October 1920

Oct

Patrick O'Brien of Liscarroll is made Column Commander of Cork No. 2 Brigade. 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg103

Oct-01

Two British soldiers killed in an action near Drumcrondra bridge in Dublin.

Dalton (1929), pgs 75-81

Oct-01

John Connolly is shot dead by members of the Essex Regiment in Castle Bernard Park, Bandon, Co. Cork.

O'Farrell P (1997), pg 20

Oct-02

IRA Volunteer and Secretary of the local Sinn Féin cumann, John O’Hanlon from Lackagh, Turloughmore, Co. Galway is shot dead by Auxiliaries who had taken him from his home.  His body was found in a nearby field.  The RIC Inspector for West Galway subsequently reported that he has been shot ‘while trying to escape’. Mourners at his funeral had shots fired over their heads and some were physically attacked by the RIC. 

McNamara says that O’Hanlon’s killing does not seem to be related to any previous attack but Henry suggests that it may have been related to an incident on the 28th June in Lackagh village when five RIC were surrounded by fifteen armed men and had their bicycles and capes taken of them before being released.

(Leeson says 5th October.)

O’Farrell (1997), pg 80; Gallagher (1953), pg 296; McNamara (2018), pg 149; Henry (2012), pgs 129-132; Leeson (2012), pgs  47

Oct-02

South Roscommon Brigade IRA, led by O/C Dan O’Rourke, attack Frenchpark RIC barracks but fail to take it.  There are no casualties on either side. 

The following night, the RIC burn two shops in the nearby village of Ballinagare and carry out the mock execution of a young man called Patrick Flynn.

O’Farrell (1997), pg 84; Leeson (2012), pgs 204-205

Oct-03

Four RIC men were shot at in Patrick's St. Cork resulting in the deaths of one (Constable Clarence Chave) and the wounding of two others.  Constable Chave was from Sheerness in Kent and had three months service in the RIC.

Abbott (2000), pg 129; Abbott (2019), pg 163

Oct-04

British Army patrol (30 strong) surprise IRA ambush party (60 Strong) near Bandon but ambushed party manage to escape.  (Is this same as Deasy's report of the 8th September?)

Townshend (1975), pg 122

Oct-04

Auxiliaries enter a dancehall at Knockroon near Headford, Co. Galway and single out five men.  The men are flogged and hit with rifle butts.  A number of houses in the Headford area are raided that night including the home of Patrick Cullen, a RIC man who was considering resigning.  He is dragged out into the road and flogged with sticks and a leather strap.

Henry (2012), pg 133

Oct-04

12 men from the 7th Battalion, Cork No. 3 Brigade IRA led by Battalion O/C Sean Lehane capture the Schull RIC Barracks after learning the password from a young RIC constable called Daly. 13 rifles, 26 revolvers and other equipment were captured.

(Deasy (1973), pgs 149-152

Oct-05

RIC reprisal in Boyle, Co Roscommon

Hopkinson (2002), pg 80

Oct-06

In an unusual step, the Irish Administration (in Dublin Castle) issue a statement which admits that reprisals had taken place in Tubbercurry, Co Sligo - see September 30th.  However, they said that they took place because of RIC’s men reaction to seeing “DI Brady lying dead on the floor … they broke out of hand and rushed into the street calling on Sinn Féiners to come out and fight them like men”.  Subsequently, the Chief Secretary, Hamar Greenwood, claimed that everyone who suffered in the reprisals connived at or condoned the killing - See October 20th.

Townshend (1975), pg 120-121; Farry (2012), pg 59

Oct-06

Abbott says that two RIC men were on patrol on Bishop's St., Derry City when they were shot at by unionists resulting in the death of one (Constable John Flaherty).  Gallagher (who gives the date as 18th Oct) intimates that Flaherty was shot because of his earlier arrest of a unionist, Cameroon Finlay, on the Carlisle Road.  Ozseker gives the date as 16th October. 

Abbott (2000), pg 130; Gallagher (2003), pg 32; Grant (2018), pg 103; Lawlor (2011), pg 75; Ozseker (2019), pg 155

Oct-06

J. Clifford from Derry dies

O’Farrell (1997), pg 104

Oct-06

Attack by Flying Column of Cork No. 2 Brigade on lorry containing British soldiers at Ballydrochane between Kanturk and Newcastle.  The driver is killed and the rest wounded. 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg103

Oct-06

Six RIC men are ambushed in the village of Feakle, Co. Clare resulting in the death of two of them (Sgt Francis Doherty and Constable William Stanley).  This ambush was carried out by the 6th Battalion, East Clare Brigade IRA led by Thomas Tuohy.  Seven houses are burnt by the RIC in retaliation including the post office and the priest’s house.   (In the 2019 edition of his book, Abbott says 7th October.  Also, see 20th October.)

Abbott (2000), pg 130; Brennan (1980), pg 62; Ó Ruairc (2009), pgs 174-177; Abbott (2019), pg 164

Oct-07

Circular issued by TJ Smith, Inspector General, RIC announcing non-pensionable additions to pay for RIC men "in respect of increased cost of living".  RIC men's costs had increased due to the campaign of ostracism being conducted against them.  Recruitment to the RIC increases substantially after these increases.

Abbott (2000), pg 132; Abbott (2019), pg 167

Oct-07

IRA attack the RIC barracks in Ardara, Co. Donegal but are beaten off.

Ó Duibhir (2009), pg 183

Oct-08

The editorial of the Weekly Summary (the RIC’s in-house newspaper) states “Reprisals are wrong.  They are bad for the discipline of the force.  They are bad for Ireland, especially if the wholly innocent suffer.  Reprisals are wrong but reprisals do not happen only by accident.  They are the result of the brutal, cowardly murder of police officers by assassins, who take shelter behind the screen of terrorism and intimidation they have created.  Police murder produces reprisals. Stop murdering policemen.” 

Leeson (2017), pg 384; Townshend (2014), pg 216

Oct-08

During an attempt to capture his revolver, RIC Constable Dennison sustains shot gun wounds in Dunamore, Co. Tyrone.

McCluskey (2014), pg 94

Oct-08

Letter from Brigadier General Cockerill MP appears in London Times suggesting a conference of plenipotentiaries from Britain and Ireland to discuss settlement, to be preceded by a truce and amnesty with the resulting agreement to be submitted to both parliaments for acceptance or rejection but not amendment. (Macardle says 6th Oct).

Coogan (1990), pgs 185-186; Macardle (1999), pg 412

Oct-09

In a speech in which he gave in Caernarvon, Lloyd George spoke of the necessity of breaking the “murder gangs”.  He went on to say "The police naturally feel that the time has come to defend themselves and that is what is called reprisals in Ireland.  Sinn Féin cannot have it both ways.  If they were at war they must expect the consequences.  You cannot have a one-sided war."  It may be worthwhile to note that Lloyd George or the British Cabinet had never declared war in Ireland.   

He went on to say that "There is no doubt that at last their [police] patience has given way and there has been some severe hitting back.  Let us be fair to these gallant men who are doing their duty in Ireland."

Abbott notes that this speech hints strongly at official support for reprisals. 

Abbott (2000), pg 179; Abbott (2019), pgs 226-227

Oct-09

Three brothers from Maree, near Oranmore, Co. Galway – Thomas, Stephen and Patrick Deveney – are taken from their beds and dragged out into the road by men wearing khaki clothes demanding to know if they were Sinn Féiners.  All three are shot but survive.  Another man – Albert Cloonan – is also dragged from his bed and shot.  The local Sinn Féin hall and a house are burnt down the same night.  This was probably the work of the Auxiliaries from nearby Galway City

Leeson (2012), pg 47

Oct-10

Edwin Montagu, Secretary of State for India in the British cabinet, in a memo for his cabinet colleagues, says “I have a growing conviction that even if the murder gang in Ireland can be destroyed by this process [of reprisals] – which I doubt – the younger generation is being educated in murderous thought”.

Townshend (2014), pg 217

Oct-10

A dismissed Auxiliary, Major Ewen Cameron Bruce (who had only one arm), along with a serving Auxiliary. Alan Thomas Bruce (his nephew) and two British soldiers (Lieutenant Cooper and Sergeant Blake of the Devonshire Regiment) raid the home of creamery manager (John Power) in Kells, Co. Tipperary. £75 is stolen.  Major Bruce goes back home to England but is subsequently arrested and returned to Ireland to stand trial.  He is given a one-year prison sentence and his nephew is given a three-month sentence.  The two soldiers are not charged as they did not enter the house. Major Bruce continued to proclaim his innocence and said, among other things, that he was the victim of a set-up to stop him disclosing the theft of money by Auxiliaries based in Innistiogue from Kilkenny Post Office.

(Walsh says that Kells mentioned above is in Co. Tipperary but Leeson says that it is in Co. Dublin.  I could find no Kells in either of these two counties but there is a Kells in Co. Kilkenny, quite near the border with Co. Tipperary.)

Walsh (2018), pg 268; Leeson (2012), pgs 122-124

Oct-10

Auxiliary Cadet William Anderson is accidently shot dead in Beggars Bush Barracks in Dublin.

Abbott (2019), pg 403

Oct-10

Men from Cork No. 3 Brigade, IRA ambush British Army (from 1st Essex Regiment) patrol near Newcestown, Co Cork, killing two officers (Lt Robertson and Lt Richardson) and wounding four others.  (Deasy says it was the 9th October.  Townshend says only one officer was killed.)

Townshend (1975), pg 123;  Deasy (1973), pgs 144-146

Oct-11

An organisation styling itself The All-Ireland Anti-Sinn Féin Supreme Society Council of the Cork Circle issued a threat saying that "if in future any member of His Majesty's Forces be murdered two members of the Sinn Féin Party in the County of Cork will be killed"

Abbott (2000), pg 173

11-12 Oct

At 'Fernside', the home of Professor Carolan in Drumcondra, Dublin a gunfight takes place between a raiding party of Crown Forces and Dan Breen and Sean Tracey (from Tipperary 3rd Brigade) who were staying at the house. More Detail

Abbott (2000), pg 98; O'Farrell P (1997), pg xvii; Gleeson (1962), pg 104; Coogan (1990), pg 151; Breen (1989), pgs 138-149; Ryan (1945), pgs 157-169 and Townshend (1975), pg 128; Lawlor (2009), pgs 190-196

Oct-12

Ambush at Fourmilehouse, Ballinderry, Co Roscommon by men from 3rd Battalion, South Roscommon Brigade IRA led by Pat Madden.

Hopkinson says four RIC men were killed as a result of this ambush.  O’Callaghan also says four RIC were killed (one sergeant and three constables.)  Abbott, in both editions of his book, says that five RIC men were killed.  He names the five as Sgt Peter McArdle; Sgt Martin O'Connor; Constable John Crawford; Constable Francis Gallagher and Constable Michael Kenny.

However, work by Dr Kay MacKeogh has shown that Sgt Peter McArdle was not killed as part of this ambush but that he was shot in Strokestown, Co. Roscommon on the 5th January 1921 - see 5th January 1921. 

Hopkinson (2002), pg 143 & Abbott (2000), pg 133-134; O’Callaghan (2012), pgs 87-89; Abbott (2000), pgs 169-170

Oct-12

Michael Kelly, a nationalist hackney driver, is killed as he drives Fr Murray of Tydavnet, Co. Monaghan home. 

Dooley (2017a), pgs 84-85

Oct-12

J. Byrne; J. Gleeson and F. Fitzgerald from Scar, Co. Wexford die.

O’Farrell (1997), pg 103 & 107 & 108

Oct-13

Hamar Greenwood (Chief Secretary) and John Anderson (Joint Under Secretary) travel to Belfast to meet a deputation of the Ulster Unionist Council's Standing Committee.

 

Hopkinson (2002), pg 159

Oct-14

An IRA man (Vol Matt Furlong) is badly injured in Dunboyne, Co Meath after high explosives he is working with accidentally goes off - he dies later in the Mater Hospital, Dublin. He was attempting to construct a trench mortar.

Breen (1989), pg 152; Townshend (2014), pg 200

Oct-14

Sir Edward Carson, speaking to a meeting in the Constitutional Club, London, says "I see a good deal in the papers about the horrors of reprisals.  For God's sake let's concentrate ourselves upon the horrors of murder and assassination."

 

Oct-14

Liam O'Carroll from Lackandara, Co. Cork (Ryan says Lombardstown) is killed in Dublin while carrying out an attack on an armoured car parked outside the Munster and Leinster Bank, at the junction of North Circular Road and Phibsboro Road.

O’Donoghue (1986), pg106; Ryan (1945), pgs 172-173

Oct-14

Sean Tracey (Tipperary IRA) is killed in a shoot-out in Talbot St, Dublin; two British intelligence officers (Lt Price and Sgt Francis Christian) are also killed as are two civilians (15 year-old Patrick Carroll and Joseph Corringham).  Joe Vize, IRA GHQ's Director of Purchases, Leo Henderson and Sean Forde are arrested.  (Abbott says that all IRA men escaped.  Also Townshend says the date was the 20th October.)  Tracey is buried two days later in Kilfeacle cemetery, near Solohead, Co Tipperary.

Townshend (1975), pg 122; Coogan (1990), pg 152; Abbott (2000), pg 99; Breen (1989), pgs 153-154; Ryan (1945), pgs 174-188 & pgs 193-198

Oct-14

Peter Carroll shot in his bed by British forces in Dublin - Breen says they were looking for his son who was an IRA officer.

Gleeson (1962), pg 105; Breen (1989), pg 132; O’Farrell (1997), pg 103; Brennan (1950), pg 101

Oct-14

Field Marshall Henry Wilson writes in his diary that Lloyd George was “going to shoulder the responsibility of the reprisals but wanted to wait until the American elections were over”

 

Macardle (1999), pg 391

Oct-15

J. Cunningham from Dublin dies as does M. Furlong from Summerhill, Co. Wexford and M. Maguire from Ardfert, Co. Kerry

 

O’Farrell (1997), pg 105; O'Farrell P (1997), pg 108 & 113

Oct-15

A schoolteacher, Patrick Joyce, is abducted from his home in Barna, Co. Galway by the IRA.  Letters he sent to the RIC had been intercepted by the IRA.  He is court martialled, shot dead and secretly buried.  Crown Forces mount major searches for him. According to Leeson “The cadets from D Company scoured the district all weekend, threatening, beating, flogging and firing shotguns at the inhabitants.  Two men wound up in the county hospital after encounters with the police and Auxiliaries”.  Notices are put up in Barna and Eyre Square in Galway saying that if Joyce is not returned “somebody would be made pay the penalty” – see October 20th (and possibly November 14th)

McNamara (2017), pg 617; McNamara (2018), pgs 145-146; Henry (2012), pgs 147-153; Leeson (2012), pg 48

Oct-16

F. Moy from Bridgend, Co. Donegal dies.

O'Farrell P (1997), pg 114

Oct-16

In disturbances following the eviction of a Catholic from his home in North Belfast, three Protestants are killed: John Gibson (52); William Mitchell (25) and Matthew McMaster (39).

 

Parkinson (2004), pgs 95-96

Oct-16

The Irish Independent reports a statement issued by RC Bishop Morrisroe in the wake of the reprisals in Tubbercurry – see September 30th.  He says that ‘bad government’ is primarily responsible but also said that the IRA had fostered “during the latter years ideals clearly impossible of attainment”.

Farry (2012), pg 59

Oct-16

Auxiliaries enter the Feeney home in Corofin, Co. Galway.  The four sons were taken outside, two are stripped and flogged.  Another is hit on the head with a gun butt and beaten – then all three are kicked while on the ground.  Later this night, a Corofin publican, John Raftery, is also attacked.

Leeson (2012), pg 181

Oct-17

James Lehane from Ballymakeera, Co Cork shot and killed by Auxiliaries.  According to Hart, he was not an IRA man.  

Hart (1998), pg 29

Oct-17

Michael Fitzgerald (O/C 1st Battalion Cork No. 2 Brigade) dies in Cork Jail after 67 days on hunger strike.  He is buried in Kilcrumper. Michael Hennessey of Tuollamore dies the following day after 67 days on hunger strike.

 

O’Donoghue (1986), pg59; Macardle (1999), pg 391; Corbett (2008), pg 65

Oct-17

H. Kelly from Ballygawley, Co. Sligo dies.

O’Farrell (1997), pg 110

Oct-17

RIC Sgt Daniel Roche, who had been brought to Dublin from Tipperary to identify Sean Tracey, was shot and killed by the Squad at the corner of Capel St and Ormond Quay.  The members of the Squad were Joe Dolan, Tom Keogh and Jim Slattery.  Paddy O’Daly, Charlie Dalton and Bill Stapleton also present. (O’Farrell says shooting took place on Parliament St. which is across the Liffey from Capel St.)

 

Abbott (2000), pg 134; O’Farrell (1997), pg 25; Dalton (1929), pgs 98-100

Oct-18

The IRA attack and capture the RIC barracks in Ruan, Co. Clare.  More Detail

Abbott (2000), pg 135 & 312; Barrett in The Kerryman (1955), pgs 91-95; Ó Ruairc (2009), pgs 179-184

Oct-18

Two brothers who were IRA men from the 1st Battalion, 3rd Tipperary Brigade (Eamonn Dwyer and Francis Dwyer) were shot in their homes by armed and masked men at Ballydavid, at the foot of the Galtee Mountains and near Bansha, Co Tipperary.  (Abbott says that they were killed in the Ragg, (aka Bouladuff) Co Tipperary but he is probably mistaken – it is likely that he mistook these killings for the killing of Thomas Dwyer – see March 30th 1920 and 7th July 1921) 

 

Abbott (2000), pg 264; Ryan (1945), pgs 189-190; O’Farrell (1997), pg 31

Oct-19

Jack Fitzgerald and Mick O'Neill - two experienced IRA officers from Kilbrittain, Co Cork - are captured by the British.

Deasy (1973), pg 154

Oct-19

Ambush by IRA led by James Tormey at Faheran near Athlone.  Seamus O’Meara also in ambush party.

O’Farrell (1997), pg 83

Oct-19

Around this time, men were taken from a public house in Turloughmore, Co Galway by Crown Forces and flogged.  In the nearby villages of Corofin and Cummer, on consecutive nights, men are taken from their beds, stripped and flogged by the roadside.

McNamara (2018), pg 142

Oct-20

Michael Walsh, a well-known Sinn Féin County Councilor, is arrested in his grocery and public house, the Old Malt House on High Street in Galway City, by men who were likely to be Auxiliaries.  He was taken to Long Walk where he was shot in the head and his body thrown into Galway Bay. An assistant who was with Walsh, Martin Meenaghan, is let go. The quite public nature of this killing was bringing the Auxiliaries campaign to a new level.   (McNamara, Leeson and Henry say 19th)

Gleeson (1962), pg 109; McNamara (2017), pg 618;  McNamara (2018), pg 149; Henry (2012), pgs 139-143; Leeson (2012), pg 49

Oct-20

RIC patrol attacked at Feakle, Co. Clare.  (Is this the same attack as Oct 6th?)

O'Kelly and Mulvey in The Kerryman (1955), pg 142

Oct-20

In retaliation for an aborted attack on Frenchpark RIC station in Co. Roscommon on the 2nd October (in which there were no casualties on either side), the RIC sacked the village of Ballinagare (where the IRA attacking party had assembled).  During this attack, the RIC shoot dead IRA Volunteer Pat Doyle in his bed.

On this day, M. Galvin from Macroom, Co. Cork and M. Kelly from Glaslough, Co. Monaghan also die.

O’Farrell (1997), pg 106 & 108 & 110; O’Callaghan (2012), pg 75

Oct-20

Irish Catholic bishops issue a pastoral saying that, if there were anarchy in Ireland, the Ministers of the British Government were its architects.

Macardle (1999), pg 391

Oct-20

Hamar Greenwood, in the British House of Commons, in answering questions about the reprisals by Crown Forces in Tubbercurry, Co. Sligo (see September 30th) says that he had “never seen a tittle of evidence” that any creamery had been destroyed by Crown Forces.  (They had destroyed two.).  He did admit that there had been a reprisal but said that it was because they “saw red” on seeing the body of DI Brady.  “They knew him.  They loved him.  Soldiers and policemen trained under the British flag love their officers.  They love them so much that they go to their death for them”. 

Townshend (2014), pgs 166-167

Oct-20

Kevin Barry tried by court martial in Marlborough Barracks (now McKee Barracks).   See October 27th.

Carey (2001), pgs 18-27

Oct-20

De Valera sends President Wilson a formal request for the U.S. to recognise the Republic of Ireland as a sovereign independent state.

Macardle (1999), pg 409

Oct-21

Patrick Moylette, a London-based Irish businessman and a contact of Arthur Griffith, gets in touch with Brigadier General Cockerill (see Oct-08) and tells him to relay to Lloyd George that he could have peace 'whenever he wished' on the basis of Cockerill's letter.  Moylett(e) meets a person from the Foreign Office and a letter from Griffith is relayed to Lloyd George but nothing comes of this initiative.

Coogan (1990), pg 186; Macardle (1999), pg 413

Oct-21

British military arrive at the house of Roger Furey in Gurran, Oranmore, Co. Galway.  They take his two sons outside for questioning – during which one of the sons, Michael, is shot in the leg.  Next they raid the house of Roger Furey’s brother, Thomas Furey, where his three sons are questioned and beaten.  Next they raid the home of Martin King where they smash all the windows and beat up his two sons.  (Leeson says the night of the 14th/15th October.)

Henry (2012), pg 134; Leeson (2012), pg 165

Oct-21

British Military raid the house of Charles Lynch near Milton Malbay, Co. Clare.  He is shot through the heart by a British soldier called McPhearson and died immediately.

Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 185

Oct-21

In the Daily News, Hugh Martin wrote about the Auxiliaries habit of “whipping, kicking and otherwise instructing [young men] in the elements of British citizenship”.

Townshend (2014), pg 169

Oct-22

Three policemen are ambushed at Glandore, Co Cork - two of them (Constable Bertie Rippengale and Constable Albert Rundle) subsequently die from their wounds.  Both Constables are from England and had three months’ service with the RIC.

Abbott (2000), pg 135; Abbott (2019), pg 171

Oct-22

Three RIC lorries are ambushed at Parkwood, Clara, Co. Offally.  The driver of one of the lorries (Constable Harry Biggs) is killed. Ambush carried out by newly formed flying column of the Athlone Battalion IRA led by James Tormey. George Adamson also took part in the ambush. 

Leads to reprisals by the RIC in the villages of Moate, Horseleap, Killbeggan and in Athlone.  A number of civilians are wounded and one, Michael Burke (a former Irish Parliamentary Party urban councillor) is killed.

Constable Biggs was from London and had two months’ service with the RIC.

Abbott (2000), pg 135; Sheehan (2017), pg 359;

O’Farrell (1997), pg 103; Abbott (2019), pgs 171-172

Oct-22

Dublin Castle issue an order – under the Special Constabulary Ireland Acts of 1832 and 1914 – that a Special Constabulary was to be created.  Theoretically from loyalists all over Ireland but they appear only in Ulster.  Recruitment begins in Belfast on 1st November – see below.  There were to be four elements A (full-time); B (part-time); C (reserve) and CI (ex-UVF men).  This Constabulary was recruited mainly from the Ulster Volunteer Force and the Orange Lodges.  (See July 23rd and September 2nd above.) The main restriction on their use was that they could only proceed on armed patrol under the command of a regular RIC officer.  Comment 

Townshend (1975), pg 124; Abbott (2000), pgs 141-147; Hopkinson 2002, pg 159; Parkinson (2004), pgs 83-90; Grant (2018), pgs 104-104; McCluskey (2014), pg 92; Abbott (2019), pgs 179-187

Oct-23

Perhaps influenced by Terence MacSwiney’s on-going hunger strike, W. B. Yeats decides to publish his poem ‘Easter 1916’ on this day in the New Statesman. (It had been written four years earlier.) 

 

Oct-24

Ambush by men from the Cork No. 3 Brigade, IRA on two British Army lorries at Tureen on the Innishannon- Ballinhassig road.  Four British army killed (including Capt Dixon) and four others wounded.  8 rifles, 1 revolver and 200 rounds of ammunition captured. 

The ambush was led by Brigade O/C Charlie Hurley with sections led by Liam Deasy and Tom Barry. 

(Barry disputes Deasy account of what happened at Tureen (Toureen).  He also says that 5 British army killed and that 14 rifles, 1,400 rounds of ammunition and a number of Mills bombs were captured.)  Barry's editor says it took place on the 22nd October.

(Deasy (1973), pgs 155-157; Barry(1999), pgs 28-33;  Barry (1974), pgs 9-12

Oct-24

Four partially disguised policemen enter Thomas Egan’s bar and grocery at Coshla near Athenry, Co. Galway and shoot him dead. It would seem that Mr Egan had no involvement in politics.

O’Farrell (1997), pg 107; McNamara (2018), pg 149; Henry (2012), pgs134-136

Oct-25

Terence MacSwiney (Lord Mayor of Cork and Commandant of the Cork No.1 Brigade IRA) dies on hunger strike in Brixton prison - he had been on hunger strike since 12th August – some 74 days.  His hunger strike, death and funeral receive world-wide publicity.

His death is followed by that of Joe Murphy (Volunteer, 2nd Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade).  Arthur Griffith subsequently suspends the policy of hunger striking.  MacSwiney is replaced by Sean O'Hegarty as O/C Cork No. 1 Brigade.

Townshend (1975), pg 122; Hart (1998), pg 85 & O'Kelly in The Kerryman (1955), pg 26; Townshend (2014), pgs 193-196

Oct-25

The IRA raid the RIC barracks at Tempo, Co. Fermanagh with the help of RIC men including Constable Hugh O’Donnell.  It results in the death of one RIC man (Sgt Wilfred Lucas). 

The raid was planned by Bernard Conway (an ex-RIC man) and authorised by Frank Carney, O/C Fermanagh Brigade IRA.  Conway persuaded Constable O’Donnell to help in the plan.  An RIC patrol from Tempo Barracks was captured and held during the raid.  The IRA then entered the barracks by an open back door.  However, Sgt Lucas is shot and this alerts loyalists in a local parish hall who arm themselves and come to the assistance of the police.  The attackers withdraw but with only a few rifles from the barracks.

Subsequently, a local Republican (Philip Breen who had not taken part in the raid) is shot and killed in the doorway of his family’s public house.  It is assumed that he was killed by either the RIC or UVF.

Abbott (2000), pgs 136-137; Lawlor (2011), pgs 74-75; Abbott (2019), pgs 172-173

Oct-25

M. Flynn from Mullingar, Co. Westmeath dies, as does C. Lynch from Milltown Malbay, Co. Clare.

O'Farrell P (1997), pg 108 & 111

Oct-25

At Moneygold eight miles from Sligo Town (between Grange and Cliffony in Co. Sligo), an IRA party of about 40 men ambush a nine-man RIC patrol, killing four (Sgt Patrick Perry, Constable Patrick Keown, Constable Patrick Laffey and Constable Patrick Lynch) and wounding two others (Constables Clarke and O’Rourke). The IRA was led by Sligo Brigade O/C William (Liam) Pilkington and Seamus Devins.  The rest of the RIC surrendered and a nurse, Linda Kearns, attended some of the wounded.

There were no immediate reprisals but a few days later Auxiliaries arrived in the area.  They burn a Sinn Féin hall and, at least, 12 houses, pointed out to them by Irish members of the RIC (See 19th April 1921). The Auxiliaries also burn a pub, a shop, two halls and Ballintrillick creamery.  The reprisals went on for almost a week.

Hopkinson (2002), pg 136; Abbott (2000), pgs 138-139; Farry (2012), pg 60; Lesson (2012), pg 160

Oct-26

F. Dougan from Co. Armagh dies as does M. Garvey from Ballyrath, Co. Armagh and H. Moore from Derry.

O’Farrell (1997), pg 106 & 108 & 113

Oct-24

Michael Ryan of Curraghduff, Co Tipperary and 15-year-old Willie Gleeson of Moher, Co Tipperary are shot dead by armed men who said they were from the English secret service. However, Margaret Ryan (sister of Michael Ryan) said that the killers spoke with the usual Irish accent.

Gleeson (1962), pg 109; Lesson (2012), pg 196

Oct-27 (?)

In disturbances in the Short Strand area of Belfast, Joseph McLeod, a Protestant received gunshot wounds to the head from a Catholic gunman. He dies from his wounds. 

Parkinson (2004), pg 96; McDermott (2001), pg 65

Oct-27

Kevin Barry informed that he will be hung the following Monday, 1st November.  The Governor of Mountjoy Prison (Munro) receives an order from General Macready C-in-C of British Army in Ireland telling him to carry out the sentence.  See October 28th.

Carey (2001), pgs 27-28

Oct-27

Michael Scanlon, O/C 1st Battalion, East Limerick Brigade is shot dead when trying to escape in Limerick.  It would seem that he was actually trying to escape. (Regan gives a short account.)

O’Farrell (1997), pg 93; Regan (2007), pg 163

Oct-28

The newly-formed Number 1 Flying Column of the South Tipperary Brigade under Dinny Lacey ambush a lorry with soldiers at Thomastown - three soldiers killed and five wounded as is one IRA man (Michael Fitzgerald).  They were expecting an RIC tender but the soldiers (from the Northhamptonshire Regiment) came unexpectedly.  Fitzgerald was Adjutant of the column and Paddy Horan was I/O.  Other IRA men present were Jim Gorman, Brian Shanahan, Jack Tierney, Jim Bishop and Rody Hanley,

Ryan (1945), pg 190;  Delaney in The Kerryman (1955), pgs 95-101

Oct-28

Kevin Barry makes a sworn statement about his mal-treatment by the British Army.  Carey comments "Although brutal, the treatment was mild compared to that meted out to other members of the IRA who had been captured.  One reason for this was that Barry was captured by normal British military - he would have fared considerably worse if he had been caught by the Black and Tans or the Auxiliaries."  Townshend says that “It is hardly surprising that Barry was roughly treated by the unit that he had attacked, and he certainly suffered a strained arm”.  See October 29th.

Carey (2001), pg 28; Townshend (2014), pg 197

Oct-28

6th Battalion, East Clare Brigade, IRA kill Martin Counihan as a spy near Feakle.  Four houses in the area are burnt in reprisals by the Crown Forces.

Ó Ruairc (2009), pg 186-187

Oct-29(?)

In an address to the 'Civilised Nations' on the forthcoming hanging of Kevin Barry, Arthur Griffith pointed out that British forces captured by the IRA had been released (including 25 English soldiers captured during the Kings Inn raid on the 1st June in which Barry had taken part).  See October 30th.

Carey (2001), pgs 36-37

Oct-29

An ex-British soldier, Frank McGinty, is badly beaten and pistol whipped by the IRA in Shraigh, Co. Mayo.  Four men  (David and Michael Henry, Patrick Reilly and Patrick Heneghan) are arrested and found guilty of wounding with intent.

Price (2012), pg 100

Oct-29

Notices appear in Buncrana, Co. Donegal which include “if any harm whatever comes to any member of HM forces … five of the prominent Sinn Féiners in this locality will be shot. Balbriggan and Trim will be sufficient warning to the sober mind”.  On the previous day, the houses belonging to Sinn Féin members had been painted with the numbers one to five.

Ó Duibhir (2009), pg 187; Leeson (2012), pgs 173-174

Oct-30

Irish Bulletin publishes Kevin Barry’s account of his torture. Also publishes Griffith’s address to the ‘Civilised Nations’ saying that his execution would be an “outrage against the law and customs of nations”.  See November 1st.

Gallagher (1953), pgs 105-106

Oct-30

 

A five-man RIC patrol is ambushed at Castledaly, Co. Galway (between Kilchreest and Peterswell) resulting in the death of one policeman (Constable Timothy Horan).  The 25-man attacking party were led by Thomas McInerney.  They released the remaining RIC men after relieving them of their rifles. (Patrick Loughnane took part in the ambush – see November 26th.)

This ambush is followed by RIC reprisals in the district including the burning of three houses.  Unusually, the burning of these houses is described in the official Register of Crime for the Province of Connaught as a reprisal for the killing of Constable Horan.

Abbott (2000), pg 139; McNamara (2018), pg 124; Lesson (2012), pg 158

Oct-30

In his report to the Irish Situation Committee of the British Cabinet, Macready deals with the MacSwiney funeral, the railway situation and the forthcoming Barry hanging.  He says "It would be a good thing if some person in authority in England would explain publicly that this man [Barry] was conclusively proved to have shot a soldier with an expanding bullet"

Carey (2001), pg 33

Oct-31

RIC District Inspector Philip Kelleher shot dead in the bar of the Grenville Arms Hotel, Granard, Co Longford while in the company of members of the North Longford executive of Sinn Féin. It was claimed that Kelleher was sent to Longford with orders to “take action against the IRA and clean up the area”. 

The killing of DI Kelleher leads to reprisals in Granard and many buildings are set alight by the RIC and British military.  A column of RIC and military arrives in Granard from Longford.  According to the Manchester Guardian “Houses and shops were selected for destruction according to the politics of the owners and the work of burning carried out expeditiously by the use of petrol”.

Permission had been sought and received from IRA GHQ to carry out this shooting.

Hopkinson (2002), pg 142; MacEoin in The Kerryman (1955), pg 103; Abbott (2000), pg 140; Coleman (2003), pg 123; Leeson (2012), pg 174

Oct-31

RIC Sgt Henry Cronin is shot outside his home in Henry St., Tullamore, Co. Offally - he dies the next day.

Reprisals follow. The local Sinn Féin club was wrecked; the printing presses of the King’s County Independent were ruined; the T&GWU hall was demolished; the cinema was bombed and burnt and several houses and businesses were destroyed.  According to the Manchester Guardian, the RIC riot was “a tour of Sinn Feiners’ houses”

Abbott (2000), pg 140; Leeson (2012), pg 170 & 172 & 174

Oct-31

Two RIC men (Constable Albert Caseley and Constable Herbert Evans) are shot dead at Hillville, Co. Kerry (outside Killorglin).  Two other RIC men (Constable Ernst Bright and Constable Patrick Waters) are reported missing.  They were executed and buried secretly. 

Posters appear in Tralee threatening reprisals if the two policemen are not returned.  It is reported later that they were thrown alive into the furnace in Tralee Gas Works but this is highly unlikely.

In the aftermath of these killings, and the killing of three RIC men in Ballyduff the same day (see next entry) the RIC blockaded the town of Tralee for five days and took widespread reprisals, in particular, they set fire to the business premises of known supporters of Sinn Féin.  Known as the Siege of Tralee.

 

Constable Evens was from Belfast and Constable Caseley was from Kent in England.  Both had were members of the RIC for a matter of months.

Abbott (2000), pgs 140-141 & 311 & 313; Leeson (2012), pg 150 & 170-171 & 174; Townshend (1975), pg 125; Hopkinson (2002), pg 125

Oct-31

The North Kerry IRA attack the RIC barracks and a patrol in the village of Ballyduff, Co. Kerry.  It results in the death of three RIC men (Constable Robert Gorbey, Constable William Madden and Constable George Morgan).  In the following days, there are major reprisals by the RIC including the killing of IRA men John Cotillion and Michael Brosan.  Also John Houlihan from Ballyduff and Michael Maguire are killed.

Abbott (2000), pg 141; O’Farrell (1997), pg 109; Horgan (2018), pgs 207-208

Oct-31

At a brigade council of the Cork No. 3 Brigade, held at Copeen, a decision is made to form a brigade flying column (in addition to existing battalion columns).  Tom Barry is appointed Column Commander and it decided that it should be based at Togher (north-west of Dunmanway).  The third week long training camp also starts in Kealkil.  (There had been a second in early October.) 

Deasy (1973), pgs 158-159

 

Oct-31

The funeral of Terence MacSwiney takes place in Cork City with massive crowds attending.  The Dáil declares a national day of mourning. 

McCluskey (2014), pg 94; Townshend (2014), pg 195

Oct-31

An RIC man, Constable Martin Hoban, is wounded in an ambush in Dungannon, Co. Tyrone. This results in widespread retaliation by police and loyalists on the nationalist areas of the town.

McCluskey (2014), pg 94

Oct-31

Under-Secretary James McMahon requests the Viceroy, Lord French that Kevin Barry be reprieved.  The following day, French declines.

 

Oct-31

After an ambush by the IRA near Killybegs, Co. Donegal, there is, what the Derry Journal describes as a “night of terror” in Killybegs and “uniformed men paraded the streets, firing indiscriminately”.

Ozseker (2019), pg 119

Oct-31

Tommy Donovan (O/C 7th – Drangan – Battalion, 3rd Tipperary Brigade, IRA) is killed in action at Glengoole, Killenaule, Co. Tipperary.

O’Farrell (1997), pg 29

Oct-31

Austen Chamberlain, British Chancellor of the Exchequer, writing to his sister says that it was a fact “reprisals have secured the safety of the police in places where they were previously shot down like vermin” and that they had led the people to give information on ambushes.

Townshend (2014), pg 164

Oct-31

RIC Constable James Mulvey dies in Bruff, Co. Limerick due to exposure and heart attack.

Abbott (2019), pg 411

End-Oct

In his report for October, the RIC County Inspector for Donegal, when commenting on the a British army decision to remove attachments at Killybegs, Ardara, Glenties and Dungloe, said that these withdrawals meant that the police had to evacuate the Dungloe district and that the RIC barracks in Ardara had to be closed with the RIC being concentrated into Killybegs, Glenties and Falcarragh leaving “practically no control over a greater part of the county (including the coast)”.

Ozseker (2019), pg 120

Oct

Local general strike in Monaghan by labourers and carters results in improved pay conditions for the workers.

O’Drisceoil (2001), pg 15

Oct

Raids by the British forces, which had been curtailed in May by the new incoming commanders, were now being resumed in full force and running at 10 a day in Dublin alone.

Townshend (1975), pg 127

End-Oct

In his monthly report, RIC County Inspector for Mayo, David Steadman, says “Sinn Féiners never counted on it being possible that reprisals would ever overtake them and they have become much exercised in mind and body at the very suggestion of the application to themselves of a little bit of their own ointment.  … A healthy sign of the times is that the dread of reprisals in the event of anything untoward happening in their locality is making people generally exercise their influence to prevent anything occurring in their midst that would likely bring such in their train.  This is a rather novel feature of Irish psychology”.  (Streadman was a Scottish Presbyterian.)  He also said that if reprisals were “quietly and systematically continued” then the process “would knock the bottom out of the Sinn Féin movement in a short time”.

Price (2012), pgs 14 & 99; Townshend (2014), pg 164

Oct

British army strength in Ireland 55,800 at this point.

Sheehan W. (2017), pg 365

End-Oct

Cork No. 2 Brigade Column disbanded and decided that each Battalion should build its own column.

O’Donoghue (1986), pg103

 

Home     1920     Next Month    Previous Month      Bibliography