but he is refused.  However, South Dublin Brigade O/C Andy McDonnell arrives and they take arms and equipment without permission and bring them back to Kilbride.

Durney (2011), pgs 62-63

Mar-22

A Special Constable (S/Con George Chittick) is shot dead when his home is attacked by the IRA at Carrs Mountain, Trillick, Co. Tyrone.  In retaliation for this killing and the one the previous day, a loyalist group (reputed to include ‘B’ Specials) kill three Catholics in the area on the 24th.  They were Edward McLaughlin, Francis Kelly and William Kelly – all three are from Trillick.  (McCluskey says that the three men were killed by the USC and states that it was part of an on-going state of terror imposed by the USC which lasted until June.  This included the abduction of T.J. Gallagher.) 

Abbott (2000), pg 282; Phoenix (1994), pg 195; McCluskey (2014), pg 120

Mar-22

A Protestant ex-soldier, William Hunter, is shot dead in Fountain St. North in Belfast.

Parkinson (2004), pg 244

Mar-22

Rory O'Connor holds, what was to become an infamous, press conference in the HQ of the Cumann na Poblachta in Suffolk St.   More Detail

Hopkinson (1988), pg 67; Macardle (1999), pg 678; Curran J M (1980), pg 172; Nesson (1989), pg 95; Doyle (2008), pgs-84-85; Townshend (2014), pgs 396-397

Mar 22/23

Reacting to criticisms of his speeches, de Valera and his supporters say in the Irish Independent and The Republic of Ireland that his speeches were not incitements but responsible and fair warnings.

Curran J M (1980), pg 174

Mar-23

In a letter to Eoin O'Duffy (Chief-of-Staff), Richard Mulcahy (Minister of Defence) orders the suspension of any officer or man who takes part in the "sectional" Convention (but says to try and avoid antagonism).  See March 26th

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 217

Mar-23

Two Special Constables (S/Constable William Chermside or Cairnside and S/Constable Thomas Cunningham) are shot in May St., Belfast and later die from their wounds. 

Later in the evening, two Catholics, Peter Murphy (61) and Sarah McShane (15), are shot dead in the Short Strand.  A Protestant, John Murdock, is shot dead at his work on the Falls Rd.

Abbott (2000), pg 282; Parkinson (2004), pg 229 & 240

Mar-23

In what is taken as a retaliation for the killing of the two Special Constables and perhaps the killing of Sgt Christy Clarke, the McMahon family home in Belfast is raided by five men and six members of the McMahon household - father Owen McMahon (50), four of his sons and one of his pub managers called Edward McKinney - are shot with all receiving fatal injuries.    More Detail  

Litton (1995), pgs 51-52; Phoenix (1994), pg 195; Parkinson (2004), pgs 229-239; McDermott (2001), pg 193-195; Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 79-81

Mar-24

Churchill asks Craig and Collins to come to London to discuss the situation in the north-east because of the recent murders in Belfast.

Phoenix (1994), pgs 196-197

Mar-24

James Corr (70), a Catholic, is fatally wounded a he delivers coal in the Newtownards Rd area of Belfast. William Campbell, a Protestant, is killed by a sniper in the New Lodge Rd area and Patrick Fitzsimons (20), a Catholic, dies of his wounds in the Mater Hospital having been shot the previous day.  Also, John Bell (26), a Protestant, is shot on the Ravenhill Rd and dies two days later.

Parkinson (2004), pg 241 & 250

Mar-25

The Provisional Government of Ireland Committee of the British Cabinet concludes that the "present situation would rapidly lead to further outrages and then to civil war unless the British Government intervened".

 

Mar-25

In Belfast, John Dempster (20), a Catholic, is shot and dies from his wounds five days later.

Parkinson (2004), pg 250

Mar-25

The old RIC barracks in Newtowncunningham in Co. Donegal, which had a pro-Treaty garrison, comes under attack.  It is not known whether the attackers were Specials who had crossed the border or anti-Treaty troops.  The barracks is subsequently evacuated and taken over by anti-Treaty troops.

Ó Duibhir (2011), pg 79

Mar-26

A group of Catholic businessmen in Belfast draw up – in consultation with Craig and Bishop MacRory – a set of proposals aimed at calming the situation.  These proposals were to become the basis of the 2nd Craig-Collins pact on the 30th March.

Phoenix (1994), pg 197

Mar-26

IRA Convention of (pre-dominantly) Anti-Treaty delegates meets in Mansion House, Dublin with 223 delegates present (Macardle says 220 & Neeson says 211).   They claim that delegates represent about 80% of the Army.  More Detail 

 

See March 28th 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 219; Hopkinson (1988), pg 68; Neeson (1989), pgs 95-96; Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 83-84; Townshend (2014), pg 392

Mar-26

Reported in Dáil that there had been 331 raids on post offices between 23 March and 19 April; also 319 attacks on Great Southern and Western Railways between 1 March and 22 April.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 90

Mar-26

In a speech seen as a reply to de Valera’s speeches in mid-March (see above), before a large crowd on the Mall in Waterford City, Michael Collins says that de Valera “can give you anarchy – a full measure of that anarchy of which his tactics have already given you an unpleasant sample.  He cannot give you a Republic.  Mr de Valera is no more able to give you a republic now than he was last July when he accepted the Truce”. 

McCarthy (2015), pg 101

Mar-26

Ex-RIC man (Con Patrick Poland) is seriously wounded near Patrick's Bridge in Cork.

Abbott (2000), pg 293

Mar-26

Order issued by O/C 2nd Northern Division IRA (Tom Morris) directing that the property of ‘prominent loyalists’ should be destroyed and that reprisals should be carried out six fold to prevent them from continuing in the same vein.  Two nights later a flax mill in Tobermore, Co. Londonderry owned by the local Head Constable of the USC is subjected to an arson attack – see 4th April.

Grant (2018), pg 133

Mar-26

A Protestant, John McGarry, is ‘accidentally’ shot in Earl St in Belfast.  Also, a Catholic woman, Maggie Savage (21) is shot dead by a stray bullet as she sat in her home in Lepper St area during a gunfight between the IRA and police. Two other Catholics, James Magee and James Neeson were shot dead by the army during disturbances in Raglan St.  In a subsequent raid on a house on Raglan St., the police captured 5 IRA men – Thomas and Ernst Flynn, John Simpson, Joseph Savage and Patrick McCarragher.  Two Catholics – Hugh McNally and Thomas Mullen – and two Protestants – William Steele and Ellen Greer die in uncertain circumstances around this time.  Also, a Protestant – Harry Brennan (19) – died of gunshot wounds to the head sustained on Grosvenor Rd. 

Parkinson (2004), pg 242 & 249 & 347; McDermott (2001), pg 195

Mar-27

The Irish Independent carries comments from Collins on de Valera’s speeches.  He says that a leader has to be mindful of his words and says “while it was perfectly justifiable for any body of Irishmen, no matter how small, to rise up and make a stand against their country’s enemy, it is not justifiable for a minority to oppose the wishes of the majority of their own countrymen, except by constitutional means.”  (This comment  hints to the difficulties that the Easter Rising legacy gave to the pro-Treatyites.)

Curran J M (1980), pg 175

Mar-27

As an indication of how febrile the atmosphere is in Dublin, pro-Treaty Army officers (including Sean MacMahon and Vinny Byrne) drive around the city to each army post and addressed the men in each post in an effort to ensure their loyalty.  At the Bank of Ireland post in College Green, Byrne threatened to shoot any man who left his post.  Of the 50 men in the post, only six stayed loyal to the pro-Treaty GHQ – the rest were discharged.

Dorney (2017), pg 38

Mar-27

A circular is sent to all RIC barracks saying that disbandment of the RIC is to commence immediately (except in the Six Counties) and is to be completed by May 31st 1922.  (A clarifying circular is sent two days later.)

Abbott (2000), pg 292; Abbott (2019), pgs 374-376

Mar-27

Ex-RIC man (Sgt Arthur Gloster) was shot dead in Barrack's St., Cork

Abbott (2000), pg 293

Mar-27

Robert Simpson, Chair of the Ulster Protestant Association (UPA) is arrested in the Beersbrigde area of Belfast.  More Detail

Parkinson (2004), pg 280

Mar-27/28

The RIC barracks in Buncrana in Co. Donegal is taken over by pro-Treaty forces under Commandant Joseph McLaughlin.  There were loud cheers from the assembled crowd when the tricolour was flown from one of the upper windows.  The next day the two RIC barracks in Letterkenny are taken over pro-Treaty troops under Tom Glennon and the same day the two barracks in Lifford and Raphoe are taken over, also by pro-Treaty forces.

The RIC barracks in Carndonagh, Moville and Muff were taken over by anti-Treaty forces under the direction of Peadar O’Donnell.  Anti-Treaty forces also hold the RIC barracks in Ballyshannon and Finner Camp. 

Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 86-87

Mar-28

A meeting of the anti-Treaty TDs, there are calls for a suspension of political meetings by both parties “so that attention … might be concentrated on the intolerable situation in Belfast”

Macardle (1999), pg 683

Mar-28

Executive of anti-Treaty forces issues statement saying that Minister of Defence and his Chief-of-Staff no longer exercised any control over the Army and that recruitment to the Provisional Government’s military and police forces should be stopped.  It also says that all IRA units were to reaffirm allegiance to the Republic on April 2nd.

See March 29th and April 9th 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 221; Curran J M (1980), pg 172; Neeson (1989), pg 96; Ó Duibhir (2011), pg 84

Mar-29

Executive of anti-Treaty forces orders destruction of the Freeman's Journal printing presses following what it took as misleading reports of Convention in that paper.  (Rory O'Connor leads IRA party in destruction of Freeman’s Journal presses.) Also orders battalion parades for Sunday 2nd April.  In a statement giving background to Convention, they say that they were stalled by the pro-Treaty side with the intention of gaining "time to establish a paid, uniformed, and equipped force to the nucleus of a Free Sate Army"

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 221 and pg 337; Macardle (1999), pg 679; Neeson (1989), pg 96

Mar-29

An eight-man police patrol is ambushed at Ballincarrig Bridge, Cullaville, Co. Armagh and results in the death of RIC Sgt Patrick Early and S/Con James Harper.  IRA is probably led by Frank Aiken and a captured S/Constable is released,

Abbott (2000), pg 283; Lawlor (2011), pg 256; Harnden (2000), pgs 133-134

Mar-29

Forces under Sean O'Hegarty - Commandant Cork No. 1 Brigade - capture British ship Upnor which had a cargo of military supplies which it was bringing back to England and land them at Ballycotton pier.  More Detail 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 225-6; Hart (1998), pg 116; Hopkinson (1988), pg 74; Macardle (1999), pg 679; Curran J M (1980), pg 173; Neeson (1989), pgs 97-101

Mar-29

In Belfast, IRA assassinate Samuel Mullan (20) alleging that he is an informer.  Also, around this time a Catholic teenager – John Sweeney – is shot dead by a sniper in Carrick Hill.

Parkinson (2004), pg 249

Mar-29

After attending the anti-Treaty convention on the 26th, Martin Fallon, O/C of the North Roscommon Brigade, met with some pro-Treaty officers and, along with his brigade staff decided to change sides.  3rd Western Division anti-Treaty volunteers took over the military barracks in Boyle.  

Farry (2012), pg 93

Mar-29

The two main RIC barracks in Dundalk (Anne St and Bridge St) were evacuated and occupied by IRA companies.

Gavin and O’Donnell (1999), pg 30

Mar-29& 30

Second Craig-Collins Pact.  British government brought representatives of the NI and Provisional governments together in London on March 29th and 30th.  Leads to the Second Craig-Collins Pact.  More Detail 

 

 

Augusteijn (2002), pg 234; Litton (1995), pg 52; Hopkinson (1988), pgs 82- 83; Macardle (1999), pgs 683-684; Curran J M (1980), pg 177; Phoenix (1994), pgs 198-200; Parkinson (2004), pgs 201-203; McDermott (2001), pgs 196-197

Mar-31

Sectarian bomb attack on the Donnelly home -  a Protestant family – on Brown St in Belfast.  One child Francis (2) dies instantly and two other children badly wounded – one of whom Joseph (12) later dies in hospital. 

   

Phoenix (1994), pg 201; Parkinson (2004), pg 248; McDermott (2001), pg 200

Mar-31

Advertisements appear in the papers for the Royal Ulster Constabulary.

McDermott (2001), pg 198

Mar-31

A Special Constable (S/Con David Allen) was killed when a patrol was attacked in John Mitchel Place in Newry, Co. Down

Abbott (2000), pg 283; Lawlor (2011), pg 256

Mar-31

Two Special Constables in plains cloths were attacked on Short Strand, Belfast resulting in the death of one (S/Con Thomas Hall). 

In retaliation, a Catholic area of Belfast (Stanhope St. and Arnon St.) is raided by the police which results in four deaths (an old man, a sailor home on leave, a man named Walsh and his 7-year old son).  Phoenix says five Catholics are killed.  This atrocity became known as the ‘Arnon St Affair’ and police involvement in the murders was strongly suspected.   More Detail

Abbott (2000), pg 284; Phoenix (1994), pg 201; Litton (1995), pg 52; Hopkinson (1988), pg 704; Parkinson (2004), pgs 245-247 & 250; McDermott (2001), pgs 201-203

Mar-31

A USC patrol ambushes an IRA unit which was destroying a bridge at Dunamore, Co. Tyrone.  One IRA volunteer, Frank Ward, is killed.

McCluskey (2014), pg 121

Mar-31

Anti-Treaty men take £239 in raids on two post-offices in Kilkenny City

Walsh (2018), pg 154

Mar-31

The Irish Free State (Agreement) Bill receives royal assent.  It had passed in the House of Commons on the 8th March (by a majority of 243) and passed the House of Lords without a division.

Macardle (1999), pg 689; Hopkinson (1988), pg 54

Mar

Sir Henry Wilson becomes security advisor to the Northern Government. 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 81; Phoenix (1994), pg 194; Parkinson (2004), pg 203

End-March

Also, around this time, Francis Flynn (81) was mortally wounded when a bomb was thrown into her home in Unity St., Belfast.

Parkinson (2004), pg 243

End-March

RIC withdrawn from 19 of the 26 counties and concentrated in one or two centres in each of the remaining seven counties.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 91

Mar

Anti-Treaty forces kill two people in Co. Longford.  The first was a pro-Treaty soldier called Fitzgerald from Mohill, Co. Leitrim who was shot in Duignan’s bar in Ballinamuck.  The second was an elderly woman called Mrs Fitzpatrick who they shot in mistake for her son (who was a pro-Treaty soldier). 

Coleman (2003), pg 145

Mar

Phoenix says 60 people die in a ‘crescendo of murder, bombing, rioting, and general anarchy’ in Belfast during March.  McDermott says that 37 Catholics and 25 Protestants had been killed in Belfast during March. 

Phoenix (1994), pg 191; McDermott (2001), pg 191

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