July 1920


Twenty-nine IRA men from the Skibbereen Battalion (led by Bat O/C Sam Kingston, Bat V/C Neilus Connolly and Cork No. 3 Brigade QM Pat Harte) attack a five man RIC patrol on the Skibbereen to Leap road.  The IRA’s shotguns do not work (they had only shotguns) and they have to withdrew quickly under fire. 


Deasy (1973), pgs 114-115


At a court case in Derry City, some evidence emerges of collusion between the British army and the UVF in the recent rioting and killings in the city – See Jun-18 to 26-20/1.


Gallagher (2003), pg 28


RIC Constable John Tangney resigns – he later gives evidence to the American Commission on Conditions in Ireland where he outlines the gradual phasing-in of regulations permitting the use of weapons for acts of aggression.


O’Farrell (1997), pg 97


Bomb attack by the IRA on the King Street (now MacCurtain Street) RIC barracks in Cork City completely destroys the building and it has to be evacuated.


Leeson (2017), pg 380; Sheehan (2017), pg 128


O’Farrell says that M. Counihane from Limerick dies on this date but no other source confirms this death.


O’Farrell (1997), pg 105


Members of the South (No. 4) Donegal Brigade of the IRA burn down the barracks in Pettigo, Co. Donegal which had bed vacated by the RIC.  The family of the previous sergeant in charge of the barracks (Sergeant Andrews) were still living in the barracks at the time.  The family and their belonging were removed before the barracks was burnt. 

Subsequently, Sergeant Andrews applied to the county court for compensation and, during evidence, said that his family was mistreated by the IRA.  The Adjutant of the South Donegal Brigade, Liam O’Duffy, wrote a letter to the Donegal Vindicator disputing the Sergeant’s claim that his family was mistreated. 

Some days later, in retaliation for publishing O’Duffy’s letter, British military entered the offices of the Donegal Vindicator and removed their type. 


Ó Duibhir (2009), pg 143


Chief of the Imperial Staff, Field Marshall Henry Wilson, writes in his diary that Llyod George “is under the ridiculous belief that Tudor has organised a counter-murder society”. 

On July 7th, he writes in his diary that Llyod George “reverted to his amazing theory that Tudor, or someone, was murdering 2 S.F.s to every loyalist the S.F.s murders ... he seemed to be satisfied that a counter-murder Association was the best answer to the S.F.’s murders”.  

On July 10th, Wilson wrote that, when pressed by Lord Derby for more information, Llyod George said that “you must not ask me any questions but the thing is in operation already”.


Townshend (2014), pg 155; Jeffrey (2006), pg 265


Private William Entwistle of the BA’s Royal Marine Light Infantry dies due to unexplained gunshot wounds in Castletownbere, Co. Cork.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 146; Cork Fatality Register


A number of IRA men drag a 17-year old girl from her home in Tralee, Co Kerry.  The cut her hair and tar her head. Two of her brothers are RIC men.


Kautt (2014), pg 77


A four man RIC patrol is attacked at Newtown Cross which is between Dualla and Ballinure, Co. Tipperary.  Sgt Robert Tobin is killed and Constable Brady is wounded.  Despite being wounded, Brady retrieves Tobin’s revolver and haversack (which contained the month’s pay for the RIC men in Ballinure). 

The attack was led by Tommy O’Donovan. Michael Burke is arrested on August 9th for his part in this attack.


Abbott (2000), pg 90; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 146


A second attack is made by the IRA on Howes Strand Coastguard. (First was on June 22nd – See Jun-22-20/1.)

There were 18 men in the attacking party under the command of Charlie Hurley (Bandon Battalion V/C) and Jack Fitzgerald.  There was another 24 men as back-up (doing scouting, road blocking, etc.).  There were 15 men in the station – after a brief fight they surrendered and the IRA captured 15 rifles and almost 10,000 rounds of ammunition.  (O’Farrell says July 2nd but Deasy says mid-July.)


Deasy (1973), pgs 116-119; O’Farrell (1997), pg 34


A 9-man IRA party led by Charlie Hurley (Bandon Battalion V/C) ambush a four-man RIC patrol at Downdaniel Railway bridge on the Bandon-Innishannon road.  One RIC man was wounded and his rifle taken.


Deasy (1973), pg 115


IRA men enter a house in Clonakilty, Co. Cork and remove a 19-year old woman.  They put a gun to her head and cut her hair.  Her father was a BA soldier as were two of her brothers.


Kautt (2014), pg 77


Writing to his brother, Liam Lynch says “John Bull should give in soon”. 

But see Jul-22-21/1.

Sheehan (2017), pg 165


A British Army and RIC conference takes place at Army GHQ (Royal Hospital, Kilmainham) and agrees, among other things, that a Divisional Commander was to be appointed by the RIC in the 5th and 6th British Army Division areas to improve co-ordination between the British Army and the RIC.


Townshend (1975), pg 89


Richard Lumley (60) from Rear Cross, Co. Tipperary, shot dead at Ballingeary or Holycross by Crown Forces. 

O’Farrell says that he was shot by Black and Tans who were sniping randomly from the back of their truck as they drove through the countryside. O’Halpin and Ó Corráin say that he was shot by the BA who were going to the aid of RIC men in Holycross RIC Barracks as it was being attacked by the IRA.


O’Farrell (1997), pg 56; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 146


East Galway IRA, under Patrick Callanan, attack Bookeen (or Brookeen) RIC barracks midway between Loughrea and Athenry. 

The attack lasted several hours and the barracks was burnt and left in ruins but the RIC men managed to escape. (McNamara says July 4th, Henry says July 1st and Kautt says July 2nd.)


McNamara (2018), pgs 121-122; Henry (2012), pgs 39-40; Kautt (2014), pg 79


Patrick Grant from Mullabane (or Mullaghbawn), Co Armagh is killed by the RIC when trying to evade arrest.

O’Farrell (1997), pg 108; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 146


Four BA soldiers of the East Yorkshire Regiment, who were guarding a lorry which had broken down, are overpowered by local IRA men at Drumreilly, Drumlea, Co. Leitrim and their guns and ammunition taken.


McGarty (2020), pg 83; Sheehan (2009), pg 45


Michael Small, who was captain of the Borrisoleigh Company, Tipperary No. 2 Brigade, was shot by the RIC after he was spotted crossing a field following an IRA ambush. 

See Aug-16-20/4.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 146


Private James Parfitt of the BA’s Worcestershire Regiment is accidently shot by a fellow BA soldier in Portobello Barracks in Dublin.  He later dies in hospital. 


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 147


Lord Monteagle writes in the Irish Times that the Sinn Féin courts were “dispensing justice even handed between man and man, Catholic and Protestant, farmer and shopkeeper, grazier and cattle drover, landlord and tenant”. 

The Sinn Féin courts were garnering a substantial amount of good press – see Mitchell (1995), pgs 141-143. 

These courts were working in some parts of the country since 1919 but had expanded organically in the spring of 1920.  It was not until September 1920 that Austen Stack’s Ministry of Home Affairs issued a booklet setting out procedures, rules and regulations for the courts.  (This booklet was drawn up by, among others, Arthur Clery, Conor Maguire, James Greed Meredith, Hector Hughes and Kevin O’Sheil.)


Mitchell (1995), pgs 141-143


James Dunne from Ballintray, Ferns, Co. Wexford is shot dead by RIC Constable Henry Lenihan. 

Lenihan challenged Dunne to a fight in a bar.  Dunne left to avoid trouble but Lenihan followed him and shot him.  Lenihan was convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to seven years’ penal servitude. 


O’Farrell (1997), pg 107; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 147


Order issued by the Inspector General of the RIC, T J Smith states that “No authorised persons will be allowed to arrogate to themselves the duties of the police.  Any such gathering of Volunteers will be an illegal assembly, the local police should take steps to disperse it and arrest the leaders.  Military aid may be invoked where necessary”.


Gallagher (1953), pgs 80-81; Ó Duibhir (2009), pg 145


In a resurrection of an idea originally proposed by Churchill (see May-11-20/1), Tudor sends a memo to the Under Secretary, John Anderson, asking for permission to recruit up to 500 ex-officers of the British Army.  He gets verbal approval. 

See Jul-10-20/4.


Leeson (2012), pg 97


RIC Constable William (or Thomas) Foster commits suicide.

Abbott (2019), pg 405; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 147


On this day, Thomas Ferry from Ballycommon, Co. Offaly is shot dead by Sgt Noel Greenfield of the BA’s King’s (Shropshire Light Infantry).

Greenfield shot at the lock of Ferry’s front door and, in the process, mortally wounded Ferry.


O’Farrell (1997), pg 107; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 147


Large British Army force sent to Bellewstown races to confront ‘Republican Police’ - See Jul-06-20/1.

Some caps and armbands confiscated by the BA but no arrests made. 

According to the official Record of the Dublin District of the BA “The Sinn Féin Police were surrounded [by the BA] without resistance and made to look foolish”.  The Record does not detail how an unarmed police force could be made to look foolish when confronted by armed soldiers.


Townshend (1975), pg 85; Sheehan (2007), pg 21


The Irish Bulletin publishes reports of the RIC ‘mutinies’ in Listowel and Killarney – see Jun-19-20/1.  Specifically, Jeremiah Mee recounts Colonel Smyth’s ‘shoot to kill’ speech in Listowel.  This led to questions in the British House of Commons.

The Freeman’s Journal also publishes Mee’s account.  It is subsequently raided by soldiers from the British Army who smash the printing machinery.


Gallagher (1953), pg 98; Molyneux and Kelly (2020), pg 256


Lance Sergeant William Penson-Harris (of the BA’s RFA) discharged a Very pistol on patrol and gets badly burnt.  He later dies from septicaemia.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 147


The son of a Justice of the Peace (Patrick Kelly) is kidnapped by the IRA at Cragganock, Co. Clare.  His father (Christopher Kelly) is told that his son would be released if he resigns as JP. He duly does.


Kautt (2014), pg 77


The Schull area is organised as the 7th Battalion of Cork No. 3 Brigade.  The Battalion staff are Sean Lehane O/C; Denis Murphy V/C; Gibbs Ross Adj and James Hayes QM.


Deasy (1973), pgs 148-149


RIC Sergeant John Mooney (“well known for his reputation as a thug”) is attacked in Dungloe, Co. Donegal and severely wounded.


Ó Duibhir (2009), pg 146; Ozsenker (2019), pg 116


First advertisements appear in London for the Auxiliary Division of the RIC – See Jul-11-20/2.


Abbott (2019), pg 133


Two companies of the BA’s Manchester Regiment arrive Ballincollig in Co. Cork.  Two other companies arrive the next day in North Cork with its main base in Macroom and detachments in Ballyvourney, Inchigeela and Millstreet. 


Sheehan (1990), pg 68


Sixty-one year old Mary Anne Ward is removed, along with her caretaker husband, by the IRA from Cat Fort in Cork.  During this operation, she collapses and dies from heart failure.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 148; Cork Fatality Register


Despite recruiting starting the previous day, the Deputy Chief of Police, Ormonde Winter, writes to the Under Secretary (John Anderson) asking for written permission to recruit the Auxiliaries – See Jul-23-20/3.


Leeson (2012), pg 98


Members of the 5th Battalion, Kerry No. 2 (South) Brigade of the IRA, with assistance from men from Scartaglin and Ballymacelligott companies, attack the RIC barracks at Rathmore.  One RIC man (Constable Alexander Will) is killed in the attack which goes on all night. 

The IRA had brought an old cannon, taken from the walls of Ross Castle near Killarney, to Rathmore to use it in the attack but they could not manoeuvre it into a firing position.

(Constable Will, who was from Forfar in Scotland, was the first ‘Black and Tan’ to be killed – he had been recruited in London and joined the RIC on March 30th 1920.)


Abbott (2000), pg 91; Horgan (2018), pgs 188-189; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 147; Kautt (2014), pg 79

Jul-11 to 12-20/1

IRA men from three brigades (East Limerick, North and South Tipperary) attack the RIC Barracks in Rearcross, Co. Tipperary. The RIC do not surrender despite the attack carrying on all night.  One RIC man (Sgt John Stokes) is killed.  


More Detail 

Abbott (2000), pgs 92-94; Breen (1989), pgs 116-122; O’Malley (2001), pgs 41-65; O’Malley (1990), pgs 176-177; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 148; Kautt (2014), pg 79


Carson, giving a July 12th speech to Orangemen at Finaghy, outside Belfast, tells the British government that if “having offered you help, you are yourselves unable to protect us from the machinations of Sinn Féin  … we will take the matter into our own hands.  We will organise.” and states “We must proclaim today clearly that … we in Ulster will tolerate no Sinn Féin  – no Sinn Féin organisation, no Sinn Féin  methods … And these are not mere words.  I hate words without action.” More


More Detail

Parkinson (2004), pg 26; Lawlor (2009), pgs 90-92; Matthews (2004), pg 22; Parkinson (2020), pg 23



Ambush by flying column of Kerry No. 1 Brigade, under Tadgh Brosnan, on an RIC supply patrol at Kilmore Cross near Dingle results in the killing of two RIC men (Constable Michael Lenihan and Constable George Roche) and the wounding of two others (including DI Fallon).  Fallon is captured but released

Among the IRA men involved in the ambush were Patrick Fitzgerald, Dan Jeffers, Michael McMahon and Jerry Dowling.

(Abbott and O’Halpin & Ó Corráin say July 13th. Horgan says July 11th.) 


Abbott (2000), pg 95; Horgan (2018), pgs 77-78; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 148


John Dwyer is shot and killed in a land agitation dispute in Annesgrove, Drumbane, Co. Tipperary.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 148


A six man RIC cycle patrol is attacked near Foynes, Co. Limerick by the IRA under the command of Sean Finn, O/C West Limerick resulting in the death of Constable Patrick Fahy.  There are major RIC reprisals in Foynes in the wake of this ambush.

(In the 2000 edition of his book, Abbott gives the date as July 13th.  O’Halpin and Ó Corráin give the same date.  However, in the 2019 edition of his book, Abbott gives the date as July 14th.)


Abbott (2000), pg 95; Abbott (2019), pgs 119-120; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 148


Giving a public speech in London, Greenwood says “I believe that the vast majority of the Irish people hate and loathe the campaign of terror and murder now carried on in certain parts of the country”.


Mitchell (1995), pg 207


The British Army in Ireland issue an order that troops and RIC should attend Dáil courts to see if they exceeded the powers of the arbitration tribunals.  If permission to enter is denied or if they were exceeding their authority then they should be dispersed.  Five courts were broken up in July.  The effect of this order is to drive the courts underground.


Mitchell (1995), pg 207


A school teacher, called Murphy, is dragged from his home in Timoleague, Co Cork and beaten and interrogated by men claiming to be from the Anti Sinn Féin organisation.


Borgonovo (2007), pg 7


Two RIC men were making their way to the Assizes in Roscommon when they are attacked at Moneen or Wakefield, near Lanesborough, Co. Longford.  One RIC man is killed (Constable Martin Clarke) and the other seriously wounded.

Michael Ryan, O/C 3rd Battalion, Longford Brigade got information from a RIC man called Kearney on these two RIC men.


Abbott (2000), pg 96; O’Callaghan (2012), pg 94; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 147-148


The Daily Herald reports on a special meeting of the British Trade Union Congress where a motion is passed demanding a single Irish parliament with full dominion powers with “adequate protection for minorities”.


Boyce (1972), pg 111


Four soldiers from the BA’s Highland Light Infantry (J. Brown, R. McClintock, H. McIlroy and John Stokes) die as a result of a drowning accident in Shannon, Co. Clare

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 553-554


Writing in his diary, the BA’s CIGS Henry Wilson says “What is essential is concentration of forces in theatres of vital to us viz: - England, Ireland, Egypt, India, Mesopot[amia].  In that order.” 

See Aug-05-20/5.


Jeffrey ( 2006), pg 251


The IRA carry out a raid on the Rotunda Rink sorting office in Dublin.   They take away a number of sacks of mail which were meant for Dublin Castle.

The IRA’s Intelligence Section in Crow St glean substantial information for the captured mail.  The raid was led by Oscar Traynor with men from the 2nd Battalion, Dublin Brigade and the Squad.

The Pall Gazette commented that if the central post office was not secure then “it would really save time if official correspondence were forwarded direct to Sinn Féin”. 

The Irish Times said “We seem to be approaching the day when British authority in Ireland will be shaken to its base by the laughter of two hemispheres”.


Molyneux and Kelly (2020), pgs 259-260; Mitchell (1995), pg 205


At a meeting of the British Government’s Irish Situation Committee, representatives of the southern unionists (Lord Midleton, Lord Dysert and William Jellett – latter was MP for Dublin University) say that they “felt the time had come when they must know whether the [British] Government intended to master the country or they would be forced to make terms with Sinn Féin”.


Mitchell (1995), pgs 203-204


Lt Colonel Gerard Smyth, RIC Divisional Commander for Munster 2, is shot dead in the Country Club (or Conservative Club) in South Mall, Cork City by the IRA. 

More Detail 


Abbott (2000), pgs 96-103; Gallagher (1953), pgs 98-99; Lawlor (2009), pgs 57-59; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 149; Borgonovo (2007), pg 153; Molyneux and Kelly (2020), pgs 260-261; Kautt (2014), pg 62; Cork Fatality Register


RIC Constable James Masterson is killed by the IRA in an ambush outside Newcastle West, Co Limerick.

The following night, RIC carried out retaliations including the burning of the Carnegie Library in Newcastle West and partially burning the local creamery.

It later transpired that Masterson was giving information to the IRA.


Abbott (2000), pg 96; Abbott (2019), pg 126; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 149


Writing to the British Chief Secretary for Ireland, Hamar Greenwood, General Macready says “I do not for one instant think that the British public would stand for Martial Law for one week over here”.


Townshend (2014), pg 151


After the killing of Lt Colonel Smyth on June 17th, disturbances break out in Cork City with Crown Forces (mostly BA) attacking civilians. Became known as the Battle of Cork.

More Detail



O’Farrell (1997), pg 103; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 149-150 & 154; Gallagher (1953), pg 81; Borgonovo (2007), pgs 82 & 113; Kautt (2014), pgs 62-63; Sheehan (2017), pgs 29-31 & 38-39; Cork Fatality Register


A BA patrol is attacked in Swinford, Co. Mayo and two British soldiers are slightly wounded.


Sheehan (2009), pg 45


RIC reservist and ex-RIC man Thomas Hannon is abducted by men from the IRA’s Offaly No. 1 Brigade and executed.  His body is found a year later in a bog at Ballyduff, Philipstown (Daingean), Co. Offaly.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 150-151; Abbott (2000), pg 260-261; Abbott (2019), pgs 331-332

Jul-19 to 20-20/1

The summer assizes in Galway City have to be abandoned after only a small number of jurors obey the summons to appear.


Leeson (2012), pg 43


A car with four RIC men is ambushed at Aughle (or Gallagh Hill), three miles from Dunmore, near Tuam, Co. Galway.  Two RIC men are killed (Constable James Burke and Constable Patrick Carey). The two other RIC men are captured and subsequently released. 

IRA led by Michael Moran and Michael (Con) Fogarty.  Fogarty was O/C Tuam (or North Galway) Brigade and Moran was commander of the first battalion. 

Major reprisals follow - See Jul-20-20/1.


Abbott (2000), pgs 103-104; McNamara (2018), pg 123; Henry (2012), pgs 66-67; Leeson (2012), pg 43; ; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 150; Sheehan (2009), pg 45


RIC, along with the BA’s Dragoon Guards stationed in Claremorris, Co. Mayo carry out a major reprisal in Tuam, Co. Galway after the two RIC men were killed the previous day – they loot public houses, shoot wildly, burn a number of premises including the Town Hall and cause much destruction to other property.  They also burn Michael Moran’s family home. (See Nov-24-20/4.) 

An English reporter compared Tuam to Belgian and French towns destroyed by the Germans during the First World War. Lesson notes that no ‘Black and Tans’ (i.e. British recruits to the RIC) were involved in these reprisals.


Abbott (2000), pgs 103-104; Macardle (1999), pg 356; McNamara (2018), pg 123; Henry (2012), pgs 67-71; Price (2012), pg 93; Leeson (2012), pgs 43-44 & 195


West Limerick Brigade of the IRA form a Flying Column at a meeting held in Dirreen, Athea.  It has about 35 men with Garrett McAulieffe (Brigade V/C) made Column Commander and Capt Michael Colbert as his V/C.


Harnett (2002), pg 59


The courthouse in Athy, Co. Kildare is burnt by the IRA, as was the vacated RIC barracks in Castledermot along with the nearby courthouse.


Durney (2013), pg 105


Colonel Smyth, assassinated by the IRA in Cork on July 17th (see Jul-17-20/1), has his funeral in Banbridge, Co. Down. There is a large turnout including Major General Tudor. 

There was some trouble that night in Banbridge – a young Catholic was assaulted and a Catholic owned newsagent in Bridge St was burnt down by a loyalist mob.  Things were to get much worse in Banbridge the following day – See Jul-22-20/2.


Lawlor (2009), pg 61-64; Parkinson (2020), pg 25


Following the ‘Battle of Cork’ (see Jul-18-20/1), Strickland imposes a curfew on Cork City from 10pm to 3am.


Sheehan (2017), pg 98



A projected attack on Clerihan RIC barracks is called off by the South Tipperary Brigade after GHQ ordered a suspension of all attacks in Tipperary without prior approval from them.


Ryan (1945), pgs 139-140


An attack on a rations lorry of the BA’s Manchester Regiment at Coolavokig between Macroom and Ballyvourney results in the death of the BA’s Captain James Airy or Airey and the three others wounded.  One of the wounded, Private Ernest F. Barlow subsequently dies from his wounds.

Sheehan (1990), pg 70; O’Callaghan (1974), pgs 26-27; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 151 & 158; Kautt (2014), pg 80; Sheehan (2017), pg 119; O’Suilleabhain (1965), pgs 76-81


A joint meeting of the Leitrim and Roscommon County Councils is held in Carrick-on-Shannon, Co. Leitrim as part of the on-going Dáil Commission of Inquiry into the Resources and Industries of Ireland. 

The meeting is raided by a BA party led by Lieut Crowther.  They arrest the Secretary to the Commission, Darrel Figgis, and the Chairman of Leitrim County Council, Peadar Keany. Lieut Crowther orders for a rope to be procured as both were to be hung at once.  The intervention of the local Crown Clerk, Robert Lonsdale, ensured that the men were transferred into the custody of the RIC and later released.

Lieut Crowther was later detained and relieved from his duties on the grounds on mental instability.


McGarty (2020), pgs 70-71; Mitchell (1995), pg 83


James Cogan (a member of the Republican Police) from Stonefield, Oldcastle, Co. Meath is shot dead by Crown Forces when accompanying an alledged cattle thief to his trial. 

(O’Farrell says that Cogan was shot by Auxiliaries.  However, the Auxiliary Division of the RIC were not at this point operational – See Jul-27-20/2.)


O’Farrell (1997), pg 17; Gallagher (1953), pg 81; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 152


BA soldier, Kester Surridge, drowns in Bundoran, Co. Donegal.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 554

Jul-21 to 22-20/1

On July 21st, the Ennistymon (Co. Clare) Company of the IRA disarm a British Army patrol in the village and make away with their rifles and ammunition. 

The following day, three Volunteers try to disarm two British Army officers but one of the officers draws his gun and shoots dead one of the Volunteers (Michael Conway) and wounds another (Seamus Mahon).


Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 142; O’Farrell (1997), pg 104; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 151

Jul 21 to 25-20/1

Major riots in Belfast

On the morning of the 21st July, members of Belfast Protestant Association put up posters on gates of Queen’s Island calling for meeting of ‘all Unionist and Protestant workers’ at lunchtime. 

Nearly 5,000 meet and afterwards go on rampage attacking Catholic workers.  Clothes are torn of potential victims to see if they are wearing any Catholic emblems.  Some try to escape by swimming the Musgrave Channel but are pelted by nuts, bolts, rivets, etc. (called 'Belfast confetti').  Most Catholics and socialists are removed from yards by afternoon.  At least 20 men have to receive hospital treatment.   

After the expulsions from the shipyards, Catholic workers are ejected from other industrial sites in the city including Sirocco Works, Musgraves, Combe Barbours, Mackies Foundary and several linen mills.   The number of workers expelled was in the region of 10,000 including several hundred female workers.  Including dependants, this means that almost half of the Belfast’s 93,000 Catholics would have been directly affected.

In the ensuing days of riots many people are killed. Hopkinson says 13; Macardle says 17 and Phoenix says 18. McDermott also says 18 made up of 10 Catholics and 8 Protestants. Parkinson names 21 people as being killed with again approximately equal numbers of Catholics and Protestants.  

Putting together the names given in various sources (especially in O’Halpin and Ó Corráin), it can be said that, in the period from 21st to 25th July 1920, at least twenty-one people were killed or fatally wounded in Belfast.  Eleven were Catholics and ten were Protestants.  Catholics were a quarter of the population of Belfast at this time. As to who was responsible for the killings, it would seem that most of the deceased were killed by the British Army. 

During these riots, hundreds of (mostly Catholic) families are driven from their homes.  

More Detail  

Background & Consequences

See also Aug-22 to Sep-01-20/1.


O’Farrell P (1997), pg xvi; Hopkinson 2002, pg 156-157; Macardle (1999), pg 357; Phoenix (1994), pgs 87-88; Parkinson (2004), pgs 33-56); McDermott (2001), pgs 35-44 & 48; Townshend (2014), pgs 175-176; Glennon (2020), pg 31; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 151-159; Parkinson (2020), pgs 25-32



One RIC man is killed (Sgt Thomas Armstrong) and one is seriously wounded (Constable Regan) when they are attacked outside the Moy Hotel, Knox St., Ballina, Co. Mayo.

Hopkinson says July 29th.


Abbott (2000), pg 104; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 152; Hopkinson (2002), pg 133


Thomas McDonnell (27) and Daniel McGrath (18) are shot dead by British soldiers when they fire into a group of young men and women at Corracunna Cross, near Mitchelstown Co. Cork. 

In their The Record of the Rebellion, the BA claim that their military patrol was fired on and they fired back “killing two of their assailants”.  However, the Cork Examiner said that the BA attacked a group of unarmed young people who were dancing and amusing themselves. 

McDonnell and McGrath were members of the IRA but not on duty.  According to the CFR “The local girls and boys who testified at the inquest all denied that there had been any shots fired from the little gathering of youths at the Cross. The members of the inquest jury determined that the two deceased young men had died from bullet wounds inflicted wilfully and ‘without provocation’ at Corracunna Cross by an armed military patrol of the Buffs from Fermoy: ‘We consider the military system of these details to fire on an unarmed and defenceless people a grave violation of the principles of constitutional and moral law. We consider the sergeant in charge responsible for the tragic occurrence.’


O’Farrell (1997), pg 112; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 151; Kautt (2014), pg 80; Cork Fatality Register


The property of IRA leader Michael Hartney in Limerick City is destroyed by an explosion. This explosion is claimed by the Anti-Sinn Féin Society.   The note claiming responsibility states “These reprisals against the property and members of the IRA are taken by order of the President of the ASFS, the Anti-Sinn Féin Society”. 

O’Callaghan says that this explosion results in the death of a civilian.  However, no other source confirms this death.

(O’Callaghan says that the Anti-Sinn Féin Society is a moniker which was “employed by Crown forces as a cover for unofficial reprisals”.)


O’Callaghan (2018), pg 84


Magistrates in Cork city and county resign.

Macardle (1999), pg 363


At the start of the early shift at the Banbridge Weaving Company, Protestant employees demanded the removal of all Catholic workers.

The manager decides to suspend work for the day and the Protestant employees, led by a flute band, go to other places of employment to encourage their co-religionists to also demand the sacking of Catholic workers.  This leads to further work suspensions and the Protestant crowd grows larger – the RIC estimate that it grew to about 3,000. 

A Catholic post-office employee is assaulted and ordered to leave Banbridge.  That evening the loyalist mob attack Catholic-owned houses and businesses – looting and burning a number to the ground, particularly public houses.  The RIC present make no attempt to stop the destructive rampage of the mob.

When the mob attack Monaghan’s house furnishing business on Scarva St, a shot is fired from the upstairs window and hits18-year old William John Sterritt in the head – he later dies of his injuries.  The RIC call from British military support and, when they arrive, three members of the Monaghan family are arrested but none of the rioters.  Later, the Monaghan house and business is burnt by the loyalist mob along with adjoining properties. 

Many Catholics leave or are driven out of Banbridge in the following days.


Lawlor (2009), pgs 67-75; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 152; Parkinson (2020), pg 25


British Cabinet’s Committee on the Irish Situation (see Jun-24-20/1) meets and calls for the introduction of martial law immediately because of the “moral support that it would give the military in carrying out its duties”.


Townshend (1975), pg 101; Boyce (1972), pg 48


Macready, Anderson and Mark Sturgis meet with Warren Fisher at the Treasury in London and agree that the British government must come out for Dominion Home Rule – see conference on following day. (This group could be described as the ‘peace camp’ compared to the ‘war camp’ in the British Cabinet’s Committee on the Irish Situation.)


Fanning (2013), pg 231


Five houses in the Caltra area of Co. Galway are burnt by Crown Forces and the local Sinn Féin hall is also burnt down.


Leeson (2012), pg 162


GOC 5th Division British Army (Jeudwine) writes to COC-in-Ireland (Macready) saying that situation has altered considerably for the worse and mentions (a) the effect of the train strike on moving men and supplies – taking up a lot of available transport; (b) “We are still blind for the want of intelligence”; (c) that the senior officers are dissatisfied by the “utter inefficacy of any measures heretofore adopted to deal with the situation” and (d) the drift in government policy.  He says there should be either peace or war. 

A war waged “with all the resources of war unsparingly used” or the British Government “must pursue peace openly at once, and make an offer of terms. It is not in a position to dictate, and unless its terms are generous they will not be accepted.”  (Full letter given in Sheehan.)

See Feb-14-21/4.


Townshend (1975), pg 90; Hopkinson (2002), pgs 53-54; Sheehan (2009), pgs 178-180


First full-scale conference between the British cabinet and the Irish Executive – many historians see this conference as the point at which the British decided to enforce a policy of coercion in Ireland rather than one of entering discussions with Sinn Féin.  

More Detail


See Balfour’s memo of Jul-24-20/4


Townshend (1975), pgs 101-103 Hopkinson (2002), pg 64 & pg 158;  Price (2012), pgs 86-90; Leeson (2012), pgs 11-12; Fanning (2013), pgs 231-232; Boyce (1972), pg 122

Jul-23 to 24-20/1

A loyalist mob gathers in the Market Sq. in Dromore, Co. Down and proceed to attack Catholic owned houses and businesses.  The RIC try to disperse the mob by shooting in the air.

Wilfred Henry Mitchell or Wesley Mitchell, a member of the Royal Black Preceptory and the Orange Order, is shot dead by the RIC (apparently by a ricocheting bullet). 

The RIC requests military assistance and when they arrive, in the early hours of July 24th, the crowd is dispersed.  Among the houses ransacked was the home of the local Catholic parish priest.


Lawlor (2009), pg 82-83; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 153


Three RIC men are attacked in Newenham St., Limerick by men from the E Company, 2nd (Limerick City) Battalion, Mid-Limerick Brigade, IRA under the leadership of William Barrett.  One of the RIC men attacked (Constable William Oakley) later dies from his wounds. 

Two ex-BA soldiers, Patrick Blake and James O’Neill, are arrested in August and charged with the murder of Constable Oakley.  They are subsequently acquitted but this acquittal has fatal consequences – see Nov-20-20/1. 

(Constable Oakley was from Essex and had just six weeks of service in the RIC.)


Abbott (2000), pgs 104-105; O’Callaghan (2017), pg 552; Abbott (2019), pgs 131-132; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 156


G. W. Biggs from Bantry, Co. Cork (a Protestant businessman) writes to the Irish Times saying that “the greatest goodwill exists” between Catholics and Protestants in the area.  Three days later his business premises in burnt down – Gallagher says by the RIC.

Gallagher (1953), pg 115


The Connaught Tribune reports that, after the evacuation of the RIC barracks in Kinvara, Co. Galway, the IRA enter the village and demolished the barracks.  They then proceeded to the courthouse and burn all the law records and books.


Henry (2012), pg 40


Following the conference held on the previous day, Arthur Balfour (who had attended the conference) wrote a memorandum on the Future of the Home Rule Bill in which he said “The Government cannot abandon a measure so elaborate in its structure and so far advanced in its Parliamentary career as the present Home Rule Bill [Government of Ireland Act] without some discredit”. 

He went on “this discredit would amount to a disgrace if this course were adopted, not on its merits, but as a concession to those who worked through organised assassination”.  He added “A parliament has been promised to Ulster”.

See Long’s memo of Jul-25-20/6.


Leeson (2012), pg 12; Boyce (1972), pg 122


Daniel McGee, who is riding his bicycle along Victoria Quay in Dublin, is struck by a BA vehicle. He is taken to Dr Steevens’ Hospital where he is pronounced dead.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 154


Coastguard Charles Yates is deliberately killed by Private Helmore in Ballyvaughan Coastguard Station in Ballyvaughan, Co. Clare.  Helmore is given life imprisonment in February 1921.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 154


John Crowley, who had been kidnapped on July 10th, is shot dead by the IRA as a spy near Bandon in Co. Cork.   He was alleged to have given information on the ambush near Upton (see Apr-25-20/2) to British Army intelligence officers (after they had given him a severe beating). 


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 154 (& 157?); Murphy (2011), pgs 128-129; Cork Fatality Register


A large crowd of loyalists gather in the centre of Lisburn and attack the AOH hall in Linenhall St.  They subsequently attack a large number of Catholic owned houses and businesses, including the local Catholic convent. 

As was common, there was a particular focus on Catholic owned public houses and the looting of their content.  (Lawlor’s book includes a number of photographs showing the aftermath of the actions of the destructive mob.) Over the next few days, two more Catholic-owned public houses were attacked – they were wrecked, looted and occupants assaulted.


Lawlor (2009), pgs 85-87


Ballycrovane Coastguard station on Coulagh Bay (on the Beara Peninsula, Co Cork) is attacked by 15 men from the Beara Battalion IRA led by Liam O’Dwyer and Christy O’Connell.  There were about 12 marines in the stations and two of them, called Philip Snewin or Snowen and Charles Brown, were killed during the attack.  The remaining marines surrender and the IRA capture 12 rifles, six revolvers and various other military equipment. 

Castletownbere Coastguard station was attacked by the IRA (under Billy O’Neill) on the same day but this attack in unsuccessful and four IRA men are injured.


Deasy (1973), pgs 119 -125; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 154-155; Cork Fatality Register


Crowley’s in Ballylanders, Co. Limerick is blown up by Black and Tans. Two local creameries, at Knocklong and Garryspillane, are also attacked.


O’Farrell P (1997), pg 23; Breathnach (2017), pg 557


RIC Detective Sergeant William Mulherin or Mulhern is killed after leaving (or entering) 8am Mass in St. Patrick’s church in Bandon, Co. Cork.  Abbott says that he was entering the church and killed in the porch.  Abbott says that he was chief intelligent officer for west Cork and he was “having an effect on the IRA”.

Hart refers to him as “energetic and notorious”. Deasy refers to him as the Chief Intelligence Officer for the West Cork Riding who “took pleasure in very rough tactics with prisoners”.  He had survived an earlier attempt on his life in March.

See Jul-26-20/1.


Hart (1998), pg 196; Abbott (2000), pg 105-106; Deasy (1973), pgs 125-126; Abbott (2019), pgs 132-133; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 154; Cork Fatality Register


Cloghane Coastguard station on the Dingle Peninsula in Co. Kerry is attacked by the IRA led by Tadgh Brosnan.  The six coastguards surrender after putting up a fight.


Horgan (2018), pg 78;


In a memo on the Irish Situation, Walter Long writes that “any hesitation on the part of the Government to proceed with the measure [Government of Ireland Act] in its present form would be attended with the gravest consequences in Ulster”. 

However, John Anderson was still arguing for an alternative path.  In a memo his writes on the Irish Situation, he says that it was his belief that “if what is commonly described as Dominion Home Rule – with protection for Ulster – could be offered immediately sufficient popular support could be obtained in Ireland to enable the suppression of crime and the re-establishment of law”. 

Leeson notes “In the end, the hawks prevailed”. Their next step was the Restoration of Order in Ireland Bill – see Aug-02-20/2.


Leeson (2012), pgs 12-13; Boyce (1972), pg 122


BA soldier, William Lomas, dies after being kicked by a horse in Dublin.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 554


A British soldier, Lance Corporal Thomas Maddox (a member of the Essex Regiment) is killed while hunting the killer of Sergeant Mulherin. 

(Sheehan says that Maddox was on intelligence work.  O’Halpin and Ó Corráin say that Maddox and Major Percival were outside the home of Sean Buckley – I/O of Cork No. 3, IRA – “possibly intending to capture or kill Buckley”.)

This killing resulted in reprisals being carried out in Bandon by soldiers from the Essex Regiment.


Hart (1998), pg 196; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 155; Kautt (2014), pg 81; Sheehan (2017), pg 25 & 35-36; Cork Fatality Register


Under Secretary John Anderson informs British cabinet that more troops needed and again points to the extra manpower required due to the railway strike.


Townshend (1975), pg 109


Eight Volunteers from the Riverstown Battalion of the Sligo Brigade IRA ambush a four man RIC bicycle patrol at Ballyrush near Castlebaldwin.  After an exchange of fire, the RIC men surrender – they are relieved of their arms and then released.


Hopkinson (2002), pg 136; Farry (2102), pg 56


Writing in his diary, Henry Wilson, Chief of the Imperial Staff, says “Winston [Churchill] suggested arming 20,000 Orangemen to relieve the troops from the North.  I told him that this would mean ‘taking sides’, would mean civil war and savage reprisals, would mean, at the very least, great tension with America and an open rupture with the Pope.  Winston does not realise these things in the least and is a perfect idiot as a statesman.” Churchill had made a similar suggestion at the conference on July 23rd – See Jul-23-20/3. 

Bew refers to Wilson as “former Chief of the Imperial General Staff”.  At this point, Wilson still Chief of the Imperial General Staff and did not relinquish this position until February 1922 – see Feb-18-22/2.


Bew (2016), pgs 95-96


IRA ambush an RIC patrol between Kilcar and Killybegs in Co. Donegal.  An RIC man (Sergeant Coleman) was seriously wounded.


Ó Duibhir (2009), pg 151; Ozseker (2019), pg 116


Macready writes a detailed memo on the military situation in Ireland.  His assessment is generally downbeat especially with regard to the “partial paralysis of the railways” which he predicted will get worse.  He proposes, during the winter months, to concentrate all detachments “of less strength than a company or squadron”. Full memo given in Kautt.

Churchill passes Macready’s memo onto the British Cabinet’s Irish Situation Committee on August 6th.


Kautt (2014), pgs 222-225


An RIC man (Constable James Murray) is shot as he enters Fitzgerald’s greengrocer on Main St. or Rossa St., Clonakilty, Co. Cork.  He dies early on July 28th.

Abbott (2000), pg 106; Abbott (2019), pg 133; Deasy (1973), pg 126; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 155; Cork Fatality Register


The first member of the Auxiliary Division of RIC (‘Auxies’) is recruited – his name is Harold Pearsons. 

More Information


Curran J M (1980) pg 37; O’Farrell P (1997), pg xvi; Townshend (1975), pgs 110-111 and Abbott (2000), pgs 106-110; Abbott (2019), pgs 133-138; Leeson (2012), pgs 30-28 & 96-103


Tom Hales and Pat Harte (West Cork No. 3 Brigade O/C and Quartermaster respectively) are captured by British Intelligence as they enter Frank Hurley’s house in Laragh, outside Bandon. 

They are very badly tortured by a group led by Major Percival, I/O of the Essex Regiment, in Bandon Military Barracks and Victoria Barracks, Cork. According to a statement smuggled out of prison by Hales, Percival is assisted in the torture by Capt Kelly, I/O of the 6th Division, Lieut Keogh (Hampshire or Hants Regiment), Lieut Richardson and Lieut Green.   Both men have to be hospitalised afterwards. Pat Harte ends up in an asylum and dies a few years later.

The official A Report of the Intelligence Branch of the Chief of Police, Dublin Castle from May 1920 to July 1921 (written by Ormonde Winter) states that Hales gave “names of most of his officers” and fabricated torture allegations to cover his informing.  However, in an endnote, Hart says that Hales was tortured and “There is no corroborating evidence that he gave any information to his captors”.   

(There is some doubt if Lieutenant Green was the same British Army officer who was later abducted and killed at Waterfall – see Nov-15-20/2.)


Hart (1998), pg 196; Coogan (1990), pg 146; Deasy (1973), pgs 129-131; O’Callaghan (1994), pg 52; O’Farrell (1997), pg 51; Gallagher (1953), pgs 104-105; Borgonovo (2007), pg 22; Hart (2002), pgs 83 & 103


A republican Land Court, in session in Claremorris, Co. Mayo is raided by the RIC.  The judge rebukes them and orders them to remove their hats.  The RIC duly remove their hats.


Gallagher (1953), pg 82


Private William Ridgeway of the BA’s East Lancashire Regiment dies in Ballymullen Barrack in Tralee, Co. Kerry after a grenade he is handling explodes.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 155


Dublin Castle withdraws all aid to local authorities who had recognised the Dáil. 

More Information



Hopkinson (2002), pg 44; Coleman (2003), pg 92; McCluskey (2014), pg 87; Townshend (2014), pg 122; Hughes (2016), pgs 55-82


A joint RIC-British Army cycle patrol is ambushed by the newly formed ASU of the East Limerick Brigade under Donnchadh O’Hannigan near Bruree, Co. Limerick.  One British Army soldier (Private William R. Rodgers) is killed during this engagement.

A British soldier (probably Private John Charles Flemming) jumped on a bicycle during the fighting and went for help which he succeeded in doing. The BA’s official Record of the Rebellion states that “It was entirely up to his courage and initiative that the party escaped annihilation”.   He received a BEM.

However, O’Halpin and Ó Corráin say that O’Hannigan “could not press home his attack for fear of wounding an elderly couple in whose house the patrol barricaded themselves”.

In the aftermath of the ambush, the RIC and British Army carry out reprisals in the vicinity resulting in two deaths of two innocent civilians.  These were 10-year-old Patrick Duggan and Thomas Harris who was an epileptic. 

(Kautt says that the British Army has no record of soldier named Rodgers killed in Ireland in all of 1920.  However, O’Halpin and Ó Corráin identify him as a member of the BA’s MGC (Infantry).)


O’Farrell (1997), pg 109; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 157-158; Kautt (2014), pgs 81 & 202-203


Minister of Labour in the Dáil Government, Countess Markievicz, issues an order to all Sinn Féin clubs saying that men who had resigned from the RIC should be allowed to live in peace. They should be supported in cases of special hardship. If they could not be found employment, they should be assisted from a special fund.  Also, currently serving members should be approached via their relatives and encouraged to resign.


Macardle (1999), pg 363


Proposal to set up a Special Police force in Northern Ireland accepted by the British Cabinet’s Irish Committee.  See Jul-23-20/3 above and Sep-02-20/1 below.


McDermott (2001), pg 33


The IRA disarm two three-man BA Military Police patrols – one outside Trinity College and the other on Westmoreland St in Dublin city centre.

The IRA are shot at by a five-man BA guard located at the Bank of Ireland on College Green.  According to Molyneux and Kelly, a firefight ensues in which three BA soldiers are injured. (They do not mention if any IRA men or civilians were injured). However, according to the BA’s official Record of the Rebellion, the “serjeant in command of the [military] police wounded several assailants before himself being wounded”.


Molyneux and Kelly (2020), pg 264; Kautt (2014), pg 81


General Lucas ‘escapes’ from his IRA captors near Pallasgreen (18 miles for Limerick city) and, after being picked up by the British Army from Pallasgreen RIC barracks, the tender in which he is travelling drives into an ambush near Oola.  Two British Army soldiers (Privates Daniel Verey Bayliss and George B. Parker) were killed in the ambush and two wounded. 

The ambush had been set up by Sean Treacy and his men (ASU of the Tipperary 3rd Brigade) in order to intercept a military patrol collecting mail from Limerick Junction.  This ambush almost turned into a disaster for the IRA.


O’Donoghue (1986), pg80; Breen (1989), pg 124-125; Ryan (1945), pgs 140-141; Hopkinson (2002), pg 121; Carroll & Toomey (2017), pgs 419-419; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 157; Kautt (2014), pg 82


Paddy [O’]Daly, Tom Keogh, Vinny Byrne and Jim Slattery (Squad members) enter the offices of Frank Brooke in Westland Row train station in Dublin and kill him. 

Brooke was Director of the Great Southern and Eastern Railways (or Chairman of the Dublin and South-Eastern Railway Company) and a member of Lord French’s Advisory Council. (Fanning says July 20th but the other authors say July 30th.)


Hopkinson (2002), pg 100; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 156-157; Fanning (2013), pg 221; Molyneux and Kelly (2020), pgs 264-265


Conference in Dublin between IRA GHQ staff and some southern brigades – the three Cork Brigades are represented by Terence MacSwiney; Liam Lynch and Liam Deasy respectively – see Aug-01-20/2.


O’Donoghue (1986), pg87


James Mulcahy from Nicker, Pallasgreen, Co. Limerick is killed by the British Army for allegedly failing to halt when commanded to do so.  Mulcahy was an ex-BA soldier and, according to an RIC report, he was deaf from his military service with the Royal Garrison Artillery so he would not have heard any command to halt. James Mulcahy from Nicker, Pallasgreen, Co. Limerick is killed by the British Army.

O'Farrell P (1997), pg 114; O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 157


John Ahern or Aherne from Ballyrichard, Co. Cork is killed when he walks into an IRA ambush of a BA mail escort in Cork. 

O’Halpin & Ó Corráin and CFR say July 31st. O’Farrell says June 16th and February 16th.

O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pg 157; O’Farrell (1997), pgs 3 & 102; Cork Fatality Register


Andrew Hayes is shot and wounded by the RIC when they are shooting at another man in O’Connell St in Tipperary Town, Co. Tipperary.  He dies in hospital on August 17th.


O’Halpin and Ó Corráin (2020), pgs 161-162


Andy Cope is appointed Assistant Undersecretary

Curran J M (1980), pg36


Field Marshall Sir Henry Wilson (Chief of Imperial General Staff) tells Churchill (Sec of State for War) that British government must take strong measures in Ireland or retire.  Wilson says the same to Lord Duncannon and adds that, before you “knock Sinn Féin on the head”, you must have “England on your side”.  He continues “If you get England on your side – and you can – there is nothing you can’t do. If you don’t, then there is nothing that you can do”.


Curran J M (1980), pg38; Boyce (1972), pg 83


By July 1920, £317,849 had been collected for the Dáil Loan from 150,000 contributors (which was about 15% of Irish households).  In addition, the Self-Determination Fund (contributions not loans) raised £55,770 of which about half was raised in the United States.

(On May 17th, the Manchester-based Daily Sketch noted “The financing of revolutionary activities is secured for some years to come and unpaid service is so general in the organisation that funds are not being extravagantly spent”.)


McCluskey (2014), pg 79; Mitchell (1995), pgs 64-65


The Admiral in charge of the British Naval base in Queenstown (Cobh) writes to Capt ‘Blinker’ Hall, Director of Royal Navy Intelligence asking him if he was running a civilian Irish Coast Intelligence Corps.  Hall replies that he had no official group in Ireland but that “In the counties of Cork and Waterford there are several agents who write to me thro’ the Governor of the Bank of Ireland, and do not wish their names disclosed.” 


Borgonovo (2007), pg 26


IRA GHQ sends Eamon Price, Director of Organisation, to Mayo where he re-organises the Volunteers in the county into four brigades with the following O/Cs - North – O/C Tom Ruane (Ballina) ; South – Tom Maguire (Cross); East – Sean Corcoran (Kiltimagh) and West – Tom Derrig (Westport),


Price (2012), pg 58


Crown Forces carry out reprisals in Thurles, Upperchurch and Nenagh (all in Co. Tipperary) and in Limerick.

Hopkinson (2002), pg 80; Townshend (2014), pg 165

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