July 1920

 

Jul-01

29 IRA men from the Skibbereen Battalion (led by Bat O/C Sam Kingston, Bat V/C Neilus Connolly and Cork No. 3 Brigade QM Pat Harte) attack a five man RIC patrol on the Skibbereen to Leap road.  The IRA’s shotguns do not work (they had only shotguns) and they have to withdrew quickly under fire. 

Deasy (1973), pgs 114-115

Jul-01

At a court case in Derry, some evidence emerges of collusion between the British army and the UVF in the recent rioting and killings in the city.

Gallagher (2003), pg 28

Jul-01

RIC Constable John Tangney resigns – he later gives evidence to the American Commission on Conditions in Ireland where he outlines the gradual phasing-in of regulations permitting the use of weapons for acts of aggression.

O’Farrell (1997), pg 97

Jul-01

Bomb attack by the IRA on the King Street (now MacCurtain Street) RIC barracks in Cork City completely destroys the building and it has to be evacuated.

Leeson (2017), pg 380

Jul-01

M. Counihane from Limerick dies

O’Farrell (1997), pg 105

Jul-02

A four man RIC patrol is attacked between Dualla and Ballinure, Co. Tipperary – Sgt Robert Tobin is killed and Constable Brady is wounded.

Abbott (2000), pg 90

Jul-02

A second attack is made by the IRA on Howes Strand Coastguard.  There were 18 men in the attacking party, with 24 men doing back-up (doing scouting, road blocking, etc), under the command of Charlie Hurley (Bandon Battalion V/C) and Jack Fitzgerald.  There were 15 men in the station – after a brief fight they surrendered and the IRA captured 15 rifles and almost 10,000 rounds of ammunition.  (Deasy says mid-July.)

Deasy (1973), pgs 116-119; O’Farrell (1997), pg 34

Jul-03

A 9-man IRA party (led by Charlie Hurley V/C Bandon Battalion) ambush a four-man RIC patrol at Downdaniel Railway bridge on the Bandon-Innishannon road.  One RIC man was wounded and his rifle taken.

Deasy (1973), pg 115

Jul-04

A British Military and police conference takes place at Army GHQ (Royal Hospital, Kilmainham) and agrees, among other things, that a Divisional Commander was to be appointed by the RIC in the 5th and 6th Army Division area to improve co-ordination between Army and police.

Townshend (1975), pg 89

Jul-04

Richard Lumley, from Rear Cross, Co. Tipperary, shot dead at Ballingeary by RIC who were sniping randomly from the back of their truck as they drove through the countryside.

O’Farrell (1997), pg 56

Jul-04

P. Grant from Mullabane, Co Armagh dies.

O’Farrell (1997), pg 108

July-06

Order issued by the Inspector General of the RIC, T J Smith states that “No authorised persons will be allowed to arrogate to themselves the duties of the police.  Any such gathering of Volunteers will be an illegal assembly, the local police should take steps to disperse it and arrest the leaders.  Military aid may be invoked where necessary”

 

Gallagher (1953), pgs 80-81

Jul-09

Large British army force sent to Bellewstown (Bettystown?) races to confront ‘Republican Police’  - some caps and armbands confiscated but no arrests made.

Townshend (1975), pg 85;

Jul-09

J. Dunne from Ballintray, Ferns, Co. Wexford dies.  On this day, T. Ferry from Ballycommon, Co. Offaly also dies

O’Farrell (1997), pg 107

Jul-09

The Irish Bulletin publishes reports of the RIC ‘mutinies’ in Listowel and Killarney – see 19th June.  This led to questions in the British House of Commons.

Gallagher (1953), pg 98

Jul-10

The Schull area is organised as the 7th Battalion of Cork No. 3 Brigade.  The Battalion staff are Sean Lehane O/C; Denis Murphy V/C; Gibbs Ross Adj and James Hayes QM.

 

Deasy (1973), pgs 148-149

Jul-10

Four companies of the Manchester regiment under Lt Col Vaughan as O/C arrive in North Cork with main base in Macroom and detachments in Ballyvourney, Inchigeela and Millstreet.  HQ was in Ballincollig.

 

Sheehan (1990), pg 68

Jul-11

Members of the 5th Battalion, Kerry No. 2 (South) Brigade of the IRA attack the RIC barracks at Rathmore.  One RIC man (Constable Alexander Will) is killed in the attack which goes on all night.  (Constable Will, who was from Forfar, Scotland was the first ‘Black and Tan’ to be killed – he had been recruited in London and joined the RIC on the 30th March 1920.)

 

Abbott (2000), pg 91

Jul-11/12

IRA men from three brigades (East Limerick, North and South Tipperary) attack the RIC Barracks in Rearcross, Co. Tipperary. The RIC do not surrender despite the attack carrying on all night.  One RIC man is killed.   More Detail 

Abbott (2000), pgs 92-94; Breen (1989), pgs 116-122;  O’Malley (2001), pgs 41-65; O’Malley (1990), pgs 176-177

Jul-12

Carson, giving a speech to Orangemen at Finaghy,  tells the British government that if “you are yourselves unable to protect us from the machinations of Sinn Féin  … we will take matters into our own hands” and states “We must proclaim today clearly that … we in Ulster will tolerate no Sinn Féin  – no Sinn Féin organisation, no Sinn Féin  methods … And these are not mere words.  I hate words without action.”  A number of British newspapers, including the Times which supported Unionists in 1914, criticised Carson for his speech.

 

Parkinson (2004), pg 26

 

Jul-13

Ambush by flying column of Kerry No. 1 Brigade near Dingle results in the killing of two RIC men (Constable Michael Lenihan and Constable George Roche) and the wounding of two others (including DI Fallon).  Among the IRA men involved in the ambush were Patrick Fitzgerald, Dan Jeffers, Michael McMahon and J. Dowling.

 

Abbott (2000), pg 95

Jul-13

A six man RIC cycle patrol is attacked by the IRA under the command of Sean Finn (O/C West Limerick (Abbott says Kerry) Brigade) resulting in the death of Constable Patrick Fahey.

 

Abbott (2000), pg 95

Jul-14

A number of RIC men were making their way to the Assizes in Roscommon when they are attacked at Wakefield, near Lanesborough, Co. Longford.  One RIC man is killed (Constable  Martin Clarke).

 

Abbott (2000), pg 96

Jul-17

Lt Colonel Gerard Ferguson Smyth, RIC Divisional Commander in Munster, is shot in the Country Club, Cork city centre by IRA.  More Detail 

 

Abbott (2000), pgs 96-103; Gallagher (1953), pgs 98-99

Jul-17

Constable James Masterson is killed after being ambushed outside Newcastle, Co Limerick

Abbott (2000), pg 96

Jul-18

J. Burke from Cork dies

O’Farrell (1997), pg 103

Jul-19

Riots start in Derry when a loyalist mob attacks the Bogside.  It carries on for four days resulting in 19 (or 18) deaths.  Note: it is probable that both Macardle and O’Farrell are referring to the riots that took place in Derry on the 20th to 24th June – see above.

 

O’Farrell P (1997), pg xvi; Macardle (1999), pgs 356-357;

Jul-19

John O’Brien, a member of the Republican Police, is shot dead on patrol in Cork.

Gallagher (1953), pg 81

Jul-19

A car with four RIC men is ambushed at Aughle, near Tuam, Co. Galway.  Two RIC men are killed (Constable James Burke and Constable Patrick Carey).

 

Abbott (2000), pgs 103-104

20-Jul

RIC reprisal in Tuam after two of their members are shot by IRA – they burn the Town Hall and cause much destruction to other property.

 

Abbott (2000), pgs 103-104; Macardle (1999), pg 356

Jul-20

West Limerick Brigade of the IRA form a Flying Column at a meeting held in Dirreen, Athea.  It has about 35 men with Garrett McAulieffe (Brigade V/C) made Column Commander and Capt Michael Colbert as his V/C.

 

Harnett (2002), pg 59

Jul-21

A projected attack on Clerihan RIC barracks is called off by the South Tipperary Brigade after GHQ ordered a suspension of all attacks in the Tipperary without prior approval from them.

 

Ryan (1945), pgs 139-140

Jul-21

James Cogan (a member of the Republican Police) from Stonefield, Oldcastle, Co. Meath is shot dead by Auxiliaries as he escorts a cattle thief to his trial. [Note:  Not Auxiliaries as not operation yet – See July 27th below.]

 

O’Farrell (1997), pg 17; Gallagher (1953), pg 81

21-24 Jul

Major riots in Belfast.  On the morning of the 21st July, members of Belfast Protestant Association put up posters on gates of Queen’s Island calling for meeting of ‘all Unionist and Protestant workers’ at lunchtime.  Nearly 5,000 meet and afterwards go on rampage attacking Catholic workers.  Clothes are torn of potential victims to see if they are wearing any Catholic emblems.  Some try to escape by swimming the Musgrave Channel but are pelted by nuts, bolts, rivets, etc (called 'Belfast confetti').  Most Catholics and socialists are removed from yards by afternoon.  At least 20 men have to receive hospital treatment.   After the expulsions from the shipyards, Catholic workers are ejected from other industrial sites in the city including Sirocco Works, Musgraves, Combe Barbours, Mackies Foundary and several linen mills.   

In the ensuing three days of riots 13 people were killed (says Hopkinson but Macardle says 17;  Phoenix says 18 and McDermott says 18 made up of 10 Catholics and 8 Protestants. Parkinson names 21 people as being killed – 11 of whom would seem to have been Protestant.  During these riots, hundreds of (mostly Catholic) families are driven from their homes.  There was also the destruction of businesses and houses belonging to Catholics in Bangor, Banbridge, Dromore and other small townsMore Detail   Background & Consequences

 

O’Farrell P (1997), pg xvi; Hopkinson 2002, pg 156-157; Macardle (1999), pg 357; Phoenix (1994), pgs 87-88; Parkinson (2004), pgs 33-56); McDermott (2001), pgs 35-44 & 48

Jul-21

One RIC man is killed (Sgt Thomas Armstrong) and one is seriously wounded (Constable  Regan) when they are attacked outside the Moy Hotel, Knox St., Ballina

Abbott (2000), pg 104

Jul-21

M. Conway from Ennistymon, Co. Clare dies as does T. McDonnell from Corrunna Cross, Co. Cork.

O’Farrell (1997), pg 104 & 112

Jul-22

Magistrates in Cork city and county resign.

Macardle (1999), pg 363

Jul-22

British Cabinet Committee on the Irish Situation meets and calls for the introduction of martial law immediately.

Townshend (1975), pg 101

Jul-23

First full-scale conference between the British cabinet and the Irish Executive – no firm decisions made but conciliation and coercion camps emerging.   On conciliation side were Macready, Greenwood, McMahon, Anderson, Cope, Wylie, Curzon and Chamberlain.  On the coercion side were Tudor, Long, Birkenhead, Churchill and Craig.  Lloyd George remained neutral.  (Tudor acknowledges that “as a police force the RIC could not last much longer but he said that ‘they might have a great effect as a military body’ “ and goes on to announce that he is recruiting  500 ex-officers. Churchill asks “What ... would happen if the Protestants in the six counties were given weapons and ... charged with maintaining law and order and policing the country”

Townshend (1975), pg 101 & Hopkinson (2002), pg 64 & pg 158

Jul-23

GOC 5th Division British Army (Jeudwine) writes to COC-in-Chief (Macready) saying that situation has altered considerably for the worse and mentioned (a) the effect of the train strike on moving men and supplies – taking up a lot of available transport and (b) drift in government policy.  He says there should be either peace or war.  A war waged “with all the resources of war unsparingly used” or the British Government “must pursue peace openly at once, and make an offer of terms”

Townshend (1975), pg 90 & Hopkinson (2002), pgs 53-54

Jul-24

Three RIC men are attacked in Newenham St., Limerick by men from the E Company, 2nd Battalion, Mid-Limerick, Brigade under the leadership of William Barrett.  One RIC man (Constable William Oakley) later dies from his wounds.

Abbott (2000), pgs 104-105

Jul-24

G. W. Biggs from Bantry, Co. Cork (a Protestant businessman) writes to the Irish Times saying that “the greatest goodwill exists” between Catholics and Protestants in the area.  Three days later his business premises in burnt down – Gallagher says by the RIC.

Gallagher (1953), pg 115

Jul-25

Ballycrovane Coastguard station on Coulagh Bay (on the Beara Peninsula, Co Cork) is attacked by 15 men from the Beara Batallion IRA led by Liam O’Dwyer and Christy O’Connell.  There were about 12 marines in the stations and two of them, called Snowen and Brown, were killed during the attack.  The remaining marines surrender and the IRA capture 12 rifles, six revolvers and various other military equipment.  Castletownbere Coastguard station was attacked by the IRA (under Billy O’Neill) on the same day but this attack in unsuccessful and four IRA men are injured.

Deasy (1973), pgs 119 -125

Jul-25

Crowley’s in Ballylanders, Co. Limerick is blown up by Black and Tans.

O’Farrell P (1997), pg 23

Jul-25

RIC Detective Sergeant William Mulherin is killed after leaving (or entering) 8am Mass in St. Patrick’s church in Bandon, Co. Cork.  Deasy refers to him as the Chief Intelligence Officer for the West Riding who “took pleasure in very rough tactics with prisoners”.

Hart (1998), pg 196; Abbott (2002), pg 105-106; Deasy (1973), pgs 125-126

Jul-26

A British soldier (a member of the Essex Regiment) is killed while hunting the killer of Sergeant Mulherin.

Hart (1998), pg 196

Jul-26

Anderson informs British cabinet that more troops needed and again points to the extra manpower required due to the railway strike.

Townshend (1975), pg 109

Jul-26

Sligo IRA ambush RIC bicycle patrol

Hopkinson (2002), pg 136

Jul-26

Sir Henry Wilson says “Winston [Churchill] suggested arming 20,000 Orangemen to relieve the troops from the North.  I told him that this would mean ‘taking sides’, would mean civil war and savage reprisals, would mean, at the very least, great tension with America and an open rupture with the Pope.  Winston does not realise things in the least and is a perfect idiot as a statesman.” Churchill asked a similar question at a meeting on the 23rd July – see above. 

Bew (2016), pgs 95-96

Jul-27

RIC man (Constable  James Murray) is shot dead on the Main St. of Clonakilty, Co. Cork.  (Deasy says he was shot as he entered a greengrocer in Rossa St.)

Abbott (2000), pg 106; Deasy (1973), pg 126

Jul-27

The first member of the Auxiliary Division of RIC (‘Auxies’) is recruited – Harold PearsonsMore Information

 

Curran J M (1980) pg 37; O’Farrell P (1997), pg xvi; Townshend (1975), pg 110-111 and Abbott (2000), pgs 106-110

Jul-27

Tom Hales and Pat Harte (West Cork No. 3 Brigade O/C and Quartermaster respectively) are captured by British Intelligence as they enter Frank Hurley’s house in Laragh, outside Bandon.  They are very badly tortured by a group led by Major Percival, I/O of the Essex Regiment and assisted by Capt Kelley, Brigade I/O and Lt Keogh (Hampshire or Hants Regiment) in Bandon Military Barracks and Victoria Barracks, Cork.  Both men have to be hospitalised afterwards and Pat Harte never recovers 

Hart (1998), pg 196; Coogan (1990), pg 146; Deasy (1973), pgs 129-131; O’Callaghan (1994), pg 52; O’Farrell (1997), pg 51; Gallagher (1953), pgs 104-105

Jul-27

A republican Land Court, in session in Claremorris, Co. Mayo is raided by the RIC.  The judge rebukes them and orders them to remove their hats.  The RIC duly remove their hats.

Gallagher (1953), pg 82

Jul-29

Dublin Castle withdraws all aid to local authorities who recognise Dáil – this gives rise to severe hardship for local authorities.

Hopkinson (2002), pg 44

Jul-29

T. Harris form Bruree, Co. Limerick dies

O’Farrell (1997), pg 109

Jul-29

RIC patrol ambushed in Ballina, Co Mayo resulting in the death of one RIC man.  (Not mentioned by Abbott – perhaps attack mentioned by Abbott on Jul-21)

Hopkinson (2002), pg 133

Jul-29

Minister of Labour in the Dáil Government, Countess Markievicz, issues an order to all Sinn Féin clubs saying that men who had resigned from the RIC should be allowed to live in peace and should be supported in cases of special hardship.  Also, currently serving members should be approached via their relatives and encouraged to resign.

Macardle (1999), pg 363

Jul-29

Proposal to set up Special Police force in Northern Ireland accepted by British Cabinet’s Irish Committee.

McDermott (2001), pg 33

Jul-30

General Lucas escapes from his IRA captors near Pallasgreen (18 miles for Limerick city) and after being picked up by the British Army immediately drives into an ambush in which two soldiers are killed and two wounded.  The ambush had been set up by Sean Treacy and his men (Tipperary 3rd Brigade) in order to intercept a military patrol collecting mail from Limerick Junction.  This ambush almost turned into a disaster for the IRA.

O’Donoghue (1986), pg80; Breen (1989), pg 124-125; Ryan (1945), pgs 140-141; Hopkinson (2002), pg 121; Carroll & Toomey (2017), pgs 419-419

Jul-30

Paddy Daly and Jim Slattery (two Squad members) enter the offices of Frank Brooke and kill him.  (Brooke is Director of the Great Southern and Eastern Railways and a member of Lord French’s Advisory Council.)

Hopkinson (2002), pg 100

Jul-31

Conference in Dublin between IRA GHQ staff and some southern brigades – the three Cork Brigades are represented by Terence MacSwiney; Liam Lynch and Liam Deasy respectively – see August 1st.

O’Donoghue (1986), pg87

Jul-31

J. Mulcahy from Nicker, Co. Limerick dies.

O'Farrell P (1997), pg 114

Jul

Andy Cope is appointed Assistant Undersecretary

Curran J M (1980), pg36

Jul

Attack on a convoy of the Manchester Regiment between Macroom and Ballyvourney results in the death of Capt Airy and the three others wounded.  O’Callaghan names him as Capt Airey and says one other of the wounded dies.

Sheehan (1990), pg 70; O’Callaghan (1974), pgs 26-27

Jul

Field Marshall Sir Henry Wilson (Chief of Imperial General Staff) tells Churchill (Sec of State for War) that British government must take strong measures or retire.

Curran J M (1980), pg38

Late-Jul

Crown Forces reprisals in Thurles, Upperchurch and Nenagh

Hopkinson (2002), pg 80

 

 

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