June 1922

Jun-01

The British signatories to the Treaty (plus Balfour) meet and draw up six questions for the Irish delegation aimed at flushing out their position of ‘Crown and Empire’.  Irish say that they will answer next day but Collins and Griffith hold a meeting with Lloyd George that evening in which there is heated discussion on the constitution in which the Irish side argued for the practice as well the law of Britain’s relationship with Canada (this was in relation to Article 2 of the Treaty) but Lloyd George argued that safeguards as to practice could not be included in the constitution.  They also argued again about Northern Ireland with Collins blaming the British government for the murder of Catholics as they paid for the Special Constabulary who had carried some of these murders.  Collins called the British “Shylocks”.

Afterwards, Lloyd George described Collins as “just a wild animal – a mustang”.  When Curtis compared negotiating with Collins to writing on water, Lloyd George added “shallow and agitated water”.

 

Curran J M (1980), pgs 209-211; Townshend (2014), pg 401

Jun-01

The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officially comes into being with headquarters in Atlantic Building, Waring Street, Belfast.  1,100 of the old RIC were accepted into the RUC, 400 of whom were Catholics.  Dawson Bates, Minister of Home Affairs in the NI government and responsible for police, instructs his permanent secretary that “he did not want his most juvenile clerk or typist, if a Papist, assigned for duty to his ministry.” 

Abbott (2000), pg 268;  Lawlor (2011), pg 294

Jun-01

A Catholic clerk, Francis McHugh (27), working at the Shankill Labour Exchange is shot dead by loyalist gunmen.  A Protestant baker, William Collum (45) was shot dead near East Bridge St in Belfast by a sniper operating from the Short Strand.  Later, a Protestant lorry driver, James Kane, was fatally wounded as he sat in his lorry on the Falls Rd.  Also, an 11-year-old Protestant newspaper boy, Albert McMordie, was shot by a sniper.  About 9 o’clock, a gang called to the house of a doctor in Donegall Pass, when they found that the doctor was not at home they attacked his housekeeper, Susan McCormick, a Catholic, they poured petrol on her and set her on fire.  Ms McCormick survived.  

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 259 &264 & 265 & 267

Jun-01

The Belfast Telegraph says that there is systematic persecution of Protestants in the west and south of Ireland and that “not since the Rebellion of 1641 have the minority been in greater danger”.   The same article goes on to say that the Belfast administration would never be “cowed by the incendiary and murderer” and that there was “a widespread conspiracy to make life and government impossible and that it has to be crushed”.  Comment

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 282

Jun-01

A Catholic, Bella McKeown (22) is shot in Belfast and dies three weeks later.  Also, the body of another Catholic, Thomas Johnston (26) is found on Nelson St.

Parkinson (2004), pg 261; McDermott (2001), pg 259

Jun-02

British Cabinet meets and Lloyd George briefs them on his meeting with Griffith and Collins the evening before.  He predicts trouble over the oath, the Privy Council and the position of the anti-Treatyites in the coalition government. They agree that they will break if the answers to their six questions are unsatisfactory from their point of view.  They make plans for military and economic sanctions against the Free State in the event of breakdown.  They also hear from Balfour that Craig has agreed to an inquiry into the Belfast killings as long as his government initiated the proposal.  (In the course of the discussions, Lloyd George said that the Irish were fed up with the Crown as the Crown represented repression - Crown forces, Crown prosecutor, etc. Chamberlain replied that the Irish were fortunate to have a Celt in the cabinet to put their case against England.)

Later that day the Irish replies to the British cabinet’s six questions are sent – the Irish side gave considerable ground on amendments to the constitution.  Lloyd George calls his cabinet together to consider them.  They expressed general satisfaction with the Irish replies and, even though some points required clarification, they could see no grounds for a break.  Griffith was going back to Dublin that evening but he indicated that he was willing to return on the 6th to discuss the replies and the constitution.  The British agree to this proposal.

 

Curran J M (1980), pgs 211-213

Jun-02

Balflour meets with Craig and Lord Londonderry in London and told them that the British government would be greatly handicapped in its dealings with the Provisional Government “if the south had any ground for contending that the Belfast outrages were part of a movement to persecute Catholics”.  Craig blamed the violence on the IRA and claimed “to have done his best to get Catholics to join the Specials”.  Comment  

 

Phoenix (1994), pgs 226 & 230

Jun-03

Provisional Government reviews the negotiations on the constitution that had taken place in London and supports Griffith’s letter.  It also decides on "a policy of peaceful obstruction should be adopted towards the Belfast government … No troops from the twenty-six counties either those under official control or attached to the Executive should be permitted to invade the Six-County area".

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 213; Phoenix (1994), pgs 232-233; McDermott (2001), pg 247

Jun-03

British cabinet discuss Northern Ireland (after discussion with Collins and Griffith on May 30th).  Lloyd George argues for inquiry into killings but Churchill opposes.  Eventually it is decided that Churchill should invite Craig to London to hear his views.

 

Curran J M (1980), pg  196

Jun-03

Thomas Gough, a Catholic, was stopped by loyalists on Skegoniel Av in Belfast and asked his religion.  He was dragged into a side street and shot – he died two days later.  Also, another Catholic, John Black (50) was shot by a sniper as he stood at his front door in New Dock St.  Yet another Catholic, Bernard McCaffrey was shot and died later in hospital.  Around this date, a teenage Protestant, John Kane, is shot by the British army during rioting in the Peters Hill area.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 258 & 261 & 264

Jun-03

Special Constable James Murray is shot dead by the accidental discharge of a rifle while on duty at a bridge near Kinawley, Co Fermanagh,  (S/Con Murray has been one of the Specials who had managed to get out alive Clones railway station on the 11th February.)

Lawlor (2011), pgs 290-291

Early-Jun

Three IRA men enter the home of Elizabeth Hyde in Newtownhamilton, Co. Armagh. They blindfold, beat her and cut her hair.  She is told that the reason is that her brother is a member of the USC.

Lynch (2010), pg 201

Jun-03

Two ex-RIC men are shot in the legs in Ballinasloe, Co. Galway.

Abbott (2019), pg 278

Jun-04

Resident Magistrate James Woulfe Flanagan is shot by IRA men Eddie O’Hare and Edward Fullerton as he comes out of the Catholic cathedral in Newry.  This sets off a spiral of sectarian killings in South Armagh with 10 people killed in the next few weeks (3 Catholics and 7 Protestants).

 

Phoenix (1994), pg 231; McDermott (2001), pg 248; Lynch (2010), pg 208

Jun-04

A Catholic, Robert Hunt (50) was shot by police in Ross St., Belfast and subsequently died in hospital.  Another Catholic, William Rice (25) was shot by the British Army in Lime St. 

Parkinson (2004), pg 264

Jun-04

Churchill had been monitoring, from London, the situation on the Fermanagh/Donegal border.  He decides to use British troops who proceed to shell pro-Treaty positions in Pettigo, Co. Donegal.

Three volunteers from Tyrone – William Kearney and Bernard McCanny from Drumquin and William Deasley from Dromore -  are killed.  (Instead of William Deasley, Ó Duibhir says that the name of the third volunteer killed was Patrick Flood.  Ó Duibhir says that Deasley was killed in an accident some time afterwards in the workhouse in Donegal Town.)  

The British troops occupy parts of Pettigo which are in Donegal.  Collins contacts Churchill demanding a joint inquiry into the British taking of some Free State territory at Pettigo.  See June 7th.

Curran J M (1980), pgs 197-19; McDermott (2001), pg 248; McCluskey (2014), pg 124; Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 126-127

Jun-05

The Specials in Belfast carry out an attack on the Mater Hospital (the Catholic hospital) after, allegedly, the grounds of the hospital were used as a basis for attacks on security forces.  The Specials fired on the Mater Hospital in a “terrible 40-minute fusillade”.  The following morning many patients discharge themselves.

 

Phoenix (1994), pg 230;  Parkinson (2004), pg 269

Jun-05

Collins and de Valera issue a joint appeal for the electorate to support the Pact stating that “many of the dangers that threaten us can be met only by keeping intact the forces which constituted the national resistance in recent years”.

 

Macardle (1999), pg 719; Curran J M (1980), pg  217

Jun-05

Ulster Special Constable Richard Black is accidentally shot when investigating suspicious activity at Moleman, Co. Londonderry.

Abbott (2019), pg 403

Jun-06

Ulster Special Constable Thomas Sheridan is shot by a sniper at a vehicle checkpoint at Annaghroe, Caledon, Co. Armagh.

Abbott (2000), pg 296; Lawlor (2011), pg 291

Jun-06

Nominations for the election on the 16th June close.  There were 128 seats and 27 constituencies. There were 124 panel candidates with 34 of the panel candidates running unopposed (17 from each side).     There are 47 non-panel candidates (18 Labour, 12 Farmers and 17 Independents) plus 4 more independents from Trinity College.  All non-panel candidates are pro-Treaty. A number of these non-panel candidates (including Darrel Figgis) are intimidated by anti-Treatyites. 

 

Macardle (1999), pg 719; Curran J M (1980), pg 220

Jun-06

Griffith, Kevin O’Higgins and Hugh Kennedy go to London bringing with them their re-draft of the Constitution of the Free State.  Griffith meets Churchill and they agree that Kennedy and Hewart will again try to redraft the constitution to each side’s agreement. 

 

Macardle (1999), pg 719; Curran J M (1980), pg 213

Jun-06

Patrick O’Malley (45), a Catholic, is shot dead on his way home in Stratheden St in Belfast.  Later, another Catholic, John McMenermy, is shot in Cupar St.

Parkinson (2004), pg 258

Jun-07

After running clashes, British troops enter the village of Belleek on the Donegal-Fermanagh border.  British use artillery and seven pro-Treaty soldiers are killed, six wounded and four taken prisoner.  (In his detailed account, Ó Duibhir does not mention any fatalities on the Irish side.) The British take over Belleek Fort which is on the Donegal side of the border. 

An Ulster Special Constable (S/Con Thomas Dobson) is shot while driving a Crossley tender for the British Army.  (Abbott says on the 4th June.) The British troops remain in this area (some of which is in southern territory including the village of Pettigo) until 9th January 1923. 

There are differing accounts of the casualties in this conflict.

Collins comments that “British troops who have hesitated … for many months against savage anti-Catholic mobs in Belfast, have shown an astonishing readiness to become involved with our troops on the six-county boundary-line.”  (Curran has a quite strange account of the Belleek/Pettigo episode written mainly from British cabinet documents.)

 

Abbott (2000), pg 296; Hopkinson (1988), pg 86;

Macardle (1999), pg 730; Curran J M (1980), pgs 197-199; Phoenix (1994), pgs 230-231; McDermott (2001), pg 241; Lawlor (2011), pgs 285-290; Ozseker (2019), pgs 169-173

Jun-07

Last meeting of the Belfast Catholic Recruiting Committee set up under the Craig-Collins pact – this ends any attempt to enlist nationalists to the northern police.

Phoenix (1994), pgs 231-232; McDermott (2001), pg 250-251

Jun-07

The Provisional Government takes over Marlborough Hall in Glasnevin, Dublin and houses 500 northern refugees in it

Dorney (2017), pg 54

Jun-07

As part of the ongoing farm labourer strike in Waterford (see 22nd May), strikers occupy the estate belonging to Sir John Keane and declare a soviet which includes milking his prize herd and distributing the proceeds.  However, the soviet does not last long when the local IRA says that it opposes actions against private property.  See August 5th. 

McCarthy (2015), pg 103

Jun-08

The McCann home in Cloughmills, near Martinstown, Co. Antrim is visited by members of the USC.  John McCann and his uncle Archie McCann are taken from their home for questioning.  Archie McCann is shot dead but, although seriously injured, John McCann survives.  John McCann identified one of his attackers are Thomas McDowell, a sergeant in the B Specials, who lived just three miles away.  Sgt McDowell was arrested.  When he was remanded in custody, a fife and drum band accompanied him as he was taken under escort to the railway station on his way to jail. 

Lawlor (2011), pgs 284-285

Jun-08

A convention of 250 officers from brigades, battalions and companies of the 1st Northern Division IRA along with divisional staff takes place in Ballybofey, Co. Donegal.  Approximately 90% declared themselves pro-Treaty.  

Ó Duibhir (2011), pg 91

Jun-09

Collins and de Valera speak from the platform at an election meeting in the Mansion House in support of the pact.

Macardle (1999), pg 721

Jun-09

Kennedy and Hewart agree their first re-draft of the Free State constitution (job given to them on the 6th).  In these negotiations, the Irish make most of the concessions.  However, one significant article they got the British to leave in was the article which asserted the sovereignty of the people.

 

Curran J M (1980), pgs 213-215

Jun-10?

Sean O'Hegarty, Tom Hales and Florence O’Donoghue resign from the anti-Treaty IRA Executive ("on the issue of an attempt to forcibly prevent the holding of a general election") and are replaced by Tom Derrig, Tom Barry and Pax Whelan.

 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 244

Jun-10

Griffith, O’Higgins and Kennedy meet with Lloyd George, Churchill and Hewart to consider Hewart’s and Kennedy second re-draft of the Free State constitution and the Irish make further concessions to the British on the constitution.

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 215

Jun-10

A Catholic, Thomas Mullaney (38) was shot by a military patrol in the North Queen St area of Belfast.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 264

Jun-11

Special Constable Thomas Hume is accidentally shot dead when on duty in the Magherafelt Workhouse in Co. Londonderry.

Abbott (2019), pg 407

Jun-12

In a letter on the army unity talks, Mulcahy says that “responsibility for dealing further with the situation must now be left to the new Coalition Government which is being formed”.  Curran gives a synopsis of the army unity talks up to this point.

 

Macardle (1999), pg 733; Curran J M (1980), pg  223

Jun-12

Provisional Government meets and approves revised draft of constitution with only minor amendments.

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 215

Jun-12

Collins goes to London and speaks with Churchill on the 13th.  He returns to Ireland on the night of the 13th.

 

Macardle (1999), pg 721

Jun-12

In what may have been a botched IRA robbery, Edward Devine – managing director of Hughes Bakery in west Belfast – was fatally wounded.  An elderly man, Patrick Ward, was shot by a loyalist sniper in Great Patrick St and died nearly two weeks later.  Around this date, a Catholic, William Smyth (50) is shot in North Queen St. in the middle of the afternoon.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 259 & 261

Jun-12

Churchill along with Griffith, O’Higgins and Kennedy meet with representatives of southern unionists.  Collins joins these talks on the 13th and agreement is reached on measures such as enlarging the Senate to increase minority representation but the southern unionists remain dissatisfied.  (A letter is published in the papers on the 16th expressing this dissatisfaction.)

 

Curran J M (1980), pgs 215-216

Jun-12

The Irish Independent blames the recent arson attacks in Belfast on “armed forces of the Belfast Government”.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 272

Jun-13

Craig and Londonderry arrive in London with the negative response from the NI cabinet to the British government’s request for an enquiry in the NI disturbances – see June 16th.

 

Phoenix (1994), pg 233

Jun-13

Arson attack on brewery in Belfast.  Also, there was a sniper attack on fire brigade officers attempting to put out a fire in a business in Gt Patrick St. 

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 272

Jun-13

Two Catholic farmers from Co. Armagh, Pat Cregan from High Street, Bessbrook (or Derrymore) and Thomas Crawley, from Greyhillen, Whitecross are taken from Bessbrook and shot dead.  Their bodies are left on the Lislea road near Newry.  Neither men are in the IRA.  It is not known if they were killed by members of the RIC Special Constabulary or the UVF.  (These killings are said to be one of the reasons for the Altnaveigh killings – see June 17th.)

Lawlor (2011), pg 298; Hall (2019), pg 97; Lynch (2010), pg 195

 

Jun-14

Arson attacks on a handkerchief factory in Mountpottinger and on a shop in Cromac St., Belfast.  Also, four fire brigade officers were injured trying to extinguish a fire in Gt Victoria St.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 272

Jun-14

Just after midnight, eight Special Constables arrive in McGuill public house in Dromintee, Co. Armagh.  They are looking for the owner, James McGuill, who they suspected of being involved in the killing of S/Constable Sheridan – See June 6th.  However, McGuill is not at home.  His family is at home – including his wife, Unah McGuill (who is in the late stages of pregnancy), her mother, her two small children, a female servant and a friend of the family.  The Special Constables proceed to wreck the pub, take money from the till and drink looted alcohol.  Unah McGuill is savagely attacked and raped by three members of the USC – she is left with severe injuries including a fractured skull from repeated kicks to her head by her attackers.  The servant girl is also beaten and raped.  The family friend saves herself by throwing herself from an upstairs window. 

(Mrs McGuill’s husband James McGuill is a friend of Frank Aiken and it is thought that revenge for Mrs McGuill’s brutal rape was one of the motivations for the sectarian attacks in Altnaveigh – see 17th June.)

Connolly (2019), pg 38; Lawlor (2011), pgs 298-299; Lynch (2010), pgs 196-197

Jun-14

Speaking in Cork, Collins repudiates the 'Pact' (just two days before the election).  He tells his audience that he expected them to vote for the candidates they thought were best regardless of whether they were on the panel or not.  He said that “the country [is] facing a very serious situation. If the situation is to be met as it should be met, the country must have the representatives it wants.  You understand fully what you have to do, and I depend on you to do it”  Comment   

 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxi; Hopkinson (1988), pgs 109-110; Macardle (1999), pg 721; Curran J M (1980), pgs 220-221

Jun-14

Kennedy meets with British officials to make the final draft of the Free State constitution.

 

Mid-Jun

During the second and third weeks of June, arms were exchanged between Beggars Bush and the Four Courts and many officers were sent with equipment to the IRA Divisions in the North.

 

Macardle (1999), pg 732

 

Jun-14

Anti-Treaty Army Executive rejects proposals which Liam Lynch had earlier agreed to (via work of joint Army committee set up after Collins-de Valera Pact).  These proposals, agreed with Mulcahy, included Liam Lynch and Liam Deasy being made deputy chiefs of staff under Eoin O’Duffy as chief of staff.  Instead, they pass the following resolution: “That we instruct the officers deputed to meet the Beggars Bush officers to inform them that: (a) Negotiations on Army unity with Beggars Bush must cease; (b) We take whatever action may be necessary to maintain the Republic against British aggression and (c) No offensive will be taken by our troops against the Beggars Bush troops”.  This resolution was passed by O’Connor and O’Malley to Mulcahy the following day.   The Executive also set up a sub-committee to examine the possibility of an immediate attack on the British troops still in the 26 counties.

 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 245; Hopkinson (1988), pg 102; Macardle (1999), pgs 733-734; Hall (2019), pg 100

Jan-15

The British signatories and Law Officers agree that the revised constitution conforms with the Treaty and the following day it is passed by the British cabinet. 

Curran has a short evaluation of the constitution and concludes with the following quote from Leo Kohn: “The constitution was a most comprehensive and, in spirit, essentially republican constitution on continental lines. … Its [the British constitution’s] archaic symbols had to be introduced, but their meaningless for Ireland were writ large on every page.  The monarchical forms paled into insignificance in the light of the formal enunciation of the principle of the sovereignty of the people as the fundamental and exclusive source of all political authority”.

 

Curran J M (1980), pgs 216-218

Jun-16

Craig and Londonderry meet with Lloyd George, Churchill, Balfour and Chamberlain in Downings St to discuss the setting up of an enquiry into the northern disturbances.  However, all they do is direct a government official to carry out an investigation into the reasons for the breakdown of the March Craig-Collins pact and report back to the British cabinet – see end June below.

 

Phoenix (1994), pgs 234-235

Jun-16

A committee of magistrates write to Craig informing him that a considerable majority of their group believe that martial law should be introduced in N.I.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 291

Jun-16

General election held in the 26-counties.  Free State Constitution appears in newspapers on morning of polling day (and it does not live up to republican hopes).  Results become known on June 24th.  Pro-Treaty Sinn Féin gets 58 seats; Anti-Treaty Sinn Féin gets 36 seats; Labour 17; Farmers 7; Independents 6 and TCD 4.  More Detail  Comment

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxi; Litton (1995), pg 67; Hopkinson (1988), pgs 109-110; O’Donoghue (1986), pg 245; Macardle (1999), pg 722 & 727; Curran J M (1980), pgs  221-22;  Walsh (2018), pg 176

Jun-16

Four anti-Treaty men break into the Kilateelagh House, near Dromineer, Lough Derg in Co. Tipperary.  It is the home of the Protestant Biggs family.  Eileen Mary Warbutron Biggs is brutally raped.  (Dorney gives her name as Harriet Biggs.)

Three men were charged in Nenagh with assault on Mrs Biggs – Patrick Hogan, Edward Hogan and James Grace (members of the 1st Tipperary Brigade).  All three were acquitted.  The reported leader of the gang who carried out this atrocity, Martin Hogan (brother of Patrick and Edward) had fled Dublin before the trial – see 21st April 1923.

Dorney (2017), pg 55; Connolly (2019), pgs 37-238

Jun-16

During an altercation between pro- and anti-Treaty forces over the occupation of a hall to be used in the election in Castledermot, Co. Kildare, shots are fired and an anti-Treaty volunteer, Thomas ‘Smack’ Dunne is mortally wounded, apparently accidently.

Durney (2011), pg 70

Jun-16

The High Court in Dublin rules in favour of the Blennerhasset family in their land dispute with John Murphy.  See April 9th and May 13th above.  Also, December 20th below.

Doyle (2008), pg 102

Jun-17

A fourteen-man Ulster Special Constabulary patrol from Forkhill is ambushed at Drumintee, Co. Armagh resulting, according to Abbott, in the death of S/Constable Thomas Russell and the wounding of the S/Con George Hughes.  Some of the ambushers were located in McGuill public house – see June 14th.  The 50-man IRA ambush is led by Frank Aiken. (Lawlor says that another S/Constable, called Arkwright, was also killed.)  See More Detail in the Altnaveigh Massacre on 17th June.  

 

Abbott (2000), pg 297; Lawlor (2011), pg 299; Hall (2019), pg 98

Jun-17

Altnaveigh Massacre. Frank Aiken’s 4th Northern Division IRA carry out a sectarian attack on Protestant farming families in the townlands of Altnaveigh and Lisdrumliska outside Newry in South Armagh killing six, wounding four others and burning or bombing twelve houses.  More Detail 

 

McDermott (2001), pg 259; Coogan and Morrison (1999), pg 44; Hall (2019), pg 98

Jun-17

Ernie O’Malley and a group of anti-Treaty IRA men carry out a raid on the HQ of the new Civic Guard in Kildare Barracks.  After they gain entry, they tie up the Guards on duty and make away with 167 rifles, 243 revolvers and ammunition.  They bring them back to the Four Courts.  In this endeavour, they had the assistance of Thomas Daly who was leading the mutiny of Civic Guards in Kildare Barracks. See June 24th.

 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxi; Dorney (2017), pg 63; Durney (2011), pg 54

Jun-17

The brother of an ex-RIC man is shot dead near Ballymote, Co Sligo by anti-Treaty IRA men who wanted to question his brother.

Farry (2012), pg 92

Jun-17

At least eight arson attacks in Belfast over this day and following day including the burning to death of 12 horses in a coal merchant’s yard.  Three IRA men captured in Harry Ferguson’s garage at 4.45am on the 18th – the authorities noted that after they were captured that arson attacks in the area of the ‘Low Markets’ ceased.  Three cinemas in West Belfast were burned on the 20th along with the Rock Bar on the Falls Road.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 272; McDermott (2001), pg 254

Jun-18

Third convention of anti-Treaty army meets in Mansion House to discuss the army re-unification proposals brought forward by the joint army council.  More Detail

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 246; Litton (1995) pg 68; Hopkinson (1988), pgs 114-115; Macardle (1999), pg 735; Curran J M (1980), pg  223; O'Farrell P (1997), pg 145; Townshend (2014), pgs 403-404

Jun-19

Three armed but unmasked men hold up Edward Street railway station in Newry, Co. Down and they question a number of employees.  Asked where he comes from, Peter Murray says that he is from Dublin and adds that he is a Catholic.  The armed men reply “You are the man that we are looking for”.  He is taken away and his body is found the following morning at Long Bridge, Glassdrummond about two miles from Newry.  Two other Catholics were abducted that night – one managed to escape and the other was let go.

Lawlor (2011), pgs 292-293

Jun-19

Two Ulster Special Constables (S/Constable William Mitchell and S/Constable Samuel Young) are ambushed at Drumalane, Keady (or in the townland of Fergot at Derrynoose) Co. Armagh - they both die the next day from their wounds.  A civilian (Charles Haughy) is also wounded.  They had been detailed to protect Protestant farmers in the wake of the Altnaveigh massacre (see June 17th) but were abducted by the IRA.

Abbott (2000), pg 297; Lawlor (2011), pg 301; Lynch (2010), pg c208 fn

Jun-20

Shots fired into six unionist houses in Demesne Terrace in Dundalk, Co. Louth.  Afterwards, a number of unionist families leave their homes.

Lawlor (2011), pg 293

Jun-20

Three Catholic carters killed in Belfast.  Around lunchtime, David French (30) was shot in the back in Duncrue St and later died in hospital.  Later in the afternoon, James Tutton (50) was killed in the same street.  Another carter, Charles O’Neill (46) was shot dead in the Skegoniel Av area after a large crowd approached him and his colleague and asked his religion.  His colleague escaped.  

IRA man, William Thornton (22), is shot dead by an RUC patrol when they discover him along with a number of colleagues trying to set fire to an oil merchant’s premises in the Cromac St area of Belfast. (McDermott notes that Thornton is the last IRA man to be killed in Belfast in the 1920s and that he was the first to be killed by the RUC.)

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 268 & 274; McDermott (2001), pg 254

Jun-21

An elderly Catholic, William Miller (70) of Willowfield St in east Belfast was breaking wood in his back yard when men climbed over his back wall and shot him – he died later. Also, a Protestant, John Ireland (37), was shot dead by the British Army in the York St area of Belfast.

Parkinson (2004), pg 261 & 264

Jun-21

The man appointed by the British (Stephen G. Tallents) to enquire and report on the breakdown of the Craig-Collins pact arrives in Belfast – he stays until 1st July and meets a wide selection of people.  More Detail

Phoenix (1994), pgs 236-241; McDermott (2001), pgs 254-255; Parkinson (2004), pgs 288-289

Jun-22

Sir Henry Wilson was shot dead outside his home in Eaton Sq in London - he had been Chief of the Imperial General Staff until February 1922 after which he had acted as Military Adviser to the Northern Ireland government.  More Detail

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 255; Hopkinson (1988), pg 112; Macardle (1999), pgs 736-737; Curran J M (1980), pgs 223-224; Phoenix (1994), pg 235; Griffith & O’Grady (1999), pg 281; Parkinson (2004), pgs 276-277; Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 139; Townshend (2014), pgs 404-405

Jun-22

Special Constable Robert McDowell is holidaying at Windgates near Greystones, Co. Wicklow when a number of armed and masked men enter the house in which he is staying.  S/Constable McDowell is taken outside where he is shot dead.

Abbott (2019), pg 409

Jun-23

A British cabinet conference of ministers meets in aftermath of the killing of Wilson.  More Detail

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 256; Hopkinson (1988), pg 115; Macardle (1999), pg 737;  Curran J M (1980), pgs 224-226; Dorney (2017), pgs 65-66; Townshend (2014), pg 405

Jun-23

A meeting is held between Griffith, Emmet Dalton, Andy Cope and two British Army officers to discuss the continued occupation of the Four Courts.

 

Macardle (1999), pg 739

Jun-23

Three Catholics are killed by Specials in Cushendall, Co. Antrim. 

The three are Seamus McAllister, John Gore and John Hill. Two more were wounded.  All were civilians and not involved with the IRA.

Parkinson (2004), pg 349; Lawlor (2011), pgs 301-309

Jun-23

In Belfast, a Catholic teenager, Leo Rea, is fatally wounded by loyalists as he makes his way to work.  The Protestant manager of Hughes and Dickson’s mill in Divis St., Belfast, William Kirkwood, is shot dead on his lunchbreak.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 258 & 264; McDermott (2001), pg 259

Jun-24

Griffith and Duggan arrive at the Kildare barracks of the mutinous Civic Guards with the following offer: (1) the men were to be paid all money due to them; (2) an inquiry is to be held and (3) in the meantime all men were to be suspended.  These proposals are accepted.  (After the men get paid, a number go drinking in Newbridge during which one recruit, Farrell Liddy from Leitrim, is accidently shot dead.) 

Durney (2011), pg 55

Jun-24

The British government makes a definite decision to go ahead with their attack on the Four Courts on the following day (i.e. 25th) and this is telegrammed to Macready who had returned to Dublin.  Macready discussed the details with General Boyd.  He also sends a senior staff officer, Colonel Brind, to London with a letter arguing against the attack (mainly on the grounds that it would give rise to increased public support for the men in the Four Courts and could unite the pro- and anti-Treaty factions).  

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 115; Macardle (1999), pg 739; Curran J M (1980), pg 226

Jun-25

Lloyd George meets with Colonel Brind who supplements Macready’s arguments with his own.  In addition, a memo from General Imperial Staff is read by Lord Cavan (Wilson’s replacement) which also argues against an attack.  The British government rescinds order to attack Four Courts.  Instead, it is decided that Churchill is to write to Provisional Government saying that Treaty would not be proceeded with if Four Courts were not cleared.  He also says this the following day in the House of Commons.  British government harshly criticised by Bonar Law but wins division on its Irish policy comfortably.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 116; Macardle (1999), pg 740; Curran J M (1980), pgs 226-228

Jun-25

The men in the Four Courts hold a meeting but do not come to any decision other than to send a section under Peadar O’Donnell to the North.  Some want to attack the British immediately while others wish to mend the breach with Lynch and the 1st Southern men.  Relations are established with Lynch and his men in the Clarence Hotel and eventually friendly relations are re-established between the two anti-Treaty IRA factions.

 

Macardle (1999), pg 740; Curran J M (1980), pg 228

Jun-26

Between 31st January and 26th June, British Government supplied Provisional Government with 11,900 rifles, 79 Lewis machine guns, 4,200 revolvers and 3,504 grenades.  (See also Sept-02.) Pro-Treaty forces amounted to (approx) 8,000 men while a Provisional Government source estimated that the anti-Treaty army had 12,900 men and 6,780 rifles but it is difficult to know how many of their men were active.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 127

Jun-26

Heated debate in the House of Commons in which Lloyd George and Churchill come under sustained attack from Bonar Law and others about the killing of Wilson.

 

Macardle (1999), pgs 740-741; Townshend (2014), pgs 405-406

Jun-26

Leo Henderson, leading an anti-Treaty raiding party enforcing the Belfast boycott, is arrested by pro-Treaty troops led by Frank Thornton at Ferguson’s garage in Lr Baggot St.  His men had commandeered 15 cars which had been imported in defiance of the boycott.  They wanted the cars to bring an anti-Treaty IRA section to the North. (Some say this happened on 27th.)  In retaliation, anti-Treaty forces arrest pro-Treaty Deputy Chief-of-Staff General J J (Ginger) O'Connell as he came out of McGilligan’s pub in Lesson St. and hold him in Four Courts pending Henderson’s release.  The release of Henderson and five anti-Treaty volunteers held in Drogheda is demanded for the release of O’Connell.

On afternoon of 26th, Provisional Government meet to discuss the garage raid and the Four Courts men threat to attack the British.  Griffith and Mulcahy later claim that decision to attack the Four Courts “practically taken” at this meeting but they decide to put off the decision until the following morning.  (Ernest Blythe later claimed that the decision had been taken before the assassination of Henry Wilson.  “It was only a question of timing.”)

 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxi; Litton (1995) pgs 69-70; Hopkinson (1988), pg 117; Curran J M (1980), pgs 228-229; Hall (2019), pg 101

Jun-26

Special Constable William Leggett is killed near Garrison, Co. Fermanagh when a Crossley tender overturns due to a burst tyre.

Abbott (2019), pg 409

Jun-27

Notice appears in official gazette (Iris Oifiguil) calling the “The House of Parliament to which the Provisional Government is to be responsible” to assemble on the 1st July. (Not called in name of Third Dáil.)

 

Macardle (1999), pgs 766-767

Jun-27

Referring to the assassination of Wilson, the Belfast Newsletter states that it was “an epochal crime” which stood out “stark in its fiendishness, marking for all time the criminality of the Sinn Féin movement”.  De Valera drew attention to Wilson’s role in Northern Ireland when he said [date not given] “The killing of any human being is an awful act but … life has been made a hell for the nationalist minority in Belfast … I do not approve [of the killing] but I must not pretend to misunderstand.”

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 277 & 278

Jun-27

The London Times states “The moment has at last come for Mr Collins to choose which path he shall take.  There are only two paths – that of the Treaty and that of anarchy.”

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 116

Jun-27

Much activity in the Four Courts as they prepare a force to go North.

Provisional Government meet again and give the go ahead for attack on the Four Courts.  Hopkinson says that Griffith and O’Higgins wanted to attack the Republican forces for some time and stresses the disagreement among the republicans as a large factor in Collins’ eventual agreement to attack the Four Courts.  Griffith drafts a notice for the press stating “The Government has been forced to take action after a series of criminal acts culminating in the kidnapping of General O’Connell.”

Lynch goes to the Four Courts about 10.00pm and stays until 1.00am in discussions with Mellows.  The rift in the anti-Treaty forces (from June 18th) was healed but this was not known to the Provisional Government when they made the decision to clear the Four Courts.

At about 10.00pm, two couriers sent by the Provisional Government arrive at the Four Courts.  They demand the evacuation of the Four Courts and surrender by mid-night.  The men in the Four Courts cannot decide what to do but they do confer with Traynor who mobilises the Dublin Brigade. 

Pro-Treaty troops under Paddy O’Daly surround the Four Courts.

 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxi; Litton (1995) pgs 69-70; Hopkinson (1988), pg 117; Curran J M (1980), pgs 228-229; Dorney (2017), pg 67

Jun-28

The pro-Treaty troops demand the surrender of the Four Courts for a second time (this time they demand evacuation by 4.00am).  As the men in the Four Courts stay in position, at 4.15am pro-Treaty troops, under Emmet Dalton & Tom Ennis, direct artillery fire against the Four Courts.  (The artillery was given to them by the British.) The Civil War is underway.

 More Detail

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 256-257; Hopkinson (1988), pg 117; Dorney (2017), pgs 68-77; Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 299

Jun-28

Liam Lynch, who had been in the Clarence Hotel when attack on Four Courts started, meets with the available senior officers of the anti-Treaty Executive forces and they decide to defend the Republic in arms.  More Detail

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 259; Hopkinson (1988), pg 125; Macardle (1999), pgs 745-746 & 748; Curran J M (1980), pg 234 & 236; Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 144-145; Townshend (2014), pg 409; O’Connor and Connolly (2011), pgs 91-102

Jun-28

De Valera issues a statement which included “In the face of England’s threat of war some of our countrymen yielded.  The men who are now being attacked by the forces of the Provisional Government are those who refuse to obey the order to yield – preferring to die.  They are the best and bravest of our nation”.  He then reported to his old battalion – 3rd Battalion of the Dublin Brigade.  Curran says that he refused to accept any position of command [in the anti-Treaty forces], preferring to seek an end to the fighting by political means.

 

Macardle (1999), pgs 746-747; Curran J M (1980), pg 234; Townshend (2014), pg 409

Jun-28

Provisional Government barricade themselves into government buildings in Merrion Sq.  Over the coming days, government ministers and top civil servants live, sleep and eat in these buildings

Dorney (2017), pg 89

Jun-28

In the evening, the pro-Treaty forces run out of high-explosive shells for the artillery and Macready refuses to supply them with more.  Dalton tells him that the pro-Treaty forces will stop fighting if they do not have them and Macready supplies him with 50 rounds of shrapnel (these are noisy but ineffective).

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 234

Jun-28

At 11.30am, Lloyd George meets with Churchill (Secretary of State for War) and Lord Cavan (Commander in Chief of the Imperial Staff) to discuss the news from Dublin.  At this and subsequent conferences during the day, it is agreed that the Irish government would be given whatever support requested, including troops.

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 234

Jun-28

An ex-RIC man is taken from his home and his body is later found at Killavullen, Mallow, Co. Cork.

 

Abbott (2000), pgs 294-5

Jun-28

Collins writes to Churchill asking him to disavow Craig’s repudiation of the Boundary Commission and denounces Craig’s intention of abolishing proportional representation in local elections describing PR as an “enlightened and eminently fair system”.

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 246; Phoenix (1994), pg 244

Jun-28

Commandant T. Mandeville and Captain Vaughan (of the pro-Treaty army) are killed in an ambush on Lesson Street, Dublin carried out by anti-Treaty men from 3rd Batallion.  One anti-Treaty volunteer (John McGowan from Skerries) was killed on St Stephen’s Green and a civilian (Miss Harrison) is killed during an attack on pro-Treaty troops on Harcourt St.

Dorney (2017), pg 290 & 78

Jun-28

In the morning, pro-Treaty troops, led by Frank Bolster, attack anti-Treaty positions in Parnell Sq. One pro-Treaty soldier (Sgt William Brennan) is mortally wounded and one anti-Treaty volunteer (William Clarke of Corporation St) is killed by a sniper. Anti-Treaty positions catch fire and they retreat to North Great Georges St. Three other anti-Treaty volunteers are killed in the Parnell St/O’Connell St area over the 29th and 30th – they are Thomas Markey, Mathew Tomkins and John O’Mahoney.

Dorney (2017), pg 77 & 292

Jun -28

Pro-Treaty soldier, John Moran, is accidently shot dead by a colleague in Kilkenny Military Barracks.

Walsh (2018), pg 181

Jun-28/29

Two separate delegations try to negotiate between the sides but the anti-Treaty side refuse the pro-Treaty side demand for the surrender of arms.

 

Macardle (1999), pg 750

Jun-29

Macready meets with Collins and Mulcahy to discuss Provisional Government demands for more artillery. 

 

 

Jun-29

The military subcommittee of the British cabinet committee on Irish affairs agrees to large-scale transfer of arms and ammunition to the Provisional Government.

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 235

Jun-29

Fresh supplies of high-explosive artillery shells reach the pro-Treaty forces and they soon breach a hole in the west wing of the Four Courts.  At 11.00pm, they launch an attack on the Four Courts and soon have a substantial part of the building in their possession. Two pro-Treaty soldiers are killed (Joseph Stewart and James Walsh) and one Red Cross medic (M J Curtin).  Also, pro-Treaty soldier, Paddy Lowe (from Liverpool) is killed.

Note:  Not sure if James Walsh is the same person as James George Walsh mentioned above under More Detail on June 28th.

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 235; Dorney (2017), pgs 81 & 290 & 170; Walsh (2018), pg 180

Jun-29

Anti-Treaty forces from the Dublin No. 1 Brigade under Oscar Traynor occupy buildings on the east side of O'Connell St. including the Gresham and Hamman hotels.  Two buildings on the west side of O’Connell St and other buildings (in York St.; Sth Circular Rd.; Capel St.; Parnell Sq. and Dolphin’s Barn) are taken. Anti-Treaty HQ is initially Barry’s Hotel and then moved to the Hamman Hotel in O’Connell St. 

41 York St taken over by men under Joe O’Connor, O/C 3rd Bat and a Malt factory in Newmarket (Square?) is taken over by men from the 4th Bat.  Anti-Treaty forces also take over buildings in Dolphins Barn, Terenure and Rathfarnham police barracks.

 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 257; Hopkinson (1988), pg 123; Dorney (2017), pgs 77-79

Jun-29

Liam Lynch sets up his anti-Treaty army GHQ in the New Barracks in Limerick and takes over as Chief-of-Staff of united anti-Treaty forces again.  His GHQ staff are Ernie O'Malley (Assistant Chief of Staff); Con Moloney (Adjutant General); Joe O'Connor (Quartermaster General); Sean Moylan (Director of Operations); Dr Con Lucey (Director of Medical Services); Sean Hyde (Acting Director of Intelligence); Jim Moloney (Director of Communications); Sean McCarthy (Director of Publicity) and Maurice Twomey (General Staff Officer). Liam Deasy takes over as O/C 1st Southern Division.

 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 261; O’Callaghan (2018), pg 108

Jun-29

Anti-Treaty forces from Kerry No. 1 and No. 2 brigades, led by Humphrey Murphy and John Joe Rice, capture the pro-Treaty post of about 250 men in Listowel.  The pro-Treaty forces led by Tom Kennelly (ex-O/C 3rd Battallion, Kerry No. 1.) Pro-Treaty soldier Patrick Sheehy is killed and another wounded.  About 50 of the pro-Treaty troops join the anti-Treaty side and the rest are brought as prisoners to Ballymullen Barracks in Tralee.  The anti-Treaty forces capture a considerable number of weapons. 

The anti-Treaty forces proceed to augment the anti-Treaty forces in Limerick.

[Doyle says 30th June and O’Donoughue says 1st July – see below.]

Hopkinson (1988), pg 165; Horgan (2018), pg 89 & 130; Doyle (2008), pgs 106-107

Jun-29

In an attempt to relieve the Four Courts garrison, a strong anti-Treaty group of fighters made it way down Henry St to the corner of Capel St and Mary Abbey (only about 50 meters from the Four Courts).  A company of the pro-Treaty army were ordered to stop attacking the Four Courts and intercept the approaching anti-Treatyites losing one man (Sgt Patrick Lowe) in the ensuing fighting.

 

Dorney (2017), pg 82

Jun-29

Traynor sends an order to Joe O’Connor (O/C 3rd Bat) telling him that they were planning to organise a line of retreat for the Four Courts garrison and ordering him to attack every pro-Treaty post possible “the further that you can push inwards the more use you will be to the Four Courts”.  3rd Battalion men subsequently advanced from Dame St into Temple Bar and lost one of their men, Frank Jackson, in fighting around Crown Alley.  4th Battalion anti-Treaty men got as far as the Bridge Pub on Bridge St (right behind one of the pro-Treaty artillery positions).  They attacked the pub but had to withdraw because “the [local] people got noisy so we had to clear out”.  In subsequent actions by anti-Treaty forces, pro-Treaty Luke Condron and Sergeant John Keenan are killed on South Circular Road and Francis St. 

Dorney (2017), pgs 82-83

Jun-29

An anti-Treaty Volunteer, John Monks of Inchicore, is killed in a skirmish in Clondalkin and a civilian, John McCormack, is killed in Dun Laoghaire, Co. Dublin during an attack on a pro-Treaty Post.

Dorney (2017), pg 79

Jun-29

Captain Willie Moran, O/C Bohola Company of the anti-Treaty East Mayo Brigade is ordered to arrest Thomas Ruane of Kiltimagh as he was recruiting for the pro-Treaty army.  Ruane resists arrest and in the ensuing gunfire Moran is killed and Ruane is mortally wounded.

Price (2012), pg 220

Jun-29

Frank Aiken calls a meeting of all the 4th Northern divisional officers (including anti-Treaty men led by Patrick McKenna in Dundalk) and agree that the division as a whole would adopt a policy of strict neutrality.  Also agreed that there would be no further offensive operations in Northern Ireland.

Hall (2019), pg 101

Jun-29

Pro-Treaty forces in Donegal, led by Joe Sweeney, seize a number of number of critical posts in the county such as Finner Camp, Ballyshannon Barracks and Bridgend. In taking Finner Camp, anti-Treaty Captain James Connolly from Kinlough was killed.  (His father had been killed by the RIC – see 14th September 1920.)

Pro-Treaty forces capture anti-Treaty posts in Ballymaccool House and Rockhill House outside Letterkenny.  The pro-Treaty troops were led by James and Eddie McMonagle respectively.  A number of anti-Treaty men were captured in Ballymaccool House and pro-Treaty Lieutenant Daniel Harkin was wounded in the assault on Rockhill House and later dies of his wounds.

Anti-Treaty forces, led by Charlie Daly, evacuate a number of number of the posts they held such as Lifford, Carrigans, St Johnston and Castlefin.  The following day they also evacuate Raphoe.  (Quite a number of the anti-Treaty volunteers in the county were men from the south – mostly Cork and Kerry – who had come north to fight in the ‘Northern Offensive’.  Also, some of the IRA men from Derry and Tyrone, who had fled to Donegal after the NI government crackdown in May, were anti-Treaty.) 

Elements of the anti-Treaty Brigade from Derry City take over Inch Fort and Daly moves his HQ to Glenveagh Castle. 

Ozseker (2019), pg 178; Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 146-150

Jun-30

Provisional Government states that meeting of parliament for next day is prorogued until 15th July “for certain causes and considerations”

 

Macardle (1999), pg 767

Jun-30

Fall of the Four Courts  In the morning, there is a temporary truce at the Four Courts so that anti-Treaty wounded could be evacuated.  Soon after fighting resumes and by the evening, the pro-Treaty army has taken the Four Courts and over 100 anti-Treaty prisoners. More Detail

 

 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxii; Hopkinson (1988), pg 125; Dorney (2017), pgs 81-88; Townshend (2014), pg 409

Jun-30

On being informed of the fall of the Four Courts, the Provisional Government determined that “the attack on other Irregular strongholds should be vigorously continued”.  Also, rejects calls for a ceasefire from Labour Party, Catholic Archbishop of Dublin, a women’s delegation and others.

Dorney (2017), pg 90

Jun-30

A civilian, Thomas Daly, is killed by a burst of gunfire when looking out his window on Eden Quay, Dublin

Dorney (2017), pg 90

Jun-30?

An infant, Isabella Foster, was shot dead by a bullet that entered the window of the of her Protestant parents in the Oldpark area of Belfast.  Also, another Protestant, Mary Semple (25) was sitting in the kitchen of her home in Ardgowan St when a bullet that came through the window hit her in the chest and she later died in hospital.  (She may have been mistaken for a Catholic.) - McDermott says June 23rd.

 

Parkinson (2004), pgs 265-266; McDermott (2001), pg 259

Jun-30

Pro-Treaty troops capture anti-Treaty posts in Buncrana and Carndonagh in Co. Donegal. 

 

Jun

James Murray from Cable St., Derry killed by the B Specials when a bullet they fire at a man after curfew goes through the window of Murray’s bedroom and kills him.

 

Gallagher(2003), pg 40

Jun

In the four months beginning of March to end of June 1922, 193 people are killed in Belfast – 119 Catholics and 74 Protestants.  However, the level of violence decreases in June with 25 people killed (of whom 18 were Catholics) compared to 75 in May.  However, the number of Catholic families evicted continued to increase.  Many of these became refugees in the South or Britain. 

Phoenix (1994), pgs192 & 228-229 & 242

Jun

In the period July 1920 and June 1922, 455 people killed in Belfast alone – of whom 267 were Catholics.  8,750 Catholics had been expelled from their jobs.  23,000 Catholics driven from their homes, 500 interned and up to 50,000 are believed to have left the six counties during this period. 

Writing to Churchill, Lloyd George drew his attention to the high number of Catholic fatalities in Belfast and the significantly lower population concentration and concluded that “our Ulster case is not a very good one”.  He added: “It is true that several Protestants have also been murdered, but the murders of Catholics went on at the rate of three or four to one for some time before Catholic reprisals attained their present dimensions; and even now the proportions are two Catholics murdered to one Protestant although the population is two Protestants to one Catholic.”

 

Phoenix (1994), pgs 193 & 251; Parkinson (2004), pg 287

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