October 1922

Oct-02

At Knocklagh, between Clonmel and Cahir, Co. Tipperary a Crossley tender, with twelve pro-Treaty soldiers on board, is ambushed by an anti-Treaty column led by Paddy Dalton.  Three pro-Treaty soldiers – Captain Joseph Walsh, Private Thomas Brownrigg and Private Patrick Hayes – are killed as a result of this ambush and one is injured.  After a short fire fight, the pro-Treaty soldiers surrender.  They are disarmed and allowed to return to Clonmel with their dead, dying or injured colleagues.

Walsh (2018), pgs 204-205

Oct-03

Provisional Government offers amnesty to anti-Treaty men who surrender as long as, by October 15th, they give up their arms and take no further part in the armed opposition.   Prisoners can be released if they take an oath undertaking not to use arms against the Parliament elected by the Irish people.  Response is limited.  (Dorney says October 4th and O’Farrell says September 28th.)

Litton (1995) pg 111; Hopkinson (1988), pg 181; Macardle (1999), pg 804; O'Farrell (1997), pg xxii; Dorney (2017), pg 135

 

Oct-03

A letter from Fermanagh Sinn Féin leader, Cahir Healy (who is an internee on the Argenta) to Kevin O’Shiel (Cosgrave’s legal advisor), which was sent on the 30th September is discussed by Provisional Government cabinet.  Healy was seeking direction from Dublin in the light of Cosgrave’s assertion that the northern question must await the restoration of order in south.  Healy mentioned a number of problems such as the imposition of the oath on local government officials.  (Healy was pessimistic and did not expect much satisfaction from Dublin.)  The cabinet instructed O’Sheil to submit a memorandum on the subject of the north and the resulting document, called ‘The North-east: Urgent Matters’ dated 6th October, is influential on the shaping the cabinet’s attitude towards the northern minority. 

 

Phoenix (1994), pgs 254

Oct-04

Provisional Government orders that the Dáil courts be wound up.

Dorney (2017), pg 144

Oct-05

The last victim of the conflict in Belfast was a Catholic, Mary Sherlock (34), - she was shopping on the Newtownards Rd when she was shot in the head by a gang who had followed her into a shop.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 306

Oct-06

An ambush by anti-Treaty forces on a pro-Treaty convoy at Tullycrine, Co. Clare turns into a running battle.  Anti-Treaty Lieutenant Michael J. Keane from Gortglass was killed.

Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 312

Oct-06

O’Sheil’s memo on the North-east (see 3rd October) suggests a representative conference of north-east Nationalists to consider a number of issues including the attitude to be adopted to the northern parliament.  More Detail 

 

Phoenix (1994), pgs 256-257 & 259

Oct-06

Three members of the anti-Treaty Fianna, Edwin Hughes (17), Brendan Holohan (17) and Joe Rodgers (16) are arrested while putting up posters in Drumcondra, Dublin by Charlie Dalton, Nicholas Tobin (brother of Liam) and a driver called Feehan from pro-Treaty Army Intelligence.  The posters allegedly called for the killing of “the murder gang also known as military intelligence and so-called CID men”.  They were taken to Wellington Barracks and, according to the pro-Treaty army, were released shortly afterwards.  However, the following day, the bodies of the three boys were found in a quarry near Clondalkin.  Known as the Red Cow Murders.

Dorney (2017), pgs 186-187; Dolan and Murphy (2018), pg 278

Oct-06

An anti-Treaty prisoner (Patrick Mulrennan) is shot in Custume Barracks, Athlone by Brigadier General Lawlor, the Pro-Treaty officer who was O/C of the Claremorris Command.  Mulrennan subsequently dies of his wounds.  (Lawlor’s actions are defended by Sean Mac Eoin.)

Macardle (1999), pg 838; Price (2012), pg 259

Oct-06

About 30 anti-Treaty prisoners escape via a tunnel from the Curragh internment camp.  Nine are later recaptured on the Kildare-Meath border.

Durney (2011), pg 97

Oct-08

Thomas Murphy, QM 7th anti-Treaty Brigade, is captured at Blackwood, Co Kildare.

Durney (2011), pg 97

Oct-07

In the week ending 7th October, at least 68 anti-Treaty volunteers captured in Kerry.  (Doyle puts this down to information supplied by members of the public.)

Doyle (2008), pgs

Oct-09

Henry Moore is shot dead in raid on his house by anti-Treaty volunteers in Stillorgan, Dublin

Dorney (2017), pg 303

Oct-10

Anti-Treaty leader, Peadar Breslin, who had been captured after the fall of the Four Courts, is shot dead during an attempt to escape from Mountjoy. Two pro-Treaty military police officers and a soldier are also killed in this escape attempt. 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg 145; Dorney (2017), pg 201

Oct-10

In a memo by O’Sheil for the Free State cabinet, he states that the decision of the Northern Government to abolish PR for local elections and to hold urban elections based on the pre-1919 electoral areas meant that the Unionists would recapture Derry city, Downpatrick, Armagh and possibly some others.  Despite protests (particularly from Derry Council) the Northern Government proceeded with these measures and also introduced a mandatory oath of allegiance.

 

Phoenix (1994), pgs 260-261

Oct-10

Catholic bishops issue a joint pastoral stressing the importance ‘of supporting the national government’.  Of the anti-Treaty forces, it said “They carry on what they call a war, but which, in the absence of any legitimate authority to justify it, is morally only a system of murder and assassination of the national forces … the guerrilla warfare now carried out by the Irregulars is without moral sanction, and therefore the killing of National soldiers in the course of it is murder before God”.  They go on to say that “A Republic without a popular recognition behind it is a contradiction in terms.”  They express the hope that they will take advantage of the Government’s offer.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 182; Macardle (1999), pg 804; Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 311; Walsh (2018), pg 205; Hall (2019), pg 113; Dorney (2017), pg 150

Oct-13

A pro-Treaty sentry,  Timothy Goggin, is shot in the head by a sniper in Fenit, Co. Kerry.

Doyle (2008), pg 200

Oct-13

A report by the anti-Treaty army states “Indiscipline is reported to be common amongst our Troops, especially in the Clonmel area”

Hopkinson (1988), pg 209

Oct-13

Retired RIC constable, Patrick Clancy, is shot and mortally wounded by three men armed with revolvers in Leitrim St., Cork

Abbott (2019), pg 379

Oct-14

Anti-Treaty officer, Seamus Mulrennan, is killed when leading an ambush against pro-Treaty forces at Lisacul, Co. Roscommon.  (His brother, Patrick, had been shot in Custume Barracks on the 6th October.)

Price (2012), pg 259

Oct-14

Pro-Treaty Commandant Buggle is wounded during an ambush on his car by Paddy Mullaney’s anti-Treaty column at Louisa Bridge between Leixlip and Maynooth, Co. Kildare.

Durney (2011), pg 97

Oct-14

The railway bridge between Sallins and Staffan, Co. Kildare is blown up and another outside Kildare town is destroyed four days later.

Durney (2011), pg 100

Oct-14

Pro-Treaty soldier, Private Gilligan, is shot in the stomach when chasing a prisoner in Tralee, Co. Kerry.  He dies of his wounds on the 18th.

Doyle (2008), pg 200

Oct-14

Large escape by anti-Treaty prisoners from Newbridge Barracks in Co. Kildare – 149 prisoners escape of whom 37 are recaptured.

(Ó Duibhir says 22nd October.)

Durney (2011), pgs 109-117;  Ó Duibhir (2011), pgs 206-209

Oct-15

Army Emergency Powers bill is made effective by Provisional Government after the end of the amnesty period.  (It was passed by the Dáil on 28th Sept.)  Gives military courts power to impose death sentences.  (Hopkinson says this happened on the 9th Oct and announced on the 12th Oct.)  Proclamation issued by the Pro-Treaty army given in full as Appendix 28 in Macardle.

 

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxiii; Hopkinson (1988), pg 181; Macardle (1999), pg 805; Curran J M (1980), pg 256

Oct 16-17

Anti-Treaty Executive meets in Mrs Nugent's, Poulatar, Ballybacon, and decides on the minimum terms that would be accepted in any peace negotiations.  Also agrees to the formation of a Republican Government and pledges this Government support and allegiance "while it functions as the Government of the Republic".  De Valera was to be ‘President of the Republic and Chief Executive of the State’.  More Detail 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg 271; Hopkinson (1988), pg 128 & 188; Macardle (1999), pgs 806-808; Curran J M (1980), pgs 254-255; Hall (2019), pg 115

Oct-17

Pro-Treaty soldier, Lieutenant Joseph Hanrahan from Limerick City, is fatally wounded. See December 24th.

O’Callaghan (2018), pg 114

Oct-18

At Kilmanagh, near Urlingford, Co. Kilkenny, a pro-Treaty patrol (under Captain Anthony Lalor) is ambushed by an anti-Treaty column.  The firefight lasts for three hours and results in the death of one anti-Treaty volunteer, Thomas O’Dea from Mitchelstown, Co. Cork and one pro-Treaty man, Patrick Quigley from Tullaroan, Co. Kilkenny.  A number of anti-Treaty men are captured along with two rifles and a Lewis machine gun.

Walsh (2018), pg 206

Oct-18

Tom Maguire, O/C anti-Treaty 2nd Western Division, is captured near Shrule, Co. Mayo.  He is sentenced to death in January 1923.  He is replaced by Christie Mackin.

Price (2012), pg 232

Oct-19

Aghadoe House in Co. Kerry burned down by anti-Treatyites to ensure that it was not used by their enemy.

Doyle (2008), pgs 198-199

Oct-19

Writing to McGarrity, de Valera states that “I do not care what Republican Government is set up so long as some one is – only I will not take responsibility if I do not get the corresponding authority to act in accordance with my best judgment”.

Hopkinson (1988), pg 188

Oct-19

In London, the Conservative MPs meet in the Carlton Club and agree 187 to 87 to end the Coalition.  They also decide to replace the Conservative-Liberal Coalition with an exclusively Conservative one under Andrew Bonar Law (who had replaced Chamberlain as leader) as Prime Minister. Shortly after taking office, Bonar Law announced that his government would honour the Coalition government’s commitment to Ireland.  In a subsequent election, Conservatives gain overall majority of 87.

Curran J M (1980), pg 262

Oct-20

A delegation of prominent unionists (including Dr John Bernard, Provost of TCD and Lord Desart) meet with Cosgrave and are impressed with his desire to restore stability and keeping them in the country.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 196

Oct-20

Anti-Treaty ASU robs the government pay office in Dublin of £200.  One of many robberies carried out by the anti-Treaty side at this time.

Dorney (2017), pg 157

Oct-20

Pro-Treaty soldier, Sean Sullivan (only 16-years old) accidently shot by one of his own officers in Corporation St, Dublin.  Similarly, Nicholas Tobin (brother of Liam Tobin) is accidently shot by one of his comrades during a pro-Treaty raid in Gardiner St., Dublin.

Dorney (2017), pg 167

Oct-20

Pat O’Connor, anti-Treaty O/C, 2nd Battallion, Kerry No. 1 brigade is captured in Ballyronan near Ballyheigue along with PJ O’Halloran.  Both are sentenced to death but this is later commuted to five years’ penal servitude.

Horgan (2018), pgs 212-214; Doyle (2008), pg 206

Oct-20

A pro-Treaty convoy of an armoured car and Crossley tender, on its way from Limerick City to Tralee, Co. Kerry is ambushed at Duagh village resulting in the death of Sergeant John Browne and the wounding of one other pro-Treaty soldier.

Doyle (2008), pg 204

Oct-20

Thirty-eight members of the new (and unarmed) Garda Síochána, under the command of Superintendent Brennan, take over the old RIC barracks in Lady Lane, Waterford City.

McCarthy (2015), pg 113

Oct-21

A pro-Treaty army lorry is ambushed at Lawlor’s Cross, Rockfield outside Killarney, Co. Kerry.  A pro-Treaty army soldier, Corporal John Corcoran, is killed and two other wounded.

Doyle (2008), pg 207

Oct-22

Two pro-Treaty soldiers, Patrick Foley and Laurence Phelan are killed.  They were part of a patrol search for Paddy Curran’s anti-Treaty ASU in the mountains in Waterford. 

McCarthy (2015), pg 113

Oct-22

A pro-Treaty soldier, James Burke, who is on sentry duty in Cashel, Co. Tipperary, accidently fired his rifle.  The bullet passes through his body and he dies instantly.

Walsh (2018), pg 206

Oct-23

Pro-Treaty soldier, Sergeant James Marum, is killed in Kerry.

Doyle (2008), pg 207

Oct-23

The Leinster Leader reports that one pro-Treaty officer (Lieutenant John Keogh from Dublin) is killed in a shoot-out between a number of pro-Treaty men and two anti-Treaty men (including Kildare O/C Jim Dunne) outside a dance hall in Johnstown, Kill, Co. Kildare.

Durney (2011), pgs 134-135

Oct-24

Corporal James Dunne is accidently killed in the pro-Treaty army barrack in the Workhouse in Dungarvan, Co. Waterford.  One of his subordinates was cleaning a gun when a bullet was accidently discharged hitting Dunne in the stomach. (He had been a member of the Connaught Rangers and had taken part in the mutiny in India. Walsh says that he was a Sergeant.)

McCarthy (2015), pg 113; Walsh (2018), pg 207

Oct-24

A pro-Treaty patrol of eight men in a Crossley tender, under the command of Commandant Kenny and Lieutenant Edward Nolan, are ambushed near Graney Cross, about a mile from Castledermot, Co. Kildare.  Three pro-Treaty privates (Edward Byrne, James Murphy and Patrick Allison) are killed and the rest of the patrol (with the exception of Lieutenant Nolan) are seriously injured.

Durney (2011), pgs 98-100

Oct-25

The Dáil enacts the Constitution of Saorstát Éireann (Irish Free State).

O'Farrell P (1997), pg xxiii; Curran J M (1980), pg 261

Oct-25

After the meeting of the anti-Treaty IRA Executive on the 16th and 17th, anti-Treaty TDs meet and agree to form a cabinet ‘to be temporarily the Supreme Executive of the Republic and the State until such time as the elected Parliament of the Republic can freely assemble, or the people being rid of external aggression are at liberty to decide freely how they are to be governed’.  More Detail 

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 188; Macardle (1999), pg 808; Curran J M (1980), pg 255

Oct-25

A pro-Treaty convoy is ambushed at Ballyrobert between Ardfert and Abbeydorney in Co. Kerry.  A soldier, Private Gilchrist, is killed and another pro-Treaty soldier in wounded.

Also, on this day, a pro-Treaty patrol came across some anti-Treaty men removing the contents of a cargo boat at Dungeel, three miles outside Killorglin, Co. Kerry.  In the ensuing firefight, William O’Riordain was killed and two other anti-Treaty volunteers were wounded.

Also, on the same day, anti-treaty Captain Michael Ahern was killed at Pallas, near Beaufort Bridge, Co. Kerry

Doyle (2008), pgs 207-208

Oct-27

In an exchange of fire between pro- and anti-Treaty forces at Tonevane near Castlegregory, Co. Kerry, one pro-Treaty soldier (Private Nagle) and one anti-Treaty volunteer (William Myles) are killed. 

On the same day, pro-Treaty forces surround an anti-Treaty column at Glen Farm near Ballyheigue.  Anti-Treaty volunteer John Lawlor agrees to give firing cover and this allows the remainder of the column to escape.  Lawlor is captured – See October 31st.

Doyle (2008), pg 208

Oct-28

The decisions of the anti-Treaty TDs (see October 25th) were publicised on the 26th and, on the 28th, the Executive of the anti-Treaty IRA army give allegiance to the new government.

 

Curran J M (1980), pg 255

Oct-28

Clifden, Co. Galway is attacked by anti-Treaty forces under Petrie McDonnell.  The attack goes on all day with one combatant on each side being killed and many wounded.  (One of the wounded was Christie Mackin, newly appointed O/C of anti-Treaty 2nd Western Division.)

Price (2012), pgs 232-234; Hopkinson (1988), pg 215

Oct-30

At a meeting of the 1st Southern Division of the anti-Treaty forces, the situation of the five Cork brigades was reviewed and it was admitted that the organisation was very weak in most brigades.

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 202

Oct-30

An anti-Treaty volunteer (John Lawlor) is captured during a raid by pro-Treaty forces on Glen Farm, Ballyheigue, Co. Kerry - see October 27th.  (It is claimed that he was wounded and then captured.  Early next morning he was killed by his captors.)  Doyle says that he was killed on the 31st.

 

Macardle (1998), pg 11; Doyle (2008), pg 208

Oct-30

A second attack on the HQ of the CID (Oriel House) fails after a bomb intended to blow open a door is too powerful and blows up the first floor of the building which prevents the attackers laying a more powerful bomb which was intended to blow up the whole building. Three anti-Treaty volunteers arrested – they are subsequently executed on the 30th November.

Dorney (2017), pgs 170-172

Oct-30

Joe O’Connor, O/C of 3rd Battalion, anti-Treaty Dublin Brigade is captured

Dorney (2017), pg 175

Oct

Pro-Treaty soldier, Joseph Reardon, is accidently shot and mortally wounded by one of his own comrades in the Crown Alley telephone exchange, Dublin

Dorney (2017), pg 167

Oct

The pro-Treaty government sets up the Railway Protection and Maintenance Corps under Charles Russell.  Given the extensive damage to the railways lines, engines, bridges and other railway property carried out by the anti-Treaty forces, Hopkinson comments that ‘At best the Railway Corps had been a successful example of damage limitation’

 

Hopkinson (1988), pgs 198-200

Oct

Parkinson estimates that 498 people were killed in troubles-related incidents in Belfast between July 1920 and October 1922.  He also notes that “The Catholic casualty rates – over 60% of the total number of conflict fatalities – was significant in a city where Protestants outnumbered Catholics by nearly three to one”.

Parkinson (2004), pgs 12 and 327

Oct-Late

Frank Barrett, O/C Mid-Clare Brigade informs anti-Treaty GHQ that “As a result of the capture by the enemy of nearly all the best officers in the area, the organisation showed very grave signs of collapse, consequently all our energies are directed towards reorganising”.

Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 312

Oct-Late

A column of the 1st Southern Division of the anti-Treaty forces led by Tom Barry successfully attack Ballineen and Enniskean in Co. Cork.   Also, Ballyvourney attacked a number of times during this period. (Barry had escaped from Gormanstown camp in September.)

 

Hopkinson (1988), pg 203; Doyle (2008), pg 234

Oct-Late

Two men are seen by pro-Treaty sentries approaching Lough Veagh House on the shores of Gartan Lake in Co. Donegal.  They are called on to stop and, when they fail to stop, they are fired on.  One of the men, John Fries, later dies of his wounds.

Ó Duibhir (2011), pg 203

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