September 1922

 

Sep-01

Two anti-Treaty volunteers, Leo Murray and Rodney Murphy, are shot dead when pro-Treaty troops raid the cottage in which they are sleeping in Stillorgan, Co. Dublin.  Two other anti-Treaty volunteers are wounded and captured.

Dorney (2017), pg 181

Sep-01

Liam Lynch writes to Liam Deasy saying “I know of no alternative policy of present one of fighting … At present it is a waste of time to be thinking too much about policy.”

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 134

Sep-02

Cope reports that 27,400 rifles, 6,066 revolvers, 246 Lewis guns and five Vickers guns had been supplied by the British Government to the Provisional Government.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 127

Sep-02

William O’Brien and Tom Johnson (Labour Leaders) say that Cosgrave and Mulcahy tell them that if the anti-Treaty forces disbanded, they could keep their arms ‘and the government would not molest them’.  The anti-Treatyites refuse this offer and the Provisional Government later deny ever making it.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 183; Curran J M (1980), pg 251

Sep-02

A British military intelligence report states that “several Republicans have been murdered under extremely revolting circumstances, probably as a reprisal for [the death of] Collins”

Dorney (2017), pg 178

Sep-02

Anti-Treaty forces attack Macroom using the armoured car River Lee, but it is little more than extended sniping. 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 203

Sep-Early

Liam Lynch switches Sean Hyde from O/C Western Command to be Director of Intelligence while admitting that “Our Intelligence system is in great need of organization.”  Michael Kilroy is made O/C Western Command.  Pa Murray is made O/C Britain.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 130 & 212  & 254

Sep-03

An anti-Treaty volunteer, James Stephens (originally from Beleek), is taken from his lodgings in Gardiner Street, Dublin.  He is taken out to the Naas Road where he is shot – he dies later that night in hospital.

Dorney (2017), pg 181

Sep-04

Dromahaire, Co. Sligo is taken by anti-Treaty forces.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 215

Sep-05

Following the publication of possible (but unrealistic) peace terms by de Valera, a meeting between Mulcahy and de Valera is arranged. (Mulcahy said that he agreed as he believed that de Valera had changed his views but only told Eoin MacNeill of his cabinet colleagues.)  However, nothing came of the meeting as Mulcahy was looking for agreement on the basis of the Treaty while de Valera was looking for its revision.  Rest of cabinet annoyed when they found out about this meeting. More Detail

 

Hopkinson (1988), pgs 183-184; Macardle (1999), pg 780; Curran J M (1980), pg 252; Dorney (2017), pg 134

Sep-05

Anti-Treaty Adjutant General sends an order to all Divisions telling them to “make a list of all officers [responsible for the killing of anti-Treaty prisoners] and deal suitably with them when the opportunity presents itself”

Dorney (2017), pg 183

Sep-06

An Irish Times special correspondent states that “There is no doubt that Mr [Erskine] Childers is the chief military brain among the Irregulars”.  This is untrue but part of growing animosity (from pro-Treaty and British sides) against Childers. 

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 133

Sep-07

Writing to anti-Treaty TD Charles Murphy, de Valera recommended against anti-Treaty TDs attending the Dáil and stressed that since the Second Dáil was not legally dissolved, it could not be legally replaced by a new assembly. In the end, only one anti-Treaty TD attends.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 187; Curran J M (1980), pg 253

Sep-07

After some stalling, British cabinet acquiesces in Craig determination to abolish Proportional Representation for local elections in Northern Ireland (thus removing an important safeguard for Catholics).

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 247

Sep-08

Anti-Treaty Volunteer, Timothy Kenefick, is captured in Cork and killed while in custody – apparently after being tortured.

Dorney (2017), pg 130

Sep-09

The Third Dáil (or is it the Provisional Parliament?), elected in June, meets on September 9th for the first time after a number of postponements.  Anti-Treaty deputies do not attend except the aging Laurence Ginnell who was ejected.  (There was considerable debate among anti-Treatyites about attending but, in the end, they decide against it.)  Cosgrave was elected President of the Dáil.  There was much debate as to correct terminology but Cosgrave announces his intention to formally merge Dáil and Provisional Parliament.  Comment

 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxii; Hopkinson (1988), pg 180; Macardle (1999), pg 779-785; Curran J M (1980), pg 252; Dorney (2017), pg 138

Sep-09

Anti-Treaty forces led by Sean Hyde carry out a successful attack on Kenmare.  There are about 84 men in the attacking party and Tom ‘Scarteen’ O’Connor the pro-Treaty O/C (and his brother) are killed during the attack (apparently unarmed).  The anti-Treaty forces capture 110 rifles, 2 Lewis machine guns and considerable ammunition.  They also capture 120 pro-Treaty soldiers but they had to be let go.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 175 & 206

Sep-09

Oscar Traynor, Liam Pilkington and other jailed anti-Treaty leaders express their wish for a meeting of the anti-Treaty TDs and the election of a new President.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 186

Sep-09

Seamus Woods, leader of the Northern Pro-Treaty IRA, complains that northern volunteers in the Curragh had not been given rifles.

Phoenix (1994), pg 252

Sep-10

A convoy of pro-Treaty forces (under Commandant J. McGuinness) ambushed between Killarney and Rathmore and lost seven men.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 204

Sep-10

In a letter to Joe McGarritty, de Valera blamed the pro-Treatyites for starting the Civil War but admitted that the majority in the country were for the Treaty.  He describes Cosgrave as a “ninny” who would be “egged on by the Church” against the anti-Treatyites.

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 253

Sep-10

Anti-Treaty forces from the Kerry No. 1 Brigade take Tarbert. About this time, Abbeyfeale is also briefly taken by anti-Treaty forces.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 207

Sep-11

At Carrigaphocca Bridge, about three miles from Macroom on the road to Ballyvourney, a massive land mine kills seven pro-Treaty soldiers – including former prominent Squad member Colonel Commandant Tom Keogh.  Another killed was Raph Conway.  In the aftermath of the explosion, an anti-Treaty prisoner (James Buckley) is shot dead and his body thrown into the hole made by the explosion.  Two ex-Squad members who survived were Jimmy Conroy and James Slattery Aftermath

Boyne (2015), pg 185; Dorney (2017), pg 130

Sep-11

Writing from Cork to his Commander-in-Chief, Emmet Dalton said that “They [Anti-Treaty forces] have now adopted a type of warfare, of which they have years of experience.  They now operate over territory which they know.  They are now better armed and better trained than they were against the British.  In short, they have placed me and my Troops in the same position as the British were a little over a year ago”.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 174

Sep-11/12

Cosgrave and Mulcahy make statements to the Dáil on the events that led up to the decision to attack the Four Courts.  The motion “that the Dáil approves of the action that the Government has taken and is taking to assert and vindicate the authority of this House” is passed by 54 votes to 15.

 

Macardle (1999), pgs 785-786

Sep-12

Bomb and gun attack by anti-Treatyities on a car full of CID officers in Drumcondra in Dublin leaves two bystanders badly wounded. Same day, there is an attack on a pro-Treaty army lorry in Curzon St off the South Circular Road.  The attackers miss (injuring a civilian) and are chased through the streets.  They are caught and shot in Bishop Street killing one, Sean McEvoy. 

Dorney (2017), pg 153

Sep-12

Anti-Treaty forces led by Michael Kilroy carry out a successful attack on Ballina, Co. Mayo in which it is reported that they capture 100 rifles and 20,000 rounds of ammunition.  (Kilroy is unhappy with the drinking of his men.)  Pro-Treaty forces on their way to relieve Ballina are ambushed in the Ox Mountains and Brigadier Joe Ring is killed.  (Ring had been the only Mayo IRA officer to go pro-Treaty.)

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 175 & 213-214; Macardle (1999), pg 800

Sep-13

Writing to anti-Treaty TD Charles Murphy, de Valera outlines the three options he saw with regard to setting up governance of the anti-Treaty side: (1) ‘The Republican Party … take control, acting as legitimate Dáil’;  (2) ‘The Army Executive take control and assume responsibility’ and (3) ‘A Joint Committee be formed to decide policy for both’.  More Detail

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 187;

Macardle (1999), pg 806; Curran J M (1980), pg 254

Sep-13

Writing to Brigade O/C’s in his anti-Treaty 1st Southern Division, Liam Deasy wrote “There are indications that in many instances A.S.U.s are not properly staffed, … carry out no systematic method of attempted ambush, or other forms of attack”.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 174

Sep-13

A Protestant messenger boy, John Walker, is shot dead by a lone gunman on Little George St in Belfast.

Parkinson (2004), pg 304

Sep-13

Retired RIC man, James O’Rourke, is killed on Merchant’s Quay, Dublin – the unintended victim of an attack on pro-Treaty soldiers.

Dorney (2017), pg 153

Sep-14

Ambush by Kilroy’s anti-Treaty column on 40 pro-Treaty soldiers between Ballycastle and Belderg, Co. Mayo,

Hopkinson (1988), pg 214

Sep-14

The pro-Treaty garrison in Drumshanbo, Co. Leitrim is captured by anti-Treaty forces.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 215

Sep-14

A bomb is thrown into a group of children playing in Ton St., near Cullingtree Rd, in the west of Belfast.  Two teenagers are seriously wounded and Louisa Cannon (30) died from stomach wounds received.  Later Arthur Heany (21) was shot in the stomach in the Oldpark area of the city.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 304-5

Sep-Mid

A large sweep by pro-Treaty forces organised by General W R E Murphy converging on Ballyvourney is unsuccessful as the plans are known in advance to the anti-Treaty forces.   Murphy replaces O’Duffy as O/C of Pro-Treaty forces in Kerry and soon (as in Mayo and Sligo) closes down small outposts.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 204

Sep-16

Writing to Churchill about the Dáil’s intention to enact the Public Safety Bill, Andy Cope says “They are now going to take the gloves off”

Hopkinson (1988), pg 194

Sep-16

In response to divisional demands for more organised attacks on pro-Treaty forces, Humphrey Murphy (O/C Kerry No. 1 Brigade) says “Give ye typewriter and your index finger a rest for a few weeks, because the harvest being generally late in my Brigade, the crop of I/O’s is not yet mature and the harvesters are few.”

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 206

Sep-16

Diarmuid O’Hegarty, Director of Organisation, pro-Treaty army writes to Mulcahy saying that he is awaiting a government decision as to whether the Northern volunteers in the Curragh should be asked to decide either to join the pro-Treaty army or go back to their homes.

 

Phoenix (1994), pg 252

Sep-16

The Belfast Telegraph states “The peace of Belfast does not apparently meet with favour in some quarters, as, after a good period of welcome orderliness, some persons of the hooligan type have been doing their best to revive the awful deeds which disgraced the city several months ago.”

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 305

Sep-17

Kilroy’s anti-Treaty column raid Newport, Co. Mayo but fail to take it.  (Newport is evacuated by the pro-Treaty men on the 24th September.)

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 214

Sep-17

Members of the 3rd Battalion of the anti-Treaty Dublin Brigade, led by Joe O’Connor, attack Oriel House, HQ of the increasingly notorious Criminal Investigation Department (CID). Detective Tony Deane is shot dead.  As the anti-Treaty volunteers fled, they are followed and in a subsequent firefight in Mount St, two pro-Treaty soldiers were wounded.  One anti-Treaty volunteer, Patrick Mannion, was killed (reportedly after being shot in the leg, he was ‘finished off’ by shots to the head).

Dorney (2017), pg 169 -170

Sep-17

In the afternoon, two Catholics – Thomas McCullagh (40) and James McCluskey (41) – shot by snipers in the York St. area of Belfast.  Later, a Catholic woman – Jane Rafferty (40) - living in the Garmoyle St area was shot dead in her home in New Andrew St.  (Mrs Rafferty was probably killed by Alex Robison (‘Buck Alec’) – a notorious Protestant paramilitary and sectarian killer.)

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 305; McDermott (2001), pg 270

Sep-18

Despite what it said two days earlier, the Belfast Telegraph refers to Belfast as a “bright spot” in “the midst of the darkness and gloom that hang over southern Ireland”.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 307

Sep-18

Cosgrave introduces into the Dáil a bill to enact the Constitution of the Irish Free State.  On the following day, the Dáil agrees to the preparation of a new electoral register (for an election expected to take place in April 1923).  Macardle treats, in some detail, the debate on the constitution which carries on for some days.

 

Macardle (1999), pgs 788-799; Curran J M (1980), pg 260

Sep-19

A large sweep by pro-Treaty forces is made in North Sligo.  Nine anti-Treaty men killed while trying to escape across Ben Bulben.  Four of these were killed in suspicious circumstances – these were Brigadier-General Seamus Devins, T.D., Divisional Adjutant Brain Mac Neill (son of Eoin Mac Neill) and two men named Banks and Carroll.  It is claimed that they were killed after surrender.  There were no further major confrontations in North Sligo.  (Macardle says six Republicans were killed after surrender and that it was on the 20thDorney also says 20th.)

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 215; Macardle (1999), pg 801; Dorney (2017), pg 138

Sep-19

Anti-Treaty volunteer 19-year old Bertie Murphy had been captured a few days before by Pro-Treaty forces near Castleisland, Co. Kerry.  He was taken prisoner to the Great Southern Hotel, Killarney where he was killed in the aftermath of an ambush by anti-Treaty forces.  The pro-Treaty forces said that he was killed in an ambush in Brennan’s Glen. Dorney says that he was killed on the 27th.

 

Macardle (1998), pgs 9-10; Dorney (2017), pg 131

Sep-20

The armoured car The Ballinalee is recaptured by pro-Treaty forces at Ballintrillick/Glencar, Co. Sligo.  Anti-Treaty Captain Henry Benson and Volunteer Joseph Banks are killed in this engagement.

 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg 142 & 143

Sep-21

Constitution Bill passes its second reading in the Dáil by 47 to 16.

Curran J M (1980), pg 261

Sep-21

Writing to Richard Mulcahy, Seamus Woods (O/C 3rd Northern Division IRA and now in Pro-Treaty army) says he has detected a marked change in the attitude of some GHQ staff since the death of Collins and that Dublin was revising its policy and deciding that it could no longer fight the British authorities in the Six Counties.  McDermott says that demoralisation was setting in with the northern pro-Treaty IRA with some drift towards of the anti-Treaty IRA.  (Most northern IRA men had gone pro-Treaty.)  Woods writes a longer angrier memo to Mulcahy on 29th September.

 

Gallagher (2003), pg 41; McDermott (2001), pg 274; Phoenix (1994), pgs 252-253

Sep-21

An attack on a pro-Treaty army lorry on Eden Quay in Dublin results in the death of one soldier, James Kennedy, and the wounding of three other soldiers and three civilians. Roadblocks and checkpoints had become a normal feature of the city by this stage.

Dorney (2017), pg 153

Sep-22

A Protestant, James Spratt (50), was shot dead by police in Westmoreland St in Belfast as he was breaking curfew trying to go to feed his donkey.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 306

Sep-22

A pro-Treaty soldier is killed in a grenade attack in Eden Quay in Dublin.  An anti-Treaty volunteer, Michael Neville (who works in Mooney’s pub on Eden Quay) is arrested – he is taken to Killester in the north side of Dublin and shot four times.

Dorney (2017), pgs 181-182

Sep-24

Ernie O’Malley writes to Liam Lynch saying that “We consider it imperative that some sort of Government, whether a Provisional or a Republican or a military one, should be inaugurated at once”.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 186

Sep-24

An anti-Treaty ASU attacking a pro-Treaty post in Glendalough, Co. Wicklow is suprised when a 50-strong pro-Treaty army partrol arrives on the scene but they manage to escape with three of their number captured and two wounded.

Dorney (2017), pg 163

Sep-24

A pastoral letter from the RC Bishop of Cork, Dr Cohalan, saying that “the killing of National soldiers is murder” was read in all churches in the diocese.

 

Macardle (1999), pg 801

Sep-25

Available anti-Treaty members of the Dáil meet secretly in Dublin and constitute themselves as a Republican Government.  They appoint de Valera as President and also a 12-member Council of State.

 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 277

Sep-27

Dáil passes (by 48 votes to 18) a Public Safety Bill setting up military courts with the power to sentence prisoners to death for offenses such as the possession of arms and the aiding and abetting of attacks on government forces. An amnesty was given until the 15th October if anyone surrendered and gave up their arms. Labour oppose and Kevin O’Higgins made a strong speech condemning Erskine Childers describing him as “the able Englishman who is leading those who are opposed to this Government” (Macardle says measure was passed by 47 votes to 15 and Curran agrees. Dorney says that it was passed by 41 votes to 18.)

 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 273; Hopkinson (1988), pg 181; Macardle (1999), pgs 802-804; Curran J M (1980), pg 256; Dorney (2007), pgs 207-209

Sep-27

Anti-Treaty forces carry out an abortive attack on Killorglin.  About 500 are in the attacking party led by Sean Hyde and Humphrey Murphy but they fail to dislodge sixty Claremen defenders. There are conflicting claims about casualties but at least two anti-Treaty men are killed, 15 wounded and 14 captured.  (The body of one of the captured men, John Galvin, is found next day at Ballyseedy Wood.) Macardle says there are four anti-Treaty volunteers killed and 20 captured.  Also says Galvin was killed four days later when the prisoners were being brought to Tralee.  (Macardle says attack took place on the 25th.)

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 206-207;  Macardle (1998), pgs 10-11

Sep-30

A long and angry memo from Seamus Woods, Northern pro-Treaty leader, to Mulcahy complaining about southern government shift in policy to Northern Ireland and seeks answers to specific questions. 

 

Phoenix (1994), pgs 252-253

Sep-30

Mayor of Derry summons a conference of Nationalist and Sinn Féin members of the Northern Parliament with a view to establishing a united platform of northern nationalists.  It is welcomed by Devlin but gets a hostile reaction from pro-Treaty Sinn Féin and border nationalists.  This is part of campaign of Devlinites to find a way, in the words of one of his supporters to “take the leadership of the northern nationalists, and find the path clear to his entry into the Belfast Parliament”.  The two surviving pro-Treaty Sinn Féin northern MPs (Sean Milroy and Eoin Mac Neill) refuse to take part. 

 

Phoenix (1994), pgs 254- 255

Sep-30

Phillip Cosgrave, uncle of President W. T. Cosgrave, is shot dead by anti-Treaty volunteers in his pub in James Street in Dublin

Dorney (2017), pg 183

Sep-30 & Oct-01

The last serious set of violent incidents in Belfast on this day and the following day in Westmoreland St in Belfast.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 306

 

 

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