October 1922



Provisional Government offers amnesty to anti-Treaty men who surrender as long as, by October 15th, they give up their arms and take no further part in the armed opposition.   Prisoners can be released if they take an oath undertaking not to use arms against the Parlaiment elected by the Irish people.  Response is limited.  (Dorney says 4th and O’Farrell says Sept 28th.)

Litton (1995) pg 111; Hopkinson (1988), pg 181; Macardle (1999), pg 804; O'Farrell (1997), pg xxii; Dorney (2017), pg 135



A letter from Fermanagh Sinn Féin leader, Cahir Healy (who is an internee on the Argenta) to Kevin O’Shiel (Cosgrave’s legal advisor), which was sent on the 30th September is discussed by Provisional Government cabinet.  Healy was seeking direction from Dublin in the light of Cosgrave’s assertion that the northern question must await the restoration of order in south.  Healy mentioned a number of problems such as the imposition of the oath on local government officials.  (Healy was pessimistic and did not expect much satisfaction from Dublin.)  The cabinet instructed O’Sheil to submit a memorandum on the subject of the north and the resulting document, called ‘The North-east: Urgent Matters’ dated 6th October, is influential on the shaping the cabinet’s attitude towards the northern minority. 


Phoenix (1994), pgs 254


Provisional Government orders that the Dáil courts be wound up.

Dorney (2017), pg 144


The last victim of the conflict in Belfast was a Catholic, Mary Sherlock (34), - she was shopping on the Newtownards Rd when she was shot in the head by a gang who had followed her into a shop.


Parkinson (2004), pg 306


O’Sheil’s memo on the North-east (see 3rd October) suggests a representative conference of north-east Nationalists to consider a number of issues including the attitude to be adopted to the northern parliament.  More Detail 


Phoenix (1994), pgs 256-257 & 259


Three members of the anti-Treaty Fianna, Edwin Hughes (17), Brendan Holohan (17) and Joe Rodgers (16) are arrested while putting up posters in Drumcondra, Dublin by Charlie Dalton, Nicholas Tobin (brother of Liam) and a driver called Feehan from pro-Treaty Army Intelligence.  The posters allegedly called for the killing of “the murder gang also known as military intelligence and so-called CID men”.  They were taken to Wellington Barracks and, according to the pro-Treaty army, were released shortly afterwards.  However, the following day, the bodies of the three boys were found in a quarry near Clondalkin.  Known as the Red Cow Murders.

Dorney (2017), pgs 186-187


An anti-Treaty prisoner (Patrick Mulrennan) is shot dead in Athlone jail by Lawlor, a Pro-Treaty officer (who is defended by Mac Eoin).

Macardle (1999), pg 838


Henry Moore is shot dead in raid on his house by anti-Treaty volunteers in Stillorgan, Dublin

Dorney (2017), pg 303


Anti-Treaty leader, Peadar Breslin, who had been captured after the fall of the Four Courts, is shot dead during an attempt to escape from Mountjoy. Two pro-Treaty military police officers and a soldier are also killed in this escape attempt. 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg 145; Dorney (2017), pg 201


In a memo by O’Sheil for the Free State cabinet, he states that the decision of the Northern Government to abolish PR for local elections and to hold urban elections based on the pre-1919 electoral areas meant that the Unionists would recapture Derry city, Downpatrick, Armagh and possibly some others.  Despite protests (particularly from Derry Council) the Northern Government proceeded with these measures and also introduced a mandatory oath of allegiance.


Phoenix (1994), pgs 260-261


Catholic bishops issue a joint pastoral stressing the importance ‘of supporting the national government’.  Of the anti-Treaty forces, it said “They carry on what they call a war, but which, in the absence of any legitimate authority to justify it, is morally only a system of murder and assassination of the national forces”.  They go on to say that “A Republic without a popular recognition behind it is a contradiction in terms.”  They express the hope that they will take advantage of the Government’s offer.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 182; Macardle (1999), pg 804


A report by the anti-Treaty army states “Indiscipline is reported to be common amongst our Troops, especially in the Clonmel area”

Hopkinson (1988), pg 209


Army Emergency Powers bill is made effective by Provisional Government after the end of the amnesty period.  (It was passed by the Dáil on 28th Sept.)  Gives military courts power to impose death sentences.  (Hopkinson says this happened on the 9th Oct and announced on the 12th Oct.)  Proclamation issued by the Pro-Treaty army given in full as Appendix 28 in Macardle.


O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxiii; Hopkinson (1988), pg 181; Macardle (1999), pg 805; Curran J M (1980), pg 256

Oct 16-17

Anti-Treaty Executive meets in Mrs Nugent's, Poulatar, Ballybacon, and decides on the minimum terms that would be accepted in any peace negotiations.  Also agrees to the formation of a Republican Government and pledges this Government support and allegiance "while it functions as the Government of the Republic".  De Valera was to be ‘President of the Republic and Chief Executive of the State’.  More Detail 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 271; Hopkinson (1988), pg 128 & 188; Macardle (1999), pgs 806-808; Curran J M (1980), pgs 254-255


Writing to McGarrity, de Valera states that “I do not care what Republican Government is set up so long as some one is – only I will not take responsibility if I do not get the corresponding authority to act in accordance with my best judgment”.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 188


In London, the Conservative MPs meet in the Carlton Club and agree 187 to 87 to end the Coalition.  They also decide to replace the Conservative-Liberal Coalition with an exclusively Conservative one under Andrew Bonar Law (who replaced Chamberlain as leader) as Prime Minister. Shortly after taking office, Bonar Law announced that his government would honour the Coalition government’s commitment to Ireland.  In a subsequent election, Conservatives gain overall majority of 87.

Curran J M (1980), pg 262


A delegation of prominent unionists (including Dr John Bernard, Provost of TCD and Lord Desart) meet with Cosgrave and are impressed with his desire to restore stability and keeping them in the country.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 196


Anti-Treaty ASU robs the government pay office of £200.  One of many robberies carried out by the anti-Treay side.

Dorney (2017), pg 157


Pro-Treaty soldier, Sean Sullivan (only 16-years old) accidently shot by one of his own officers in Corporation St, Dublin.  Similarly, Nicholas Tobin (brother of Liam Tobin) is accidently shot by one of his comrades during a pro-Treaty raid in Gardiner St in Dublin.

Dorney (2017), pg 167


The Dáil enacts the Constitution of Saorstát Éireann (Irish Free State).

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxiii; Curran J M (1980), pg 261


After the meeting of the anti-Treaty IRA Executive on the 16th and 17th, anti-Treaty TDs meet and agree to form a cabinet ‘to be temporarily the Supreme Executive of the Republic and the State until such time as the elected Parliament of the Republic can freely assemble, or the people being rid of external aggression are at liberty to decide freely how they are to be governed’.  More Detail 


Hopkinson (1988), pg 188; Macardle (1999), pg 808; Curran J M (1980), pg 255


The decisions of the Anti-Treaty TDs were publicised on the 26th and, on the 28th, the Executive of the anti-Treaty IRA army allegiance to the new government.


Curran J M (1980), pg 255


At a meeting of the 1st Southern Division of the anti-Treaty forces, the situation of the five Cork brigades was reviewed and it was admitted that the organisation was very weak in most brigades.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 202


An anti-Treaty volunteer (John Lawlor) is killed during a raid by pro-Treaty forces on Ballyheigue, Co. Kerry.  (It is claimed that he was wounded and then captured.  Early next morning he was killed by his captors.)


Macardle (1998), pg 11


A second attack on the HQ of the CID (Oriel House) fails after a bomb intended to blow open a door is too powerful and blows up the first floor of the building which prevents the attackers laying a more powerful bomb which was intended to blow up the whole building. Three anti-Treaty volunteers arrested – they are subsequently executed on the 30th November.

Dorney (2017), pgs 170-172


Joe O’Connor (‘Holy Joe’), O/C of 3rd Battalion, anti-Treaty Dublin Brigade is captured

Dorney (2017), pg 175


Tom Maguire, divisional O/C of the anti-Treaty army in Mayo is captured as is Tom Powell and the Ballinrobe column.


O’Farrell (1997), pg 176


Statement from Irish Catholic bishops condemning the anti-Treaty campaign.

Dorney (2017), pg 150


Pro-Treaty soldier, Joseph Reardon, is accidently shot and mortally wounded by one of his own comtrades in the Crown Alley telephone exchange, Dublin

Dorney (2017), pg 167


The pro-Treaty government sets up the Railway Protection and Maintenance Corps under Charles Russell.  Given the extensive damage to the railways lines, engines, bridges and other railway property carried out by the anti-Treaty forces, Hopkinson comments that ‘At best the Railway Corps had been a successful example of damage limitation’


Hopkinson (1988), pgs 198-200


A column of the 1st Southern Division of the anti-Treaty forces led by Tom Barry successfully attack Ballineen and Enniskean.   Also, Ballyvourney attacked a number of times during this period.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 203


Raid by anti-Treaty forces from Connemara and Mayo on Clifden and after a long fight they take it.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 215



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