July 1922

 

Jul 1-5

Fighting in Dublin.  Pro-Treaty forces clear anti-Treaty troops from a number of buildings in the centre of Dublin.   More Detail

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxii; Hopkinson (1988), pg 124; Curran J M (1980), pg 236; Macardle (1999), pgs 753-754; Brennan (1950), pg 344; Dorney (2017), pgs 89-98

Jul-01

Only two posts in south Munster in Pro-Treaty hands are Skibbereen and Listowel and these are attacked.  Listowel surrenders on the 1st and Skibbereen on the 4th.

 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 261

Jul-01

Anti-Treaty forces from North and East Mayo join with South Sligo men, led by Frank Carty, and successfully attack a pro-Treaty post at Market House in Colloney

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 158

Jul.-01

Collins informs cabinet that he has declared himself Commander-in-Chief of the National Army.

Dorney (2017), pg 70

Jul-02

Anti-Treaty forces attack the pro-Treaty post in the workhouse in Boyle, Co. Roscommon (resulting in the death of Michael Dockery, O/C of the pro-Treaty forces).  The fighting lasts three days until Sean Mac Eoin arrives with re-inforcements and an 18-pound gun.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pgs 158-159

Jul-02

After escaping from the Four Courts, Ernie O’Malley regroups with a number of other anti-Treatyites around Blessington, south of Dublin. They link up with 110 strong column from Tipperary led by Mick Sheehan bringing their strength to about 150 men.  The plan was to move on Dublin but, due to a mix-up between O’Malley and Traynor in Dublin, this move did not happen. 

Dorney (2017), pg 108

Jul-03

Permission given by Provisional Government for the raising of 20,000 men to serve in Pro-Treaty Army for six months.  A Call to Arms issued on the 6th July. 

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 136; Macardle (1999), pg 766

Jul-03

A civilian, Sarah Richardson, is killed by a stray bullet on Mark St, Dublin.

Dorney (2017), pg 90

Jul-04

Liam Lynch (on the anti-Treaty side) and Donncada Hannigan and Michael Brennan (on the Pro-Treaty side) agree to a truce in Limerick. (Curran says that Hannigan and Brennan did this so as to stall until additional arms arrived from Dublin but that this action made pro-Treaty GHQ suspicious of their loyalty.)

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 239

Jul-04

Frank Aiken, O/C 4th Northern Division, writes to Mulcahy saying he will stay neutral, calls for an end to the fighting and calls for the removal of the Oath from the Treaty because “you have the simple national abhorrence of swearing allegiance to a foreign king and allowing part of the Nation to be ruled by people who have a sworn loyalty to that king.”

 

Macardle (1999), pgs 761-762; Curran J M (1980), pg 240

Jul-04

Joseph Hurson (15), a Catholic from Unity St., Belfast, was shot in the head by a sniper and subsequently died in hospital.  (McDermott says June 23rd.) Later in the evening, James Mooney (70), a Protestant from Third St., was shot and dies a couple of days later.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 299; McDermott (2001), pg 259

Jul-04

Memos sent to the press by Provisional Government ordering them to not use the phrase Free State troops but rather National Forces.  Later, in October, more detailed orders given.  For example, anti-Treaty army to be referred to as Irregulars and not Republicans.

Dorney (2017), pgs 147-148

Jul-05

The last remaining anti-Treaty men holding out in O’Connell St. surrender- they are led by Cathal Brugha who is shot dead after refusing to surrender.  A large number of the anti-Treaty forces in O’Connell St (including leaders such as Traynor, de Valera, Barton, Art O’Connor, Stack) had slipped away in the previous days.  Large parts of O’Connell St and the Four Courts are in ruins – damage estimated at between 3 and 4 million pounds.

The Irish Independent states that “The Irish government was obliged to take action against the Irregulars who had defied, not British but Irish government”

 

Macardle (1999), pgs 753-754; Curran J M (1980), pg 236; Dorney (2017), pgs 96-97 & 103

Jul-05?

A young girl, Margaret Byrne, from Thomas Court, Dublin dies after her ‘face was blown away’ and William Byrne of Abbey St dies after being shot near his stomach.

Dorney (2017), pg 90

Jul-05

Two anti-Treaty volunteers (Laurence Sweeney and Sylvester Sheppard) are killed in fighting near Castledermot, Co. Kildare.

Dorney (2017), pg 108

Jul-05

11 IRA men arrested in a raid on St Peter’s Club in Sultan St in Belfast. A number of IRA reports also found.  A number of IRA men arrested and IRA weapons found in Belfast in this period.  Raids which netted IRA reports and documents gave further names which increased the number of IRA men interned.

 

McDermott (2001), pgs 260-262

Jul-06

Birkenhead says in the House of Commons “the situation is more hopeful than it has been at any moment since this Treaty was come to”.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 126; Macardle (1999), pg 757

Jul-06

Anti-Treaty IRA column of over a 100 men from South Tipperary under Mick Sheehan, which had taken over Blessington and were joined by men from the South Dublin Brigade and others fleeing from Dublin including Harry Boland and Ernie O’Malley – see Jul-02 above.  They were surrounded by the pro-Treaty forces and large numbers captured by the 8th July. Pro-Treaty army proceeds to retake anti-Treaty posts in south Dublin, west Wicklow, south Kildare and north Carlow.  Nearly 200 captured in Blessington, Brittas and Ballymore Eustace.  Two pro-Treaty soldiers were killed in this operation (Private Patrick Smith and Patrick Doyle) and four were wounded. 

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 142; Curran J M (1980), pg 239

Jul-06(?)

Two anti-Treaty volunteers killed outside Mary Willie’s pub in Urlingford.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 167

Jul-06

A 15-year old boy, William Saunderson, is shot dead by pro-Treaty troops outside Mountjoy Prison – they claim that he was signalling to prisoners inside the prison.

Dorney (2017), pg 98

Jul-07

Churchill writes to Collins expressing sympathy for his “terrible ordeal” but maintains that strong measures were essential – “resolution and courage was indispensable if Ireland were to be saved from anarchy and the treaty from destruction”

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 237; Dorney (2017), pg 103

Jul-07

Provisional Government issues a national call to arms.  The title 'National Army' is formalised.

 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxii; Curran J M (1980), pg 238

Jul-07

Despite attempts by Liam Lynch (on the Anti-Treaty side) and Donncada Hannigan and Michael Brennan (on the Pro-Treaty side) to avert clashes, fighting breaks out between the two sides in Limerick.  Hopkinson says that Hannigan (O/C 4th Southern and Brennan O/C 1st Western) agreed a truce with Lynch in Limerick on the 7th July (despite protests from Diarmaid MacManus who had been sent by O’Duffy to prevent any further peace talks).  Hopkinson says that the truce gave the provisional Government time to build up their forces and caused anti-Treaty forces in Cork and Kerry to become deeply disillusioned.

 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 265; Hopkinson (1988), pgs 147-149

Jul-07

Pro-Treaty forces take Galway

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 241

Jul-08

Frank Aiken travels to Limerick to meet Liam Lynch.  He told him that although he had moral right on his side, it was bad tactics.  However, he does not persuade him to cease.

 

Macardle (1999), pg 762

Jul-08

Emmet Dalton briefs Macready on military situation and requests further arms and ammunition.

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 237

Jul -08

A pro-Treaty soldier, Edward Couglan, is shot in an attack on Amiens St and dies a month later.

Dorney (2017), pg 98

Jul-08

A Protestant mob attacks Catholics living in Conway St., Belfast which results in several leaving their homes.  Another attempt to get Catholics to leave their homes the following evening is foiled by Specials based in the Falls Road library and evicted residents of Norfolk and Conway Streets are escorted back to their homes.  Later, a Protestant youth, Frank McAleer, is shot dead by police at his front door in the west of the City. 

 

Parkinson (2004), pgs 299-300

Jul-09

Liam Deasy (who took over as O/C of 1st Southern Division of anti-Treaty IRA from Liam Lynch) writes that “We are getting down to a systematic plan of defence.  At the moment, we are engaged in stretching that important line Waterford to Clonmel taking the River Suir as a line.”  However, Hopkinson claims that the anti-Treaty IRA’s famous Waterford-Limerick defensive line never really existed.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 129

Jul-09

Pro-Treaty army Sergeant John Byrne was killed by a revoler shot in an attack on his outpost on Harolds Cross bridge in Dublin. Also, Private Gerard O’Connor dies after an attack in Portobello in which two other pro-Treaty soldiers are wounded.

Dorney (2017), pg 98

Jul-09

Officers of the IRA Northern Divisions meet with Collins, Mulcahy and other members of the Beggar’s Bush staff and agree that their campaign in the North should cease.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 223; McDermott (2001), pg 264

Jul-10

Republican prisoners were been released on signing a pledge not to take up arms again against the Provisional Government who said that  “while it might be advisable to keep some of the leaders in custody for the present, no good purpose would be served by retaining large numbers of the rank and file, and that the public should be prepared by careful propaganda for an early general release”  However, as Civil War went on the need for more prison accommodation arose with Kilmainham being re-opened with Sean O Muirthile as governor.  Diarmaid O’Hegarty moved to being governor of MountjoyGormanstown and the Curragh were also opened.  There were a lot of protests from prisoners about conditions especially in Limerick jail.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 139

Jul-10

Sean Moylan leads a column of anti-Treaty men to New Ross.  After staying around for a few days, he leads them out of there again.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 144

Jul-11

Sean O’Hegarty tells Lynch “No other course was open to Griffith and Collins except to attack Rory O’Connor in the Four Courts”.  O’Hegarty and Florence O’Donoghue of Cork No. 1 Brigade remain neutral during the Civil War.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 131

Jul-11

Anti-Treaty Commandant Seamus Devins demands surrender of pro-Treaty forces in Sligo but pro-Treaty O/C Martin Fallon refuses.  Anti-Treaty forces do not attack.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 159

Jul-11

After 150 pro-Treaty troops arrive in Limerick, Brennan sends Lynch formal confirmation that the truce is over and fighting breaks out.  Neither side gains substantial advantage in the fighting.  (Curran does not mention the troops arriving but says that arms and ammunition arrive.)

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 149-150; Curran J M (1980), pg 239

Jul-11

Harry Little, a Protestant tram driver, goes to the aid of Catholic neighbours who are being evicted in Belfast and is himself shot dead.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg  300

Jul-12

Liam Lynch moves the Anti-Treaty army HQ to Clonmel.

 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 266

Jul-12

O’Malley informs Lynch that, after leaving Blessington, he had moved his column south and captured a number of towns including Enniscorthy. Padddy O’Brien (who had commanded the Four Courts garrison) is killed during the taking of Enniscorthy.

Dorney (2017), pgs 108-109

Jul-12

Large raid on train (by Anti-Treatyites?) at Churchill, Co. Donegal.

Gallagher (2003), pg 40

Jul-12

Pro-Treaty brigade staff in East Limerick (numbering 47) captured by Anti-Treaty forces.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 150

Jul-12

Even though there are disturbances in the early hours of the 12th, the big parades pass off peacefully in Belfast.

Parkinson (2004), pg 200

Jul-13

Provisional Government states that meeting of parliament due to take place on 15th is prorogued again.  Does not meet until September 9th.

Macardle (1999), pg 767; Curran J M (1980), pg 240

Jul-13

Provisional Government appoints a War Council with Michael Collins as Commander-in-Chief; Richard Mulcahy as Minister of Defence and Chief-of-Staff and Eoin O'Duffy as assistant Chief-of-Staff.  Hopkinson says that this War Council never met again. There is also a re-organisation of the pro-Treaty army and Provisional Goverment More Detail 

 O’Donoghue (1986), pg 266; Litton (1995) pg 82; Hopkinson (1988), pg 136 & 139; Curran J M (1980), pgs 239-240; Dorney (2017), pg 105

Jul-13

Writing from the Dublin mountains to Joe McGarrity in the States, Boland says “I am certain we cannot be defeated even if Collins and his British guns succeed in garrisoning every town in Ireland”.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 132

Jul-13

Kilmallock and Caherconlish (Limerick) taken by anti-Treaty forces.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 150

Jul-13

Pro-Treaty forces attacked at Rockwood, Co. Sligo where five are killed (including pro-Treaty Cmdt Sean Adare) and four wounded.  Anti-Treaty forces also capture the armoured car called the Ballinalee (which they re-name Lough Gill).  After this, Mac Eoin took a force of 400 and re-captured Colloney. (O’Farrell says 14th.)

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 159; O'Farrell P (1997), pg 141 & 142

Jul-13

Robert Boyd, a protestant, is crushed by a Crossley tender during minor disturbances in the Newtownards Rd. area of Belfast and dies a few days later.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 301

Jul-14

Aiken meets with his officers of 4th Northern Division and they agree that unless the Provisional Government withdraws the Oath for admission to Parliament then they would give them no support – moral or material. He then went to Dublin to talk to Mulcahy.

 

Macardle (1999), pg762; Curran J M (1980), pg 241

Jul-14

Cabinet of Dáil Eireann issues order suspending the sittings of the republican Supreme Court.

 

Macardle (1999), pg 768

Jul-15

Liam Lynch moves the anti-Treaty HQ to Fermoy

 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 266

Jul-15

Frank Crilly, a Protestant, is shot on his way home after curfew.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 301

Jul-16

Frank Aiken, O/C 4th Northern Division, who had kept his Division neutral, is arrested by pro-Treaty forces in Dundalk Military Barracks along with 300 of his men.  (Hopkinson says Dan Hogan, O/C 5th Northern Division, acted on his own initiative in capturing Dundalk barracks and that O’Duffy wished to force Aiken’s hand while Mulcahy would have allowed him his neutrality.)  Aiken had met with Mulcahy the previous day in Dublin.  There were no casualties in the take over the Military Barracks but two of Aiken’s men were killed when the pro-Treaty forces were taking over the former RIC barracks in Anne St.  (The two men were called Quigley and Campbell.)

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 170; Gavin and O’Donnell (1999), pg 34

Jul-17

Prout leads his Pro-Treaty forces from Kilkenny to attack Waterford city.  The city is taken easily and the anti-Treaty forces (under Pax Whelan) retreat.  An anti-Treaty column from Cork (under Pa Murray) arrive in Waterford as the fighting is going on (or as it is being evacuated) but take no part in the fighting.  (Curran says that the pro-Treaty forces arrived on the 18th and took Waterford on the 20th.)

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 154; Curran J M (1980), pg 241

Jul-17

Pro-Treaty army said to consist of 15,000 men.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 136

Jul-19

After further pro-Treaty reinforcements arrive in Limerick (under O’Duffy) the fighting gets really serious with artillery being used on the Strand.  The fighting is over by 21st July.  Eight pro-Treaty soldiers are killed and between 20 and 30 anti-Treaty soldiers killed. (Curran says that they arrived on the 18th)

 

Hopkinson (1988), pgs 149-150; Curran J M (1980), pg 239

Jul-20

Pro-Treaty forces capture Limerick and anti-Treaty forces evacuate city.  (Curran says 21st)

 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxii; Curran J M (1980), pg 239

Jul-20?

Two pro-Treaty soldiers (Privates John Foran and John Martin) killed in successive nights in attacks outside Mountjoy prision. 

Dorney (2017), pg 111

Jul-21

During a sniping attack on Wellington Barracks in Dublin by anti-Treaty volunteers, a civilian is killed.  This is part of a campaign of attacks and sniping by Dublin anti-Treaty volunteers as they start to regroup after their defeat in the Four Courts and O’Connell St earlier in the month. 

Dorney (2017), pg 111

Jul-21

Ernie O’Malley (who had been appointed Assistant Chief-of-Staff of the Anti-Treaty army on the 10th July by Liam Lynch and given command of the Northern and Eastern divisions), writes to Lynch asking “Could you give me an outline of your Military and National Policy as we are in the dark here with regard to both?”

 

Hopkinson (1988), pgs 129 & 144

Jul-23

Pro-Treaty forces land by sea in Waterford and capture it.

 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 266

Jul-23

A report on the Curragh command states that JJ O’Connell (O/C Curragh command) has little knowledge of his command.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 157

Jul-23

Pro-Treaty forces who were following the anti-Treaty forces who evacuated Limerick get stuck down in Bruff-Bruree-Kilmallock area. 

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 242

Jul-24

A counter-attack by anti-Treaty forces retake Bruree.  Fighting continues in this area for about a week – sometimes resembling trench warfare.

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 242

Jul-24

Pro-Treaty forces land by sea at Westport.  They had left Dublin on the 22nd in the Minerva under Colonel-Commandant O’Malley with 400 men. After taking Westport, most of the main towns in Mayo were taken in the next few days.  By the end of the month, small pro-Treaty garrisons are being closed down and troops withdrawn to the Curragh for training (in anticipation of guerilla war).

 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxii; Hopkinson (1988), pg 160; Macardle (1999), pg 761

Jul-24

A train carrying prisoners is ambushed at Killurin, Co. Wexford and a number of prisoners escape.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 198

Jul-25

Harry Boland writing to Joe McGarrity in the States asks “Can you imagine, me on the run from Mick Collins?”

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 132

Jul-25

Writing to Ernie O’Malley, Liam Lynch says “Since the attack on GHQ Four Courts and the splendid rush to arms of IRA in defence of the Republic against domestic enemies we are finished with the policy of compromise and negotiation unless based on recognition of the Republic. … we have no intention of setting up a government but await such time as An Dáil will carry on as Government of the Republic … In the meantime, no other Government will be allowed to function.”

Dorney (2017), pg 106

Jul-25

Collins writes to Cosgrave asking him to be less abusive in the propaganda about the anti-Treaty forces.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 140

Jul-26

A grenade attack by anti-Treatyities on pro-Treaty troops in York St, Dublin misses its target and wounds six civilians

Dorney (2017), pg 111

Jul-26

Provisional Government agree to an army strength of 35,000

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 136

Jul-26

O’Duffy reports serious reverses on the advance towards Killmallock. Some of his troops in Bruff had deserted to the anti-Treaty side.  Thirty of his men had been captured between Kilmallock and Bruff on the 22nd and forty-seven captured on the 23rd near Thomastown.  (After he had established himself in Limerick, O’Duffy had sent Brennan and his men to clear up resistance in Clare and 200 men under Brigadier Keane to towards Rathkeale and onto Kerry.  He himself with O’Hannigan and W R E Murphy moved towards Killmallock.  Hopkinson states that during this period, the Bruff-Bruree-Kilmallock triangle saw the heaviest continuous fighting of the Civil War.)  O’Duffy very critical of the quality of his troops. 

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 150-152

Jul-26

Pro-Treaty forces (some 300 men) under Jerry Ryan surprise anti-Treaty forces at Golden, Co. Tipperary.  Three days later the anti-Treaty forces tried to re-take Golden but without success.  This was followed by the pro-Treaty forces taking Tipperary Town.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 168

Jul-26

Writing a memo on the General Situation, Collins wrote “we now have a force that means something in future dealings with Britain and the North East … The present fight [Civil War] is only training our troops, it gives our soldiers confidence”.

Dorney (2017), pg 128

Jul-27

Con Moloney (Adjutant-General of anti-Treaty army) reports to Divisional O/Cs that “Organisation is bad in most areas, Coys are not paraded, Council meetings etc. are not being held and reports are not being forwarded.”

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 130

Jul-27

Oscar Traynor and a number of other senior anti-Treaty officers are arrested. Traynor replaced by Frank Henderson as O/C anti-Treaty Dublin Brigade.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 145; Dorney (2017), pg 113

Jul-27

Writing to Luke Gibbons, Harry Boland says that “There is no doubt that the people in the main is against us at present, believing that we are to blame for the present state of affairs”.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 127-127

Jul-27

Frank Aiken and his colleagues escape from Dundalk after the walls of the prison are mined.  The V/C of the 4th Northern, John McCoy, had escaped capture on the 16th July and organised the escape.  (However, McCoy himself was later captured in an engagement on the Castleblayney road in which a number of pro-Treaty soldiers were killed.) Even after his escape, Aiken would not commit to the Anti-Treaty side.  (Macardle says 28th)

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 170; Macardle (1999), pg 763; Curran J M (1980), pg 241

Jul-28

Pro-Treaty forces ambushed at Maryborough resulting in the deaths of Commandant-General McCurtain and Commandant Collison (the two main pro-Treaty officers in Laois-Offally) and Capt Gantly.  Twenty-four of the ambushers are captured.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 157

Jul-29

Patrick McGivern fatally wounded by a gunman on the Old Lodge Road, Belfast.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 301

Jul-29

Pro-Treaty forces in Foynes give up their post.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 152

Jul-29/30

Pro-Treaty forces take Tipperary

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 242

Jul-30

Harry Boland is shot during his arrest by pro-Treaty troops in the Grand Hotel in Skerries – he is to die on the 2nd August. Joe Griffin, D/I of Anti-Treaty Dublin Brigade, is arrested in same incident

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 274; Hopkinson (1988), pg 132; Macardle (1999), pg 776-777; Dorney (2017), pg 113

Jul-30

Pro-Treaty forces, led by O’Duffy, carry out a two-pronged attack on Bruree and capture it after a five-hour battle.

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 242

Jul-31

Mac Eoin reports to Collins that “In the Midlands Divisions all posts and positions of military value are in our hands.”

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 157

Jul-31

Replying to Collins letter of the 28th June, Churchill said that he doubted the advantage of Proportional Representation to the Catholic minority and that the refusal of nationalists to recognise the NI government robbed Collins’ arguments of much of their substance.

 

Phoenix (1994), pg 244

End-Jul

Over 1,000 anti-Treaty prisoners held in Dublin.

Dorney (2017), pg 112

Jul

William Browne from Bishop St., Derry dies at Derry Infirmary after being brought there by Specials to receive treatment.

 

Gallagher (2003), pg 40

Jul

Private Albert Devine (from Derry) and another pro-Treaty soldier are shot dead in Glenties, Co. Donegal by a man pretending to be a priest.

 

Gallagher (2003), pg 41

Jul

In a memo to Cabinet, Collins writes the the Civil War is “a fight for national freedom” and for the “freest and most democratic system yet devised”.  Also, that “the Army has to recognise that it is the servant and not the master of the people”

Dorney (2017), pg 129

Jul

In a series of reports during July to Mulcahy, Seamus Woods in Belfast paints a very somber picture of the state of the nationalist population in NI in general and the bad state of the military preparedness of his IRA forces.  After two years of unremitting bloodshed “The spirit of the people is practically dead” and had a deep sense of having been abandoned by the southern government.  Their mood was “for a peace policy and recognition of the northern government”.

 

Phoenix (1994), pgs 245-246

 

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