August 1922

 

Early-Aug

Pro-Treaty army stood at 12,970 men – including ‘reservists’ was over 14,000.  Well supplied with armaments by the British.

Dorney (2017), pg 123

Aug-01

Cabinet of Provisional Government sets up committee to consider its northern policy consisting of James Hogan, JJ Walsh, Desmond Fitzgerald, Ernst Blythe and Michael Hayes.

 

Phoenix (1994), pg 247; McDermott (2001), pg 265

Aug-02

450 Dublin Guards (pro-Treaty) land by sea in Fenit, Co Kerry and capture Tralee. They are led by General Paddy Daly. Paddy Quinn of Meath St in Dublin is killed in Tralee on the 3rd

 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxii; Hopkinson (1988), pg 166; Dorney (2017), pg 124

Aug-02

Fighting begins between South Tipperary anti-Treaty forces (led by Dinny Lacey and Dan Breen) and pro-Treaty forces led by Prout coming from Waterford.  The anti-Treaty forces overcome the resistance and take Carrick-on-Suir on the 3rd.  Anti-Treaty forces evacuate Cashel on the 4th.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pgs 168-169; Curran J M (1980), pg 242

Aug-02

Anti-Treaty forces counter-attack Bruree but the pro-Treaty defenders hold out until re-enforcements arrive from Limerick.

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 242

Aug-02

At a meeting between the GHQ of the pro-Treaty army and officers from the Northern IRA (including Seamus Woods O/C of the 3rd Northern Division), Collins outlines a policy of continued non-recognition of the NI government but a non-aggressive military policy – the IRA in the North would have a purely protective role.  It was also announced that Northern volunteers, who could not remain in the North, would be sent to train at the Curragh but that they would not be forced to join the pro-Treaty army.  (By the end of August, 379 men had arrived in the Curragh and this eventually rose to 524.  Of the 524 Northern IRA men who went to the Curragh, 243 joined the Pro-Treaty army.)  It was also agreed that GHQ would continue to finance divisional staff and intelligence. 

 

Hopkinson (1988), pgs 248-249; Phoenix (1994), pgs 246-247; McDermott (2001), pgs 265 and 257-258

Aug-03

Western Division of the pro-Treaty army land at Tarbert, Co Kerry with 240 men.  They garrison Listowel and Ballylongford and move on to meet up with the Tralee force.  11 Pro-Treaty soldiers killed and 114 wounded in the Kerry operations. (Dorney says 10.) After they capture the towns, enmity quickly developes between the (mostly Dublin) pro-Treaty army and the local population.

 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxii; Hopkinson (1988), pg 166; Dorney (2017), pgs 124-125

Aug-03

Churchill reports to the British cabinet “In the area of the Northern Government the position has sensibly improved: murders and incendiarism had almost entirely ceased, … This might be due to the fact that the gunmen were engaged in the South … With their return there might be a recrudescence of outrage, but for the moment life in Belfast had almost become normal.”

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 248

Aug-04

Newcastle West, Co. Limerick falls to pro-Treaty troops.  As does Ardare and Rathkeale.

Harnett (2002), pg 134; Hopkinson (1988), pg 152-153

Aug-05

Ulster Special Constable Samuel Hayes was in the Britannic public bar on the Newtonards Rd. in Belfast when a man being pursued by gunmen took refuge in the bar - the gunmen shot two customers one being S/Con Hayes and he later died form his wounds. 

 

Abbott (2000), pg 297; Parkinson (2004), pg 301

Aug-05

After considerable fighting, Kilmallock is taken by pro-Treaty Forces.  (Bruree had been taken earlier after a two-pronged attack.)  Hopkinson puts this down to the anti-Treaty forces leaving to defend their home areas from the sea landings by pro-Treaty forces.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 152; Curran J M (1980), pg 242

Aug-05

‘Night of the Bridges’ – A plan by the anti-Treaty Dublin Brigade to destroy a large number of bridges around Dublin (and thus cut Dublin of from the rest of the country) goes badly wrong when their plans are discovered by the pro-Treaty army and a large number of anti-Treaty volunteers are captured. (Anti-Treaty side claimed that the pro-Treaty troops got assistance from the British Army still stationed in Dublin on this night.)  About 250 anti-Treaty men had been mobilised and, of these, approximately 160 were captured. Dorney comments that “It was an even greater disaster for the [anti-Treaty] Dublin Bridgade than the attack on the Customs House had been in 1921”.   

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 145; Dorney (2017), pgs 114-120

Aug-05

Collins sends optimistic memo saying that no ‘definite military problem’ existed outside the Southern Division area.  Hopkinson notes that such optimism was to be disappointed.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 172

Aug-05

After a number of postponements, Colins proposes that they should “postpone parliament until we can clean up this matter [Civil War] up definitely”.

Dorney (2017), pg 105

Early-Aug

When veteran nationalist, William O’Brien complains to de Valera about the destruction of the railway bridge over the Blackwater at Mallow by anti-Treaty forces, de Valera admitted that if such tactics continue “the people will begin to treat us as bandits”.

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 245

Aug-07

Collins makes a visit to the Curragh Command and states that “The entire organisation and command is defective” – he orders that Commandant-General Price to take charge.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 157;

Aug-08

Pro-Treaty forces land at Passage West; Youghal and Union Hall, Co Cork.  Emmet Dalton led the Passage West landing with 500 men, 180 landed at Union Hall and 200 at Youghal.  Dalton led his men towards the Cork city and met stiff resistance but take the city within a few days. 

 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxii; Hopkinson (1988), pg 163; Curran J M (1980), pg 244; Dorney (2017), pg 124

Aug-08

Patrick McGuigan is shot at his workplace in Belfast and dies a few days later.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 302

Aug-09

Fighting between South Tipperary anti-Treaty forces (led by Dinny Lacey and Dan Breen) and pro-Treaty forces led by Prout at Redmondstown.  The use of 18-pounders by the pro-Treaty forces is decisive and the anti-Treaty forces retire towards the Nire valley but with their forces largely intact. 

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 169

Aug-09

Ernest Blythe, acting Minister of Home Affairs, submits a memo to the cabinet of the Provisional Government calling for a ‘peaceful policy’ towards the NI government including nationalists taking their seats in the NI parliament.  He argues that even though this policy may fail, there was some hope and the aggressive policy had failed totally to protect Catholics.

 

Phoenix (1994), pg 247; Litton (1995) pg s 107-108

Aug-09

Replying to Churchill letter of the 31st July, Collins expressed serious disappointment at Churchill’s attitude to Proportional Representation and accuses the NI government of wanting to take over the local government bodies in the border areas before the Boundary Commission starts working.

 

Phoenix (1994), pgs 247-248

Aug-09

Edward McAvoy, an anti-Treaty IRA volunteer from Belfast, is killed during an attack by pro-Treaty troops on Ferrycarrig in County Wexford. 

 

McDermott (2001), pg 271

Aug-10

An anti-Treaty volunteer, Joe ‘Sonny’ Hudson (18), is shot dead during a raid on his house in Glasthule, Co. Dublin

Dorney (2017), pg 180

Aug-10

Cork captured by pro-Treaty forces.  There was stiff resistance to the advancing pro-Treaty forces at Rochestown and Douglas with (it is claimed) eight pro-Treaty soldiers killed.  The anti-Treaty forces withdraw to Ballincollig and then (in some confusion) towards Macroom.  Major towns in west Cork soon taken by pro-Treaty forces.

 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxii; Hopkinson (1988), pg 164; Curran J M (1980), pg 242

Aug-11

Fermoy, the last town in anti-Treaty hands, is captured by pro-Treaty forces.  The first phase of the civil war is over and the anti-Treaty army reverts to guerilla tactics.

 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 266

Aug-11

A 200-strong pro-Treaty force, under Commandant Tom Scarteen O’Connor, lands at Kenmare and takes the town.  (O’Connor is one of the few South Kerry officers who had gone pro-Treaty.)  Afterwards, Rathmore, Millstreet, Valencia and Caherciveen are taken. Daly’s troops from Tralee take Killarney and Killorglin.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 166

Aug-12

Arthur Griffith, President of the Provisional Government, dies of a brain hemorrhage.  He is replaced by Cosgrave.  Comment

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxii; Hopkinson (1988), pg 140; Macardle (1999), pg 777; Curran J M (1980), pg 247

Aug-14

Frank Aiken, Commandant 4th Northern Division, throws in his lot with the anti-Treaty side and his forces capture Dundalk barracks and prison.  Aiken is supported by local brigade (commanded by Patrick McKenna) and over 300 men are said to be taken part.  Four pro-Treaty soldiers including Frank Bynre (Gavin and O’Donnell say five) and two Anti-Treaty soldiers (including McKenna) are killed.  Aiken does not hold Dundalk and three days later Dan Hogan’s men recapture the town.  One civilian (James McEvoy) was killed during the re-capture.  (Hopkinson says that even then Aiken did not declare himself anti-Treaty and only did so in September.  Macardle says capture of Dundalk barracks was on 13th and five men were killed.)

 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 269; Hopkinson (1988), pg 171; Gavin and O’Donnell (1999), pg 36; Macardle (1999), pgs 763-764

Mid-Aug

At the annual conference, Labour criticises the anti-Treatyites for acting without popular support but also criticises pro-Treaty government for waging war without Dáil support.

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 245

Aug-16

Reporting on the situation in Cork, the Irish Times states “The advance is becoming swift but the retreat, or, as I should prefer to call it, the disappearance is swifter".

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 164

Aug-18

Civic Guard is disbanded by Provisional Government

Hopkinson (1988), pg 92

Aug-19

Provisional Government formally adopts a ‘peace policy with North East Ulster’.

 

Phoenix (1994), pg 249

Aug-19

Con Moloney, Adjutant-General of the anti-Treaty forces, issues a General Order saying that “our troops will be formed into Active Service Units” not exceeding 35 men.  He also authorises that Unionist property should be commandeered to accommodate the men and ordered the systematic destruction of road and rail infrastructure. (Dorney says that it was Lynch who issued the order.)

 

Hopkinson (1988), pgs 172-173 & 195; Dorney (2017), pg 127

Aug-19

An anti-Treaty volunteer, Daniel Kane, is killed after an attack on a pro-Treaty post in Glenmalure, Co. Wicklow

 

Aug-21

Pat Stapleton, an IRA spy, who had worked as a filing clerk for the Royal Army Service Corps in Victoria Barracks in Belfast before being transferred to the office of the Military Advisor to the NI Government (Solly Flood) in this Waring Street HQ, decided to leave the six counties.  He took with him a number of files.  According to McDermott, Stapleton was the “jewel in the crown of IRA intelligence in Belfast”.

 

McDermott (2001), pgs 24, 204 & 267

Aug-22

Michael Collins is shot dead in an ambush at Béal na mBláth, Co Cork.  More Detail 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxii; Hopkinson (1988), pg 176-179; Macardle (1999), pgs 777-778; Curran J M (1980), pgs 248-250; Phoenix (1994), pgs150

Aug-22

A general report by O’Duffy of the pro-Treaty army states “The Irregulars in Cork and Kerry are still more or less intact.  Our forces have captured towns, but they have not captured Irregulars and arms on anything like a large scale, and, until that is done, the Irregulars will be capable of guerilla warfare … Our present position leaves us particularly disposed to guerilla warfare.”

 

Hopkinson (1988), pgs 164-165 & 172

Aug-23

The London Times reports that “The temporary injunction of the Supreme Court of the United States which restrains the Irregular leaders from drawing upon funds collected in that country for the republican cause has struck directly at the most sensitive part of their organisation.”

Hopkinson says that “Looting and commandeering became a necessary means for the Republican forces to survive, but served also to increase their unpopularity.”  

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 131

Aug-25

William Cosgrave is appointed Chairman of the Provisional Government, in place of Collins.

 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxii

Aug-25

Winifred Carney is arrested in Belfast and through the documents found on her the Northern authorities got “information on virtually every volunteer in the 3rd Northern Division who has ever received help from the White Cross Fund”.

 

McDermott (2001), pgs 266-267

Aug-26

A convoy of 100 men of the pro-Treaty army are ambushed between Tralee and Killorglin and their O/C Capt Burke is killed.  (Dorney says that two pro-Treaty men – belonging to the Dublin Guard - were killed.)

 

 Dorney (2017), pg 130

Aug-26

Anti-Treaty forces led by Frank Carty capture Tobercurry taking 30 rifles.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 215

Aug-26

Two young members of the anti-Treaty Fianna, Sean Cole (19) and Alf Colley (21) are picked up on NewComen Bridge in Dublin’s north inner city.  They are taken to Yellow Lane in Whitehall where both are killed.  On same day, an anti-Treaty volunteer, Bernard Daly, is taken from his workplace on Suffolk Street.  His body is found in Malahide – killed by five bullets. 

Dorney (2017), pg 177

Aug-27

Provisional Government gives authority for an Army Strength of 35,000 (including Volunteer Reserves).

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 136

Aug-27

Two anti-Treaty army men (Sean Moriarty and James Healy) captured in Tralee by Pro-treaty forces.  Healy is shot but escapes while Moriarty is killed.

 

Macardle (1998), pg 9

Aug-28

Collins buried in Dublin.

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 250

Aug-28

Two men – Luke McGrane and Anthony Brady– are shot during an armed robbery of a spirit grocer in the Oldpark area of Belfast.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 303

Aug 29

Peter Mullan (65) was shot in the head at his place of work, the Crumlin Road Picture House in Belfast.  A postman, George Higgins (30), is shot and his body was found near the isolated Musgrave Channel Road.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 303 & 304

Aug-30

Anti-Treaty forces attack Bantry.  They had captured several posts when the killings of Gibbs Ross and three other officers led to a retreat.  (Hopkinson says Ross was O/C of the 3rd Cork Brigade but probably was O/C of the 5th Cork Brigade.)

 

Hart (1998) pg 119; Hopkinson (1988), pg 203

Aug-30

Cosgrave renews Collins’ protest to Churchill about the NI government’s Local Government Bill which aimed to remove Proportional Representation.  Churchill replied that he hoped to procure some further delay.

 

Phoenix (1994), pg 250

Aug-30

British army soldier Lieutenant R.J. Story is shot dead when sitting in a taxi in Merrion Sq, Dublin

Dorney (2017), pg 302

Aug-31

End of disbandment process of RIC.  A total of 13,502 men had been disbanded including 1,158 in the Auxiliary Division of the RIC.  (Abbott when commenting on the number of RIC men who helped the IRA, states that 1,136 ex-RIC men applied for pensions to the committee set up under the 1923 Superannuation and Pensions Act and that 631 were successful.)

 

Abbott (2000), pg 295-296

Aug-31

O’Murthuile, as secretary of Supreme Council of the IRB (and then governor of Kilmainham jail), calls a meeting of senior colleagues “to meet me to discuss the situation, to take over his [Michael Collins’] I.R.B. papers, etc.”

 

Valiulis (1985), pg 97

 

 

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