October 1922


At Knocklagh, between Clonmel and Cahir, Co. Tipperary a Crossley tender, with twelve pro-Treaty soldiers on board, is ambushed by an anti-Treaty column led by Paddy Dalton. 

Three pro-Treaty soldiers – Captain Joseph Walsh, Private Thomas Brownrigg and Private Patrick Hayes – die as a result of this ambush and one is injured.  After a short fire fight, the pro-Treaty soldiers surrender.  They are disarmed and allowed to return to Clonmel with their dead, dying or injured colleagues.


Walsh (2018), pgs 204-205


After passing the Public Safety Bill (see Sep-27-22/1), the Provisional Government offers amnesty to anti-Treaty men who surrender as long as, by October 15th, they give up their arms and take no further part in the armed opposition.   Prisoners can be released if they take an oath undertaking not to use arms against the Parliament elected by the Irish people.  The response is limited. 

(Dorney says October 4th; Kissane says amnesty published on October 5th and O’Farrell says September 28th.) 

See also Jul-10-22/1.


Litton (1995) pg 111; Hopkinson (1988), pg 181; Macardle (1999), pg 804; O'Farrell (1997), pg xxii; Dorney (2017), pg 135; Kissane (2005), pg 107



A letter from Fermanagh Sinn Féin leader, Cahir Healy (who is an internee on the Argenta) to Kevin O’Shiel (Cosgrave’s legal advisor), which was sent on September 30th is discussed by Provisional Government cabinet. 

Healy was seeking direction from Dublin in the light of Cosgrave’s assertion that the northern question must await the restoration of order in south.  Healy mentioned a number of problems such as the imposition of the oath on local government officials.  (Healy was pessimistic and did not expect much satisfaction from Dublin.) 

The cabinet instructed O’Sheil to submit a memorandum on the subject of the north and the resulting document, called ‘The North-east: Urgent Matters’ dated October 6th, is influential on the shaping the cabinet’s attitude towards the northern minority – see Oct-06-22/2.


Phoenix (1994), pgs 254


Provisional Government orders that the Dáil courts be wound up.


Dorney (2017), pg 144


Four anti-Treaty men are arrested in Edinburgh for attempting to steal arms for a BA drill hall.

McMahon goes on to say that “dozens of arrests and weapon seizure between November 1922 and January 1923 led to the capture of senior [anti-Treaty] IRA officers and the breakup of the IRA smuggling networks”.  According to McMahon, the British were getting intelligence from the Cosgrave government in Dublin (something that did not occur under Collins).


McMahon (2008), pg 106


The last victim of the contemporary round conflict in Belfast was a Catholic, Mary Sherlock (34).  She was shopping on the Newtownards Rd when she was shot in the head by a gang who had followed her into a shop. 

(McMahon claims that it was after this killing that the UPA leaders were interned.  However, this did not occur for another month – see Nov-05-22/2.)


Parkinson (2004), pg 306; Parkinson (2020), 246; McMahon (2008), pg 155


According to Ó Ruairc, an ambush by anti-Treaty forces on a pro-Treaty convoy at Tullycrine, Co. Clare turns into a running battle during which anti-Treaty Lieutenant Michael J. Keane from Gortglass was killed. According to Power, Lieutenant Keane from Kildysart was killed when pro-Treaty forces were carrying out a sweep in the Tullycrine area.


Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 312; Power (2020), pg 110


O’Sheil’s memo on the North-east (see Oct-03-22/2) suggests a representative conference of north-east Nationalists to consider a number of issues including the attitude to be adopted to the NI parliament. 

More Detail 


See Oct-10-22/2.


Phoenix (1994), pgs 256-257 & 259; Matthews (2004), pg 97


Three members of the anti-Treaty Fianna, Edwin Hughes (17), Brendan Holohan (17) and Joe Rodgers (16) are arrested while putting up posters in Drumcondra, Dublin by Charlie Dalton, Nicholas Tobin (brother of Liam) and a driver called Feehan from pro-Treaty Army Intelligence. 

The posters allegedly called for the killing of “the murder gang also known as military intelligence and so-called CID men”.  They were taken to Wellington Barracks and, according to the pro-Treaty army, were released shortly afterwards.  However, the following day, the bodies of the three boys were found in a quarry near Clondalkin.  Known as the Red Cow Murders.


Dorney (2017), pgs 186-187; Dolan and Murphy (2018), pg 278


An anti-Treaty prisoner (Patrick Mulrennan) is shot in Custume Barracks, Athlone by Brigadier General Lawlor, the Pro-Treaty officer who was O/C of the Claremorris Command.  Mulrennan subsequently dies of his wounds.  (Lawlor’s actions are defended by Sean Mac Eoin.)


Macardle (1999), pg 838; Price (2012), pg 259


About 30 anti-Treaty prisoners escape via a tunnel from the Curragh internment camp.  Nine are later recaptured on the Kildare-Meath border.

D urney (2011), pg 97


In the week ending October 7th, at least 68 anti-Treaty volunteers are captured in Kerry.  (Doyle puts this down to information supplied by members of the public.)


Doyle (2008), pgs


An Intelligence Report by the Dublin District of the BA states that on the anti-Treaty side political leaders were ceding power to the Bolshevik and the gunman while on the pro-Treaty side the frequent resort to reprisals and ill-treatment of prisoners was alienating the general public from the Provisional Government.


Kissane (2005), pgs 84-85


Thomas Murphy, QM 7th of Kildare’s anti-Treaty Brigade, is captured at Blackwood, Co Kildare.


Durney (2011), pg 97


Writing to Liam Lynch, Ernie O’Malley (writing from the HQ of the Northern and Eastern commands of the anti-Treaty army) says that “the men are scattered and the equipment and armaments poor” but goes on to say “peace talk and peace negotiations must be definitely hit on the head”.


Ferriter (2021), pg 55


Henry Moore is shot dead during a raid on his house by anti-Treaty volunteers in Stillorgan, Dublin.


Dorney (2017), pg 303


Anti-Treaty leader, Peadar Breslin, who had been captured after the fall of the Four Courts, is shot dead during an attempt to escape from Mountjoy. Two pro-Treaty military police officers and a soldier are also killed in this escape attempt.


O'Farrell P (1997), pg 145; Dorney (2017), pg 201


In a memo by O’Sheil for the pro-Treaty cabinet, he states that the decision of the Northern Government to abolish PR for local elections and to hold urban elections based on the pre-1919 electoral areas meant that the Unionists would recapture Derry city, Downpatrick, Armagh and possibly some others.  Despite protests (particularly from Derry Council) the Northern Ireland Government proceeded with these measures and also introduced a mandatory oath of allegiance.


Phoenix (1994), pgs 260-261


Catholic bishops issue a joint pastoral stressing the importance “of supporting the national government”. 

Of the anti-Treaty forces, the pastoral said they are “Carrying on what they call a war, but which, in the absence of any legitimate authority to justify it, is morally only a system of murder and assassination of the National forces … the guerrilla warfare now carried out by the Irregulars is without moral sanction, and therefore the killing of National soldiers in the course of it is murder before God”. 

The pastoral goes on to say that “A Republic without a popular recognition behind it is a contradiction in terms.”  It also says that the anti-Treaty men “have caused more damage to Ireland in 3 months than could be laid to the charge of British rule in so many decades”.  The bishops ban the anti-Treaty forces from receiving sacraments while they opposed the Provisional Government in arms. They express the hope that they will take advantage of the Government’s offer of an amnesty.

The pastoral was read at all masses on October 22nd.  As the pastoral was issued subject to an appeal to the Holy See, Count Plunkett set up a Catholic Appeal Committee to appeal to the Pope to reverse the Bishops’ pastoral but this appeal fails.

See Oct-16 to 17-22/1.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 182; Macardle (1999), pg 804; Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 311; Walsh (2018), pg 205; Hall (2019), pg 113; Dorney (2017), pg 150; Power (2020), pg 103; Ferriter (2021), pg 83; Kissane (2005), pgs 89 & 129 & 160


A pro-Treaty sentry, Timothy Goggin, is shot in the head by a sniper in Fenit, Co. Kerry.


Doyle (2008), pg 200


A report by the anti-Treaty army states “Indiscipline is reported to be common amongst our Troops, especially in the Clonmel area”.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 209


Retired RIC constable, Patrick Clancy, is shot and mortally wounded by three men armed with revolvers in Leitrim St., Cork City.


Abbott (2019), pg 379; Power (2020), pg 111


Anti-Treaty officer, Seamus Mulrennan, is killed when leading an ambush against pro-Treaty forces at Lisacul, Co. Roscommon.  (His brother, Patrick, had been killed in Custume Barracks in Athlone on October 6th – See Oct-06-22/4.)


Price (2012), pg 259


Pro-Treaty Commandant Buggle is wounded during an ambush on his car by Paddy Mullaney’s anti-Treaty column at Louisa Bridge between Leixlip and Maynooth, Co. Kildare.


Durney (2011), pg 97


The railway bridge between Sallins and Staffan, Co. Kildare is blown up and another outside Kildare town is destroyed four days later.


Durney (2011), pg 100


Pro-Treaty soldier, Private Gilligan, is shot in the stomach when chasing a prisoner in Tralee, Co. Kerry.  He dies of his wounds on October 18th.


Doyle (2008), pg 200


Large escape by anti-Treaty prisoners from Newbridge Barracks in Co. Kildare – 149 prisoners escape of whom 37 are recaptured.

(Durney says October 14th but Ó Duibhir says October 22nd.)

Durney (2011), pgs 109-117;  Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 206-209


Public Safety Bill is made effective by pro-Treaty Government after the end of the amnesty period.  (It was passed by the Dáil on September 27th.)  Gives military courts power to impose death sentences, etc – see Sep-27-22/1.

Proclamation issued by the rro-Treaty army given in full as Appendix 28 in Macardle.


O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxiii; Hopkinson (1988), pg 181; Macardle (1999), pg 805; Curran J M (1980), pg 256


Writing from Donegal to Ernie O’Malley, Sean Lehane, O/C 1st Northern Division (anti-Treaty) says “we are funking [the] fight here and stealing about the place like Criminals. I suppose it is only a matter of time until we are rounded up … there is not a fighting chance, the people are out of sympathy with us”.

Ferriter (2021), pg 66

Oct-16 to 17-22/1

Anti-Treaty Executive meets in Mrs Nugent's, Poulatar, Ballybacon, Co. Tipperary and decides on the minimum terms that would be accepted in any peace negotiations.  Also agrees to the formation of an anti-Treaty Government and pledges this Government support and allegiance "while it functions as the Government of the Republic".  De Valera was to be ‘President of the Republic and Chief Executive of the State’. 

More Detail 

See Oct-25-22/2.

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 271; Hopkinson (1988), pg 128 & 188; Macardle (1999), pgs 806-808; Curran J M (1980), pgs 254-255; Hall (2019), pg 115; Kissane (2005), pgs 89-91 & 107


Pro-Treaty soldier, Lieutenant Joseph Hanrahan from Limerick City, is fatally wounded.

See cDec-24-22/1.


O’Callaghan (2018), pg 114


At Kilmanagh, near Urlingford, Co. Kilkenny, a pro-Treaty patrol (under Captain Anthony Lalor) is ambushed by an anti-Treaty column.  The firefight lasts for three hours and results in the death of one anti-Treaty volunteer, Thomas O’Dea from Mitchelstown, Co. Cork and one pro-Treaty man, Patrick Quigley from Tullaroan, Co. Kilkenny.  A number of anti-Treaty men are captured along with two rifles and a Lewis machine gun.


Walsh (2018), pg 206


Tom Maguire, O/C anti-Treaty 2nd Western Division, is captured near Shrule, Co. Mayo.  He is sentenced to death in January 1923.  He is replaced by Christie Mackin.


Price (2012), pg 232


Aghadoe House in Co. Kerry is burned down by anti-Treatyites to ensure that it was not used by their enemy.

Doyle (2008), pgs 198-199


Writing to Joe McGarrity in the United States, de Valera states that “I do not care what Republican Government is set up so long as someone is – only I will not take responsibility if I do not get the corresponding authority to act in accordance with my best judgment”.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 188


In London, Conservative MPs meet in the Carlton Club and agree 187 to 87 to end the Coalition.  They also decide to replace the Conservative-Liberal Coalition with an exclusively Conservative government.  Matthews claims that “The seething discontent about this issue [the Treaty with Ireland] was at the bottom of the Conservative revolt” – see Oct-27-22/4.

Llyod George resigns on this date. However, before he left office he writes to Cosgrave saying that Britain was still pledged to ratify the Free State Constitution by the December 6th deadline (and this was released to the press). 

Andrew Bonar Law was re-elected leader of the Conservatives (to replace Austen Chamberlain).  Shortly after taking office as Prime Minister, on October 23rd, Bonar Law announced that his government would honour the Coalition government’s commitment to Ireland.  

In a subsequent election on November 15th, Conservatives gain overall majority of 87.

McMahon quotes A. J. P. Taylor as saying that the new British cabinet was “strikingly Conservative, even obscurantist, in composition”.

Vincent Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire, was made Colonial Secretary and therefore in charge of Irish affairs in the British Cabinet.


Curran J M (1980), pg 262; Fanning (2013), pg 339; Matthews (2004), pgs 86-88 & 92; McMahon (2008), pg 91


A delegation of prominent unionists (including Dr John Bernard, Provost of TCD and Lord Desart) meet with Cosgrave and are impressed with his desire to restore stability and to keeping them in the country.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 196


Anti-Treaty ASU robs the government pay office in Dublin of £200.  One of many robberies carried out by the anti-Treaty side at this time.


Dorney (2017), pg 157


Pro-Treaty soldier, Sean Sullivan (only 16-years old) is accidently shot by one of his own officers in Corporation St, Dublin. 

Similarly, Nicholas Tobin (brother of Liam Tobin) is accidently shot by one of his comrades during a pro-Treaty raid in Gardiner St., Dublin.


Dorney (2017), pg 167


Pat O’Connor, anti-Treaty O/C, 2nd Battallion, Kerry No. 1 brigade is captured in Ballyronan near Ballyheigue along with PJ O’Halloran.  Both are sentenced to death but this is later commuted to five years’ penal servitude.


Horgan (2018), pgs 212-214; Doyle (2008), pg 206


A pro-Treaty convoy of an armoured car and a Crossley tender, on its way from Limerick City to Tralee, Co. Kerry is ambushed at Duagh village resulting in the death of Sergeant John Browne and the wounding of one other pro-Treaty soldier.


Doyle (2008), pg 204


Pro-Treaty soldiers discover a dugout being used by anti-Treaty volunteers near Annagh outside Tralee, Co. Kerry. The anti-Treaty men escape except one, Billy Myles, who is wounded and later dies of his wounds.


O’Shea (2021), pg 160


Thirty-eight members of the new (and unarmed) Garda Síochána, under the command of Superintendent Brennan, take over the old RIC barracks in Lady Lane, Waterford City. 


McCarthy (2015), pg 113


A pro-Treaty army lorry is ambushed at Lawlor’s Cross, Rockfield outside Killarney, Co. Kerry.  A pro-Treaty army soldier, Corporal John Corcoran, is killed and two other wounded.


Doyle (2008), pg 207


Two pro-Treaty soldiers, Patrick Foley and Laurence Phelan are killed.  They were part of a patrol searching for Paddy Curran’s anti-Treaty ASU in the mountains in Waterford. 


McCarthy (2015), pg 113


A pro-Treaty soldier, James Burke, who is on sentry duty in Cashel, Co. Tipperary, accidently fired his rifle.  The bullet passes through his body and he dies instantly.


Walsh (2018), pg 206


Pro-Treaty soldier, Sergeant James Marum, is killed in Kerry.

Doyle (2008), pg 207


The Leinster Leader reports that one pro-Treaty officer (Lieutenant John Keogh from Dublin) is killed in a shoot-out between a number of pro-Treaty men and two anti-Treaty men (including Kildare O/C Jim Dunne) outside a dance hall in Johnstown, Kill, Co. Kildare.


Durney (2011), pgs 134-135


Corporal James Dunne is accidently killed in the pro-Treaty army barrack in the Workhouse in Dungarvan, Co. Waterford.  One of his fellow soldiers was cleaning a gun when a bullet was accidently discharged hitting Dunne in the stomach. (He had been a member of the Connaught Rangers and had taken part in the mutiny in India. Walsh says that he was a Sergeant.)


McCarthy (2015), pg 113; Walsh (2018), pg 207


A pro-Treaty patrol of eight men in a Crossley tender, under the command of Commandant Kenny and Lieutenant Edward Nolan, are ambushed near Graney Cross, about a mile from Castledermot, Co. Kildare. 

Three pro-Treaty privates (Edward Byrne, James Murphy and Patrick Allison) are killed and the rest of the patrol (with the exception of Lieutenant Nolan) are seriously injured.


Durney (2011), pgs 98-100


The Dáil enacts the Constitution of Saorstát Éireann (Irish Free State).

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxiii; Curran J M (1980), pg 261


After the meeting of the anti-Treaty IRA Executive on October 16th and 17th, the available anti-Treaty TDs meet secretly in Dublin and agree to form a cabinet “to be temporarily the Supreme Executive of the Republic and the State until such time as the elected Parliament of the Republic can freely assemble, or the people being rid of external aggression are at liberty to decide freely how they are to be governed”. 

More Detail 


Hopkinson (1988), pg 188; Macardle (1999), pg 808; Curran J M (1980), pg 255; Kissane (2005), pg 90


A pro-Treaty convoy is ambushed at Ballyrobert between Ardfert and Abbeydorney in Co. Kerry.  A pro-Treaty soldier, Private Gilchrist, is killed and another pro-Treaty soldier in wounded.

Also, on this day, a pro-Treaty patrol came across some anti-Treaty men removing the contents of a cargo boat at Dungeel, three miles outside Killorglin, Co. Kerry.  In the ensuing firefight, anti-Treaty man William O’Riordain is killed and two other anti-Treaty volunteers were wounded.

Further, on this same day, anti-treaty Captain Michael Ahern was killed at Pallas, near Beaufort Bridge, Co. Kerry.


Doyle (2008), pgs 207-208


Writing to Churchill, Cosgrave says “We share your faith in the Treaty which our nations have made and ratified and in its fulfilment we look to find goodwill and unity in Ireland and peace at last between Great Britain and Ireland and the fruits of peace”.


Kissane (2005), pgs 106-107


In an exchange of fire between pro- and anti-Treaty forces at Tonevane near Castlegregory, Co. Kerry, one pro-Treaty soldier (Private Nagle) and one anti-Treaty volunteer (William Myles) are killed. 

On the same day, pro-Treaty forces surround an anti-Treaty column at Glen Farm near Ballyheigue.  Anti-Treaty volunteer John Lawlor agrees to give firing cover and this allows the remainder of the column to escape.  Lawlor is captured – see Oct-30-22/2.


Doyle (2008), pg 208


Pro-Treaty troops carry out a large sweep of the Arigna mountains looking for the anti-Treaty column based there but are unable to locate it.


McGarty (2020), pg 120


Churchill writes “Much of the bitterness which suddenly exploded at the Carlton Club [see Oct-19-22/3] was due to the fury of the Die-Hards at the Irish Treaty.  This was the deed they could not forgive and for which they were determined to exact revenge.”  He also noted that the Treaty settlement would now be carried out by “the irony of fate”.


Matthews (2004), pgs 89-90


The decisions of the anti-Treaty TDs (see Oct-25-22/2) were publicised on October 26th and, on October 28th, the Executive of the anti-Treaty IRA army give allegiance to the new government.


Curran J M (1980), pg 255


Clifden, Co. Galway is attacked by anti-Treaty forces under Petrie McDonnell.  The attack goes on all day with one combatant on each side being killed and many wounded.  (One of the wounded was Christie Mackin, newly appointed O/C of anti-Treaty 2nd Western Division.)


Price (2012), pgs 232-234; Hopkinson (1988), pg 215


At a meeting of the 1st Southern Division of the anti-Treaty forces, the situation of the five Cork brigades was reviewed and it was admitted that the organisation was very weak in most brigades.


Hopkinson (1988), pg 202


An anti-Treaty volunteer (John Lawlor), who was captured during a raid by pro-Treaty forces on Glen Farm, Ballyheigue, Co. Kerry on October 27th (see Oct-27-22/2) is killed by his captors.

It is claimed that he was wounded when he was captured and, early next morning, he is killed by his captors. 


Macardle (1998), pg 11; Doyle (2008), pg 208


A second attack on the HQ of the CID (Oriel House) fails after a bomb intended to blow open the door is too powerful and blows up the first floor of the building which prevents the attackers laying a more powerful bomb which was intended to blow up the whole building. Three anti-Treaty volunteers are arrested – they are subsequently executed on November 30th – see Nov-30-22/1.


Dorney (2017), pgs 170-172


Joe ‘Holy Joe’ O’Connor, O/C of 3rd Battalion, anti-Treaty Dublin Brigade is captured.


Dorney (2017), pg 175


Writing to a person called Loftus, de Valera says that the problem with the Treaty is that it ignored the sentiment that made the revolutionary struggle possible.


Kissane (2005), pg 36


Pro-Treaty soldier, Joseph Reardon, is accidently shot and mortally wounded by one of his own comrades in the Crown Alley telephone exchange, Dublin.


Dorney (2017), pg 167


The pro-Treaty government sets up the Railway Protection and Maintenance Corps under Charles Russell.  Given the extensive damage to the railway lines, engines, bridges and other railway property carried out by the anti-Treaty forces, Hopkinson comments that ‘At best the Railway Corps had been a successful example of damage limitation’.


Hopkinson (1988), pgs 198-200


Parkinson estimates that 498 people were killed in troubles-related incidents in Belfast between July 1920 and October 1922.  He also notes that “The Catholic casualty rates – over 60% of the total number of conflict fatalities – was significant in a city where Protestants outnumbered Catholics by nearly three to one”.

Glennon gives the exact same figure of deaths over the same period.  (He excludes accidental deaths.)  Glennon says that the deaths are made up as follows:  4 British Army; 20 RUC/RIC; 13 Specials; 181 Protestant civilians; 23 IRA; 6 Na Fianna and 254 Catholic civilians.  Taking only civilian casualties, Catholics were 58% of the civilians killed in a city where they were approximately 25% of the population.

Glennon does caution that some of the Catholic victims may have been members of one of the republican organisations but he goes onto to conclude “Catholics accounted for only a quarter of Belfast’s population but suffered over half the fatalities of the pogrom … the overwhelming majority of the political violence in Belfast in the pogrom period was perpetrated against Catholics and nationalists”. 


Parkinson (2004), pgs 12 and 327; Glennon (2020), pgs 28-31


In late October, Frank Barrett, O/C of the anti-Treaty Mid-Clare Brigade informs his GHQ that “As a result of the capture by the enemy of nearly all the best officers in the area, the organisation showed very grave signs of collapse, consequently all our energies are directed towards reorganising”.


Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 312


A column of the 1st Southern Division of the anti-Treaty forces led by Tom Barry successfully attack Ballineen and Enniskean in Co. Cork in late October.   Also, Ballyvourney attacked a number of times during this period. (Barry had escaped from Gormanstown camp in September.)


Hopkinson (1988), pg 203; Doyle (2008), pg 234


A deputation of southern unionists, led by W. M. Jellett, MP, goes to the Colonial Office in London. They bring with them a seven-page document which says that “The destruction of the last few months is simply staggering.  It far exceeds that of 1798.  We have to go back to 1641 to find anything like a parallel.  Throughout the 26 southern counties of Ireland, murder, pillage, rapine, and arson stalk unchallenged.” They say that they are faced with republicans, Bolsheviks and the “egoist, the landless man, the unemployed desperado, the village bully, the anarchist, in fact all those who are discontented”. 

They go to propose their solution: “Southern unionists have always believed, and still believe, that the policy of the Union is the only policy that can save Ireland from itself … To the impartial observer there would appear to be now only two alternatives before this distracted country, either the speedy restoration of Imperial control or the perpetuation of chaos, misery, and murder, with the certainty that a Republic will be established in the near future”.

McMahon notes that the views expressed by the southern unionist delegation were “repeated almost daily in the right-wing Morning Post” along with “gruesome stories of loyalist persecution”. 


McMahon (2008), pgs 88-89


Two men are seen by pro-Treaty sentries approaching Lough Veagh House on the shores of Gartan Lake in Co. Donegal.  They are called on to stop and, when they fail to stop, they are fired on.  One of the men, John Fries, later dies of his wounds.


Ó Duibhir (2011), pg 203

































































































































































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